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by: Larry Cormier

AnimalHandlingandRestraint AHS129

Larry Cormier
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.56


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Class Notes
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Larry Cormier on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AHS129 at California State Polytechnic University taught by MicheleRash in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/218224/ahs129-california-state-polytechnic-university in Animal Science at California State Polytechnic University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
Animal Handling and Restraint Curriculum Outline It is incumbent upon a person who takes on the responsibility of manipulating an animal s life to be concerned With its feelings Domestication To take an animal and confine it and to develop it to fit our needs Behavior A response to stimulus Ethology The study of habits and customs Wild Independent Domestic Dependent When restraining ask Who is most qualified to accomplish task with the least amount of stress to animal Where is the best location for procedure Why do you need to restrain animal What procedure will you need to use When is the best time to do this procedure Is it safe Do you have the equipmenttools needed to perform this procedure Wild animals react with the most stress when handled Once touched will react more Violently than domestic animals Once finished with procedure make sure animal recoversconvalesces 1 What is the condition of the animalill old pregnantunder preexisting stressenvironmental 2 Know species and breed characteristics 3 Look for visual signs 4 Try to get temperature HR pulse Get history on the animal lab work if possible 5 EvidenceWhat kind of evidence to do you have to back up your reason for this procedure be objective 6 Be concerned about your presumptions presuming you are right Anthropomorphic Interpretation A presumption that animals react and behave in the same manner as humans Attempting to put our feelings onto animals Bambi Mickey Mouse etc Animals ARE NOT people in furry suits Birds Males females gest birthing young castrates group Roosters Hens 1821days hatching chicks capon flock Falcons male Tiercel female Falcon Baby pigeonsSquabs Flight birds Lighter than air Wing bones pneumatized being connected to air sac system of the respiratory tract Some other bones are hollow Birds must be able to eXpand diaphragm in order to breath holding them too tightly can make breathing difficult or impossible Raptorbirds of prey eagles falcons owls hawks peacocks Carrion birds Psitticines parakeets cockatoos cockatiels parrots macaws African grey Passerines canaries finches Defenses are beak wings feet legs Flightless birds wings can no longer carry their body weight Ostriches emus rheas ratites Penguins Ostiches 78ft tall 34001bs Emus 6ft tall 1251401bs Rheas 5ft tall 601001bs Ostriches are 95 usable for meat feathers fur oil leather Rabbits Oryctalagus cunniculus Male Female Gest Young Birthing Castrate Buck Doe 2935 KitsKindles Kindling Hutch WarrenRabbitry T 1004 P l30325 R4060 Oryctalagus Cuniculus Lagamorph Leporidea Uses meat woolfur research pets Burrowing herbivorous nocturnal diurnal depending on environment May be distantly related to guinea pigs Several sizes shapes colors and furwool variations All derived from centuries of selective breeding Mention ARBA Largest breed l4l6lbs Chinchilla Flemish Giants Medium breed 414 lbs Californian New Zealand Small 24 lbs Dutch Polish Dwarfs 22121bs Netherland dwarfs Hares Lepus Not always consistent Belgian hare is a rabbit Cottontails Sylvilagus Rabbits altricial Haresprecotial do not do well incaptivity Vision well developed nictitating membrane 190 degree eyesight Light sensitivity 8X humans Sensitive to blues and greens at twilight Teeth teeth are open rootedcontinue to grow Malocclusion and overgrowth common mostly in domestics Wild must chew more fibrous foods Digestion Intestine approx 10X body length Skeleton Very fragile almost birdlike comprises only 8 of body weight Cats 13 Reproduction Breeding begins males 610mos females 49mos Induced ovulatorsrelease ova 913 hours after breeding Separate cervical passage for each uterine horn Doe begins to pull fur from dewlap to make a nest within days of kindling Does will not retrieve young that stray from the nest All dead kits should be removed from the nest ASAP Eating young is usually caused by a perceived threat Larger kits can be fostered onto smaller litters to help the runts along Milk high in fat and protein only nurse twice a day Milk 10 protein 12 fat 2 sugar 200250mlday Kits