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History of Design

by: Trevion Hamill

History of Design ART 311

Trevion Hamill
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.79

Alison Pearlman

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Alison Pearlman
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trevion Hamill on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ART 311 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Alison Pearlman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/218258/art-311-california-state-polytechnic-university in Art at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 Lecture 4 January 23 2014 19005 19305 Embraces of Modernity in the Design of MassProduced Wares and Spaces 1 Tavlorism Created by Frederick W Taylor a A theory of efficiency that has been applied to nearly every realm of human endeavor b It was a scientific management system to achieve work efficiency through experiment and analysis of each component ofa working process i International Time Recording System punch in amp out ofwork 1 This method involved conducting detailed timeand motion studies of workers who were deemed to be very efficient at their tasks then searching for ways to eliminate unnecessary motions or moments ofidleness from their work Taylor 84 ii Applied to offices and factories iii Suggest that clerical and factory workers should be managed similarly 1 Carefully designed and standardized labor implements Taylor 85 c Outcomes i Henry Ford introduced the quotassembly line for production of the Model T Ford in 1913 ii Dramatically reduced production time iii Created widespread implications 1 Production Efficiency economy of scale iv Was imitated by all industrial nations and used for other common products 1 EX Homes and appliances v Seen as democratic and raised the living standards worldwide d Standard Late 19th century desk i Allowed filing space privacy and some individual freedom in work organization ii Role for clercs 1 Had modicum of status as workers w some autonomy responsibility iii Desk Configuration Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 1 The desk is a little more than a table with three shallow drawers 2 The construction made it impossible for clerks to stow away and overlook papers iv Functionality of having desk in work area 1 As business offices multiplied and expanded the scientific management was applied 2 Clerical workers were divided into departments and assigned specific task 3 Desk design changes enabled efficient circulation of work from one area to another 4 Increased visibility to supervisor v In uence of scientific management 1 Specialized and simplified desk 2 Office layout for maX visibility ofworkers to management 2 Scientific Management in the Home a Europe and USA i The perceived root of various social problems 1 Declining birth rates to rising diseases a Sanitation b Childcare i w growth in servantless middle class b Tayloristic studies i Applied to home ii Applied to home economic courses 1 Instituted for woman in schools to increase home a Hygiene b Laborsaving efficiency iii Concerns 1 Promoted by everyone a Schools b Manufactures c ournalist d Doctors iv Results of Taylorism 1 Emphasis on hygiene a Focus of design for the home shifts to kitchens and bathrooms Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 V Refrigerators 9 Raymond Loewy Sears Roebuck 1935 1 Coldspot represented a dramatic shift towards quothygienic design a White freestanding can sweep under b Smooth no crevices for dust coll 2 Porcelain on steel and aluminum tubular metal frame 3 Aesthetically supported manufacturer s claim that it offered hygiene vi Frankfurt Government 1 Supported economic and efficient designs for homes when postWWI housing shortage prompted new construction 2 quotFrankfurt kitchen was an in uential result 1927 a Margarete SchuetteLihotzky i Blueprint for quotFrankfurt Kitchenquot 1926 1 Inspired by Christine Frederick s book quotNew Housekeeping 1912 b Applies scientific management to kitchen design i Moveable lighting ii Continuous work surfaces iii Built in cabinets above c Hygienic design i Easy cleaning smooth surfaces 3 Implemented in many contracts for lowcost quotminimumexistence housing 4 Enabled designs for furniture and fixtures to be mass produced to standard measurements 5 Government sponsored assured manufacturers of ready market vii 1930s modern kitchen 1 Further development of in uence of scientific management and hygienic design in continuous counters overhead cabinets and dominance of white viii Bathrooms 1 First plumbedin bathrooms af uent homes looked consisted w the rest of the house w wooden surrounds 1895 Designed with newer standards of hygiene in mind 1911 N Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 a Dominance ofwhite and freestanding fixtures no dust coll 3 Utopian Design in the Promotion of Electricity a By 1890s a number of suppliers were selling electricity but was not successful b At first most demand was at night lighting c Problems i Suppliers had to generated same electricity to meet peak loads as when idle d Industry began promoting electricity especially domestic daytime uses e Obstacles to overcome i More expensive than gas ii Most homes not wired 1 Was expensive to do so iii Fear of electricity f One ofa series ofUS government sponsored publicservice posters promoting use of electricity in 1930s g Demand for electricity was not widespread till 193 0s in Europe a little earlier in the US h Took initial government support and