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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Miles on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JUST 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Joseph Bartlett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Ch 8 Policing Issues and challenges 1 Police subculture a The set of informal values which characterize the police force as a district community with a common identity Informalization Ongoing May emphasize a different set of values compared to mainstream society Often extends to personal lives 2 The police personality Authoritarian Prejudiced Cynical Insecure Secret Loyal Efficient Individualistic Suspicious Dogmatic Hostile Honorable Conservative a Some characterisics are essential for survival and effectiveness Efficient Authoritariansuspicious b Some characteristics are detrimental cynical hostile prejudiced c Two sources of the police personality Already exists middleclass values Socialization into the police subculture both formally and informally 3 Police corruption a The abuse of police Authority for personal or organizational gain b Behavioral deviation from an acceptable ethical standard c slippery slope perspective d Knapp Commission Detective Frank Serpico New York City Police Department in the 1970s 4 Police corruption vs police deviance a Occupational deviance Behavior motivated by the desire for personal benefit and abuse of authority which occurs most often to further the organizational goals of law enforcement Police deviance Perry unprofessional on and off Duty misconduct Deviance is a precursor to individual and organizational corruption 5 Categories of corruption a Grass eaters Accept Bribes or Goods in exchange for not issuing tickets making arrests etc But do not initiate don39t refuse offer b Meat eaters Solicit bribes or take a share the drugs they confiscate to sell for their own profit etc Initiate activity 6 Hierarchy of police corruption Violent crimes Denial of civil rights Criminal Enterprise Property crimes Major Bribes Role Malfeasance Being above inconvenient laws Minor bribes playing favorites Gratitudes 7 Causes of police corruption a Individual personalities Stress Opportunity Power Authority control Differential association Lack of direct supervision Organizational culture Low pay Easy access to illegal gains 8 response to issues of police corruption a Increased police professionalism all levels Hiring Increased pay Ethics training Continuing education Drug testing 9 internal Review Committee a Internal affairs The branch of a police organization tasked with investigating charges of wrongdoing involving members of the department police department Bureau internally conduct the investigation into the allegations of wrongdoing When necessary an outside Agency can conduct the inquiry Officers May invoke their Garrity rights which our protection that officers have against selfincrimination in the face of questioning Protect officers themselves when being questioned by representatives of their Department Internal Affairs division or by their superior officers 10 the dangers of police work a police and alcohol Influence of subculture and drinking b Police and family problems stress of job affects family members c Police and suicide High suicide rate d Dealing with the stress of policing long term stress Violence Suspicious material human bites Spitting Urine feces cut puncture wounds biological weapons CPR first aid body removal casual contact with blood or body fluids contact with dried blood 11 stress reduction Exercise Meditation Prayer peer support abdominal breathing Music 12 Police use of force a the use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public reasonable and necessary guidelines determined by Department b use of force 435 million people Nationwide have facetoface contact with the people over a typical 12 month period Approximately 16 or about 700000 of these people become subject to the use of force or the threat of force 13 Police use of force continued officer presence physical appearance professional bearing verbal commands clear and deliberate soft techniques pepper spray come along wrist locks hard techniques strikes and takedowns deadly force firearms and strike to vital areas 14 less lethal weapons A designed to disable capture or immobilize but not to kill stun guns Tasers rubber bullets beanbag projectiles pepper spray sharenet fired from shotguns in development disabling sticky foam b excessive force application of an amount andor frequency of course greater than required To compel compliance from a Willing unwilling subject c deadly force force likely to cause death or great bodily harm intentional of a firearm or other instrument resulting in a high probability of death 15 Racial profiling a When police officers act on a persons race ethnicity or national origin instead of the persons actions or information that identifies the person as a suspect Pre 9ll vs post 911 16 Police Liability for unconstitutional violations Civil Remedies Criminal remedies Nonjudicial remedies Exclusionary rule 17 Civil Liability a Potential responsibility for payment of damages or other courtordered enforcement as a result of a ruling in a lawsuit Federal State b Different from criminal liability 18 Common sources of lawsuits against police a Assault High media visibility Most wellknown b Battery High media visibility c False imprisonment Arrest without just cause d Malicious prosecution Negligent or malicious actions 19 Federal Lawsuits a 1983 Lawsuit Denies others their constitutional right to life liberty or property without due process of law b Biven s Action A civil suit brought against federal government officials for denying the constitutional rights of others