begin coprophagia at 8 days Weaning begins at 45weeks Life Span Breeding life 4 12mos4yrs 56yrs possibly 15yrs Feeding Commercial feeds are goodgrass hays are best Good quality Timothy hay is best Free feed Water must always be available If not water rabbit stops eating You must return the high gutbacteria countyogurtprobiotic Evening or night feeding coprophagia Commercial feed protein 915 fiber 28 3 0 Cecaltroph 2629 1418 Vitamins and proteins are processed after coprophagy Cats Felis domesticus Tom Queen 5863 days Kittens NeuterSpay Queening Cattery T 100103l P young 130140 Adult 100120 R 2030 Puberty female 312 9 mos Male 7 mos or later Estrus 3 week pattem receptive to the male for 46 days Lordosis Cats tend to be seasonal polyestrus generally in spring Cats live in two worlds the wild world and the captive world They are more aloof than dogsindependent type animals More attuned to movement sound and smell They are scannerslike to be above the scene Like elevated areas Very highly evolved brain lower mammals and apes Many parts of the brain are identical to humans also very similar to lions and other big cats Vision Membrana Nictitans third eyelidprotects and covers eyes quickly When cat is very ill it becomes very apparent Cornea is elliptical Nictitationwinking Cats are night hunterssee well in diminished light best at twilight and dawn Tapetum Lucidumirredescent re ecting layer of the choroids that gives the eye the property of shining in the dark It is characteristic of nocturnal animals and give light two opportunities to stimulate retinal receptors Insensitive to infrared light Egyptians thought that cats were sacred because they had captured the sun in their eyes Cats have a lively papillary response Dilation and constriction are extreme Happy constricted angry threatened dilated Read cats emotions by watching pupils More rods than cones rods sensitive to light cones sensitive to color may see blue and green maybe some red Touch Whiskers are sensitive to touch and vibration Maybe gives some protection if you ick a cat s whiskers their eye will close Stroking and petting primal pleasureKEEPS CATS HOME Cats do some social lickinggrooming Balance Cerebellum balance part of the brain also vestibular inner ear Both are highly developed Taste and smell Cats prefer crunchy food psychologically gratifying Require higher protein and taurine content in feed than dogs Water should be available at all times Prefer stale waterwater that has been sitting Behavioral traits Territorial mostly males Females are less tolerant of changes in the environmentinvasion of territory Spraying a form of marking thicker than urine females spray as well as males Clawing on furniture is a form of marking territory also rubbing their heads on you or other things marks them with scent Emotions Tail up or down Still or twitching A wagging tail is not a happy cat Arching of body Piloerection hair standing up This is tremendous all over a males body and around his face in order to appear larger Normal aggressive behaviorprogression hiss growl claw bite Before an attack cats will squint and close eyes Cats crab hop or crow hop presenting back end first when approaching another aggressive cat again attempting to appear larger Cats NEVER submissiver urinate Passive submissive behavior rolling over and presenting body mating play feeling good Active submissive behavior tail up walking straight towards you Punishment is frowned on If you must punish it must be done swiftly and when the misbehavior is happening Dogs Canis familiaris Dog Bitch 5670days pupswhelps neuterspay whelping kennelpack T 9951025 HR young 110120 large adult breed 6080 small adult breed 80120 R1530 Developmental periods Neonatal transitional primary socialization and juvenile Neonatal transitional primary socialization juvenile 02 weeks 2212 weeks 312 weeks 12 weekssexual ma Humans 05 weeks not present 5wks7mos 27mos 78yrs Neonatal new birth dependent for food and care Transitional sensory and motor perception are developing rapidly Primary Socialization When an animal forms an emotional attachment EX tail wagging smiling Fear periods 8 weeks in dogs 8 mos in man Greatest fear periods 812 weeks and 5 mos what ever happens during this critical time good or bad effects the animal for life Juvenile animals 12 weeks to sexual mature Humans perfection of social skillscommunication Abnormal Behavior Know first what is normal ask if problem is mental or physical Gather clinical history physical exam and laboratory test results If all come back normal check environment maybe something at home is causing this behavior Normal behavior Neonatal female eats everything cleaning area