consisted promotion of electricity as bright clean efficient and the way of the future Utopian i As electricity prices fell manufactures could image a mass market and invest in new appliance design appealing to utopian idea ofa clean and efficient future j Utopian design i Exposure of technological mechanisms yet polished smooth and simplified supporting promotions of electricity as quotcleanquot and part ofidyllic future in which problems solved by science Extensive use of chrome recalls contemporary car styling a utopian emphasis on the new 1 Electric heaters a llMV Bruton 1939 b llMV Lincoln 1955 k Bakelite thermoplastic cabinet Receiver i These pioneer designs of quotmodernquot look and material for radios nurturing futuristic consumer fantasies associated with the new device that is transforming modern life Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 ii EK Cole Ltd Hired designers with reputations for modern designs in other products 1 They took advantage of Bakelite s suitability for curved forms and used chromiumplated grills associated with contemporary cars Wireless Radio receiver i Early radios were designed as part of cabinets that concealed mechanisms and helped assimilate alien technology into home d cor norms 1 Wireless radio receiver set designed by Sire Ambrose Heal for George V 19 24 a Mahogany with mother ofpearl inlay m Electric Production i For new electric production Behrens was a pioneer of STANDARDIZATION as quotmodernquot feature in design 1 Stressing repetition 2 Coordination of elements ii Peter Behrens German brochure 1912 advertising kettles in brass nickelplated with copper plated variations of Behrens s design 1909 iii As consultant since 1907 Behrens set consisted ofa design policy for all products and promotions ofAEG even architecture 1 Needed consistency for promoting the modernity of electricity 2 AEG small motor assembly hall 1895 Berlin 4 Standardization in CorporateIdentity Creation a 1900s1930s i Design standardization became an increasing importance in corporateidentity creation to persuade employees and the public of corporation unity and consistency b Case study i London Transport s adoption ofa design policy in 1930s phased in parts beginning 1910s 1 Problem a LT evolved as series ofmergers ofseveral underground and bus cos Needed to created cohesion among inherited employees and Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 needed to persuade public of company virtues in a consistent quotvoicequot Iohnston s 1916 typeface adopted for all graphics on property of LT Station furniture and signage for London transport 1933 Typical station entrance before design policy of 1930s i No standardization especially in linear elements of space or fixtures ii London Euston underground station ticket hall 19 24 iii Shift toward continuity oflinear elements throughout the space brighter light and more even distribution ofit lighter internal colors with paint and tile Had consistent design to all fixtures kiosks etc 1 Projects efficiency orderliness 2 Hygiene light bright tidy 3 Charles Holden London Transport ticket hall Southgate station 1933 f London Underground Map Henry Beck 1924 i Before 1930s showed actual proportional distribution between stations ii 1931 New design uses standard horizontal vertical and diagonal lines and are color coded 1 Orderly but illusory a Suburban stops appear closer than they are b Encouraged distance travel rump 1900919305 Embraces of Modernity in the Design of Chic Decorative Arts 1 quotModernquot Stvling in Art Deco L39Art Moderne a 1920s and 1930s in Europe and US i Luxury market for finely crafted goods that promoted modernity selectively 1 Suiting the taste for luxury and fantasy modernity a Celebrated as a set ofd cor b Motifs and visual effects not mass machine production b Like the aesthetic movement before it Art Deco was promoted via boutiques department stores ads highprofile commissions and int l exhibits mainly the Paris Exhibit 1925 Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 c Iean Dunand French design for a quotsmoking room for a model French embassy Exposition international des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes 1925 i Shown at the Paris Exh 1925 ii Exemplified Art Deco style in 1 Pervasive geometric shapes and patterns 2 Stylized abstract patterns derived from Cubism Futurism Orphism Purism 3 Luxurious materials prevalence oflacquer painstaking craft ArmandAlbert Rateau table with 5 leaves and original 7 chairs 1925 i Actual lacquer finish w geometric forms and Cubist graphics ii Typical ofArt Deco exoticism screens e Maurice Dufrene armchair and stool for Paris Expo 1925 i Cubistic geometric and faceted abstraction in textile design f Ruth Reeves quotElectricquot design handprinted cotton 1930 i Geometric faceted and often stepped forms of CubismFuturismOrphismPurism 1 Frequently stylized into zigzag forms representing mod Electricity as a d cor motif ii Reeves studies w Fernand Leger in Paris in uenced by modern abstract art directly Ellis amp Clark with Owen Williams Daily Express Building Fleet Street London 1931 Entrance lobby Black glass and chrome throughout i Zigzag contours of the ceiling ii Exemplifies Art Deco also in use of materials that re ect or otherwise accentuate the modern brilliance of electrical lights as in angular sculpted metal surfaces shiny lacquers and clear glass Rene Lalique Bird of Fire 1925 Glass lamp w bronze base i Lalique also known for Deco Jewelry and other luxuries ii This shows Deco preference for clear