Licking helps to get puppy breathing After licking pups will squirm from side to side then will make grunting whiney noises this is The rooting re ex Pups are blind and deaf At two weeks Pups begin to lift themselves up and eyes open hearing starts At three weeks When the pups are licked they will lie still Socialization Puppies will begin to have contact with each other If lost they will cry until they find another puppy At four weeks Pups will begin to lick mothers face indicating readiness for solid food Pups begin to play making noises feel pain starting to leave nest to eliminate At five weeks Pups get Facial eXpressions eX Barring teeth curling lips They begin carrying things Alieomemetic patterns sleeping in piles grooming each other Five to siX weeks Leaving nest more often to eliminate mom still likes them SiX weeks Pups begin to look more like dogs loosing puppy look Displaying sexual behavior is normal Abnormal is when they try this behavior on YOU All these things happen to other animals Just at different times Dogs are pack animals They need to be part of a group This is necessary for psychological growth Isolation causes most problems Chewing Digging Barking Sirens do not hurt dogs ears this is a social sound and stimulates communication Sheep Ovis Ram Ewe gest 5 mos lamb Lambing Flock T1013104 P55115 RIO30 Social Tend to stay together in groups When grazing will tend to fan out but will keep in contact by vocal or visual contact They will vocalize a great deal in order to keep in contact If you move them then more than normal vocalizing Eating Sheep are ruminants Normal day eatrestruminate Usually spend ten hours eating in a twentyfour period Will not eat contaminated grasses unless poor grazing eXists As temperatures drop they will begin to eat more When it becomes very cold they begin to eat less Sheep tend to know what is good for them they will seek out plants that will make up for deficits in their diets They tend to crop very close to the ground Discuss cattle wars Young Young have very strong maternal relationships They do not usually accept other s young You have to trick them once their own milk passes through them they will accept them because they smell like their own At lambing season some ewes will try to steal other ewes lambs One hour after giving birth lambs will begin to suckle They have a very close verbal relationship Expulsion of the placenta wi 24hr period Lambs will butt against the udder to stimulate milk let down Lamb will feed 6070 times a day for an average of 13 minutes for the first week After first week 20 seconds of suckling Twins have a favorite teat Singles have no preference Tail will wag when actually receiving milk When tail wags ewe will sniff anal area This behavior helps to bond the lamb to it s mother They will eliminate anywhere but will not eat food with excreta on it Defence Stance will face opponent lower head and stomp Will not fight to the death Usually some head butting until one ram backs down Pigs Suis Suis Boar Sow gest 3mos 3wks 3dys piglets farrowing barrow drove T piglet 102104 adult 100102 P young 100130 adult 6090 R Very intelligent equal to or above dogs uses reason not fear as motivation Eating Food is their basic instinctive drive In investigates everything to find a food source Nose and mouth are primary tools for investigation Pig appetite similar to humans Will eat even when not hungry If pigs need water and none is available they will consume their own urine to get the water that is needed Digestive system also similar to humans Heart valves have been successfully transplanted in humans Require less roughage more concentrate Pigs do not sweatno sweat glands Do sometimes sweat a little off the tip of the nose Most fat on body is for thermal regulation In heat situations pigs will wallow in own urine or excreta in order to keep cool Do not tolerate drastic temperature changes Very little loose skin to radiate heat In warm weather pigs will create own wallow When overheated hyperthermic you must wet them down quickly Pigs will lay down side by side or on top of each other in order to control body temperature Pigs have definite places for urination and defecation They can be house broken They are very territorial crowding breaks down territoriality Social Pigs have a social hierarchy They function best in small groups Vision Very bad vision Identify each other through smell Smell Identify each other through body odor Pigs like to bump into each other Vocalizing Lots of squealing and grunting to keep group together Young Precotial Sows will go into a trance while giving birth Do not clean up or tend to piglets Domesticated pigs require assistance in order to save the piglets After she is finished giving birth she will become very attentive to the piglets Grunting stimulates piglets to suckle By two weeks hierarchy already established Biggest piglet gets the best teat Agonistic behavior By the age of two weeks piglets are already having mock battle If a new pig is introduced into a group there is savage fighting with lots of biting Tusks are used in fighting these are usually removed at birth Most aggression shows itself at feeding time and while eating Horses Equus caballus StallionSireStud MareDam lOmos Foal fillycolt Foaling Gelding Herd T foal 9951027 adult 991013 P adult 3040 foal 80120 R foal 1415 adult 910 Herd a group of horses that live together Horses naturally live in herds Horses are social creatures Horses have a pecking order Alpha horse is dominant leader Horses naturally seek leadership Alpha horse supplies leadership this equals security In a domestic situation YOU are should be the alpha horse Dominance has little to do with strength has more to do with wisdom Horses need to feel secure To become the dominant or alpha horse you must create submissiveness You must make the horse feel dependant on you gt you cannot beat a horse into submissiveness instead you Will teach them to fear you and not trust you Submissivebeing respectful obedient and dependent This will result in the horse being safe and secure When a horse is not respectful it is rejected from the herd leaving it open to predation This is very traumatic They must learn to be respectful and dependent in order to survive Displays normal maternal behavior behavior is triggered by events of parturitionespecially the drop in estrogen and progesterone With appearance of the foal she will imprint the odor her foal vomeronasal glandlip curling Cattle Bovine Bull Heifer lOmos CalfFreemartin Calving Steer Herd T young 1015 1035 adult 1001025 HR 5075 Ryoung 1540 adult 1030 Vocalization 3 types neighing grunting high pitched crying trumpetingsnorting Eating Ruminant no teeth on upper front palette incisors on bottom molars in back grasps food with tongue finds a shady place lies down and ruminates chewing cudbolus Ruminants can ingest large quantities of fibrous food Drinks water around midday 14 gallons a day Richer drier feedmore water succulentsless water Calves start grazing when rumen becomes active 68 weeks rumen on left side Microorganisms in the rumen start to break down cellulose in feed Boluscudregurgitated food to be rechewed Bloatgas buildup in rumen High Intensity Feeding Periods before sunrisemost eating midmorningless early aftemoonless near duskmore eating When not eating resting and ruminating Newborns will not graze until several days old gt stealing cuds Typical cow s day Eating 46hrs Rumination 49hrs Drinking l4hrs Resting or lying down 912hrs Cattle have a very well developed sense of taste and are very selective about what they eat They avoid plants that are hairy or have excreta on them Social patterns There is pecking order one cow is usually dominant over 23 other cows F ightingbulls will fight for dominance Horns are not usually a factor Angus are very protective mothers Dairy bulls are meaner than beef bulls dairy are raised by people come in contact with people their entire lives Not afraid of people no fear want to play If they charge at one another who ever stops first is the loser This charging will usually establish dominance When cattle are turned out into a new field they will walk the fence line in order to find out where they are When calves are born mother will clean it up and nurse it It will then hide the calf and come back when it is time to feed again Calves will always return to the place it was last nursed Grooming Cows will groom up to 52 minday Cows will lick calves up to 102 times a day Itching is usually caused by parasites Cows lick with their tongues other place they rub tail is used to swat ies Mutual grooming the one doing the grooming holds it head higher than the one being groomed The groomer is the dominant one Adult males tend to groom each other more often than females or calves Dairy cattle Cows tend to eat the most right after milking eating habits surround milking schedule Silage is preferred over hay When very hot rumination slows down also before giving birth when hurt anxious or ill Discuss ADR S and wires Will drink up to 14 gallons of waterday if hot consumption goes up this is crucial in milk production Good indicator of dairy herd health Color of urine Color and consistency of feces Bloody diarrhea always very bad Agonistic behavior Butt behavior like pecking order butt each other establishes status in herd Strengthageweight are factors Threats or faking head comes down then decides if it wants to fight or run Butting usually on ank or side does not last long never to the death Fighting will reduce milk output Larger heart girth makes better producers it also helps to achieve higher status Play Prancing kicking up heels more often in calves Play fighting pawing snorting head shaking vocalizing all training for adulthood Sleeping and resting Cattle do not experience deep profound sleep Short naps during 24 hour periods Most tend to rest between 912hrsday When they sleep lying down they have a certain side that they favor They will spend very little time on their sides Exotics ExoticsAnimals taken out of normalnatural environment and put into a new one Wild animal totally in natural environmentno human contact Tame animal used to human contactwill somewhat tolerate man in its environment Trained animal various degrees of training differs with each species Why domesticate Economically or esthetically pleasing to humans rapid growth efficient food conversion higher milk production disease resistant polled over horned easier to handle will not fight to the death Some tolerateenjoy companionship of humansdepends on tolerance of species The moment that you touch a wild animal you have restrained it Fight or ight syndrome will kick in immediately Wild animals react faster and are relatively more powerful than domestics We cannot domesticate wild animals in our charge they can be tamed to tolerate our presence They can be trained and will build a rapport with their trainers This does not result in domestication IT MUST BE STRESSED THAT EVEN WHEN TAME AND GENTLE ALL WILD SPECIES ARE CAPABLE OF INSTANTANEOUS REVERSION TO THE WILD STATE All restraint causes stress Physical exam Health procedures Surgery Restraint also involved in Shipping Vaccinating Moving from enclosure to enclosure Medication can stress animals There is more chemical restraint used in exotics than in companion animal practices but that is now changing due to training techniques With Big Cats as well as domestic the best amount of restraint is the least amount of restraint The most common tools used in exotic restraint are gloves ropes sticks prods nets and squeezes Roping is a good means of restraint Throwing a towel over them works Comealongs can be used for wading birds lizards crocodiles and alligators Small exotics are easily controlled with a gloved hand although gloves will sometimes frighten them Approximately 35 of the nearly 50000 species of vertebrate have adapted to human needs for food fiber work sport and beauty and are considered domesticated All but 34 species were living in harmony with humans before the time of recorded history how do we know this Domestication is a gradual process l000 s of years changes in the gene pool that allows adaptation to an artificial environment Domestic animals must cope with buildings fences crowding confinement lack of privacy changed photoperiodicity altered climate conditions and different foods Monotremes and Marsupials Echindas Platypus Tasmanian Devils Malesbucks boomers Bandicoots Females does flyers sheilas sile Koalas kangaroo babyjoey Wombats koala babycub Rednecked Wallaby Red Kangaroo Grey Kangaroo Monotremes Platypus and echidnas Primitive egg laying mammals Produce milk Have venom spurs on hind legs Echidnas cannot bite have elongated snout Marsupials 248 species of marsupials Claws are primary defense Unique reproductive biology that provides for the final development of the fetus in a specialized pouch called a marsupium Opposums have 50 very sharp teeth Small Mammals Males Females offspring youngstersjuveniles Shrews Sloths Armadillos Gopher Beavers Moles Aardvark Porcupine Lemming Hedgehogs Flying lemurs Hares Squirrels Anteaters Chipmunks Marmots Bats only mammal capable of sustained ight Carnivores Most are carnivores some are omnivores others are insectivores Should not be handled after eating regurgitation is a common reaction to fright and may result in aspiration pneumonia FoX male Reynard female Vixen young kitscubspups Bears Racoons male Boar female Sow young cubs Big Cats male Tom female Queen young Kittenscubs Teeth are primary tool for grasping and tearing Jaw muscles are tremendously strong and well developed The paws of most carnivores are fitted with claws that can rip and tear Ursidea Bears Aluridea Pandas Procyonidea Raccoon Mustelidea Skunks Weasels Otters Viverridea Mongoose Hyaenidea Hyena Felidea Cats Canidea Dogs Most commonly used restraint tools squeeze cages gloves muzzles snares ecollars NonHuman Primates Prosimii tree shrews lemurs loris bush baby Antropidea monkeys apes Cebidea new world monkeys Callithricidea marmoset tamarind Cercopithecidea old world monkeys Males females young newbornsinfantsyoungstersjuveniles Biting is the most common means of defense They have large teeth strong jaws and well developed canine teeth New world monkeys have prehensile tails Old world monkeys are the Great Apes they have cheek pouches to store food with so they may aspirate food when handled Most have short necks and long limbs The cannot sweat like humans so one must be careful to not overheat them They will throw anything that they can find at you All primates have tremendous relative strength compared to human beings In group dynamics the alpha male may attack you Apes in estrus must be approached with care The swollen seX area is very fragile and severe hemorrhage may occur as a result of injecting any type of chemical restraint drugs Most gorillas and chimps may require chemical restraint for some procedures Marine mammals Cetecea Whales dolphins Males bull female cow young calf group pod Sirenia Manatees male bull female cow young pup group herd Pinnipedia Seals sea lions walrus Reptiles and Amphibians Species Numbers by Higher Taxa mmm y m Vlhatxs the dAfference between ovxparous and ovovxvxparous7 Name all types ofmatmg behavior expressed What are thenames and funeuons ofeach thteblood ee117 Vlhmh duease do snakes exhtbtt staegazmgquot and name some other signs Whteh types of snakes XSIBD fatam What are fnnges and the 3quot eye7 What is MBD Why is it such a problem How is it treated Why is environment so important for all reptiles What disease is associated with a snake foaming at the mouth Why is outdoor best for nonaquatic turtles Where are snakeneck turtles normally found What does excess Vitamin D do to the body Vitamin A How is Salmonella contracted in turtles Can turtle owners get it How Know key anatomy terms for all reptiles discussed in class Chemical Restraint The ideal restraint drug should have a high TI therapeutic Index Lethal doseeffective dose The ideal restraint drug should be compatible with other useful drugs Short induction period is desirable Should have an available agonistic Solution stability no refrigeration little mixing time Concentration should be high enough to be able to use small syringe Delivery systems Oral Usually for premedication most often put in food Hand held syringe usually no time for aspiration start plunging when the needle sticks into the skin Stick syringepole syringe Projected syringes or darts Short range projector pistol modified pellet gun powered by C02 Long range projector ri e Also powered by C02 Extra long range ri e uses percussion caps Blow guns Factors to consider Species Size General health Age Sex Pregnancy Lactation Physical condition Emotional status Equipment failure Darts may break at hub Syringe may fail to eXplode May hit sideways instead of tip on Causes Operator fault Missing target Charge is too powerful Tried to shoot moving target Infections can develop at site Dart falls from animal before all of the contents are discharged Other considerations Wind may carry dart off target Warm weather boosts gas efficacy Drugged animal may fall and hurt itself Avoid water sources sedated animal may stumble into water and drown Drugs Narcotics opiates Etorphine Hydrochloride lmmobilon not used in the US Carfentanil Fentanyl trade name Cll controlled substancequotlt Diprenorphine antagonist antagonists are sometimes called antidotes or reversal agents Tranquilizers Acepromazine Daizepam Valium Sedatives Xylazine Rompun Dormosedan Opioids Butorphinol torbugesic Morphine Analgesic pain reliever Anesthetic no sensations Anticholenergics prevents increased heart rate excessive salivation and upper airway secretions Atropine Reversal agents Yohimbine Tolazoline Atipamezole Naloxone Ketamine Clll Telazole Clll Diazepam C IV Ketamine has no antagonistic Is a nonbarbiturate disassociative drug Atropine should be used to stop excessive salivation Acepromazine should be used to relax muscles Ketamine also Does not produce skeletal muscle relaxation acepromazine Catatonia is common Profound analgesia Crosses the placenta in all species Detoxified by the liver Fixed eye expression Eyes stay open does not blink Telazol has no antagonist General anesthetic Combination of two drugs Tiletamine Zolazepam Analgesiacatalepsy Eyes stay open Excessive salivation atropine Muscle relaxation Drug calculations BW times Dosage divided by concentration of drug volume of drug dosage 881b dog needs 25mgkg of BW how ml at 50mgml are required Dosage 25mgkg BW BW 881bs 40kg Concentration of drug 50mgm1 40kg X 25mgkg 50mgm1 20ml dose


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