and etched glass departure from colored opaque glass iii Deco glass plays up clarity and brilliance electrifying Erik Magnusson Manhattan coffee and tea service 1927 i Burnished silver w gold and oxidized gray panels ii Angular sculpted forms Cubistic Sonia Delaunay i Delaunay specifics in Deco costume and fashion design SD 09 T Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 1 Geometric motifs 2 Evening gown 1924 3 Embroidered waistcoat worn by poet Rene Creve11923 24 ii Boutique Simultanee at the Paris Expo 1925 k AM Cassandre poster for L Atlantique ocean liner 1931 i Exemplifies Deco poster design 1 Slick geometries and alternating 2D3D effects from Cubism 1 As w the Aesthetic MovementArt Nouveau wider public became aware of Deco typically via graphic design as in ads and highly visible commissions as in buildings In William Van Alen Chrysler Building New York 192830 39 Example of highly visible bldg i39 Art Deco stepped geometric forms use of gleaming metal stainless steel top spike Chrysler Corporation using Art Deco to combine image of modernity with image of fantasyluxury iv Interior lobby ext of elevator doors w papyrus motif of exotic quotMetylwoodquot veneers by the Tyler Co 192830 1 This elevator door exemplifies many features of Deco style you ve seen H ii39 Lecture 5 January 28 2014 1900519305 Embraces of Modernity in AvantGarde MachineAge Design Movement 1 Esprit Nouveau French a Le Corbusier interior Pavilion de l Esprit Nouveau Paris Expo 1925 U Next to Deco at Paris exh different celeb ofmodernity with model apartment c Le C s ideal ofhome as quotmachine for living w quottypeobjects i Simple ii Primary geometric forms for max economy iii Permanent beauty d Antidecorative e Pavilion de l Esprit Nouveau at 1925 Paris Exposition Destroyed 1926 Exact replica built in Bologna Italya 1977 Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm450pm For Midterm 2 Designed as a prototype apartment for larger block for like villa ats Attached rotunda housed eXh Ofplans for larger urban schemes Le Corbusier Villa Savoye 192931 i Private home realizing many EN ideals in addition to geometric 1 Use ofnew technology and industrial material a As in reinforced concrete pilotis Model ofVilla Savoye 1932 1 Economy ofmeans a Every level is usable amp roofis usable as garden Villa Savoye detail w Le Corbusier furniture added after 1993 restoration 1 quotOpen plan a Unobstructed interior and interpenetration of int and eXtra space b Gives individual sense of free and exible movement Villa Savoye detailed of restored kitchen and dining area 1 Integration of all parts into geometric system for maX efficiency in utility 2 Built in cabinets h l i ii39 2 D 139 Dutch e Sti a U can Proponents of De Stijl advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and color they simplified visual compositions to the vertical and horizontal directions and used only primary colors along with black and white Founded by painters Piet Mondrian 18721944 and Theo van Doesburg 18831931 in 1917 w journal De Stijl and cohering till journal ceased in 1928 Encompassed all visualspatial arts De Stijl eXh Foster 1982 i Slide shows link between ptg Piet Mondrian wall and arch Gerrit Rietveld house model oor on basis of forms colors and tones deemed universal 1 Horizontal vertical and diagonal lines 2 Black white middlegray tones 9 primary pigment colors Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 e Gerrit Rietveld Utrecht Schroeder house model 192324 i Sought to reconcile collective criteria universalist forms w individual sense of dynamic viewpoints free movements and exibility in adjusting components f Gerrit Rietveld Schroeder House restored 1974 external view in 1981 i Tubular steel railings expanses of glass and intersecting extended vertical and horizontal planes give individual sense of dynamic viewpoint and movement via visual and physical interpenetration of internal and external space g Schroeder House internal living room i Open plan on inside is conducive to visual and physical movement and exibility h Schroeder House internal stairwell w glass enclosure and living space i Individual exibility via adjustable sliding door panels i Schroeder House internal bedroomliving area j Schroeder House internal kitchen i As w Le Corbusier s Villa Savoye strives for systematic quottotalquot design of arch And furnishings included built in cabinets and geometry throughout Piet Mondrian and Theo Van Doesburg title for De Stijl Vol 4 011921 i Graphics 1 Geometric compositions preference for sansserif typefaces due to their simplicity geometry and rectilinear layouts a Analogous to building principles 1 Cover first issue of De Stijl 1917 i Early issues ofDe Stijl 1 Designed by Vilmos Huszar using modular typefaces a Alphabet composed of same few basic strokes 3 Common Threads among MachineAgequot AvantGarde Movements a Shared a legacy ofArt NouveauArts and Craft Movement beliefin Unity of fine and applied arts i Power ofdesign to transform everyday life and society ii39 Corresponding of d cor and structural aspects of design iv Not distinguishing materials quottruth of materials F H 10 Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 5 Shared generally Aesthetic and AC Movements appeal to small exclusive market and support by prestigeoriented cultural institutions i Schools ii Museums iii International exhibits c Yet different from Aesthetic and AC by i Embracing industrial technology and materials ii Seeking objective design criteria not subject and singular iii Associating machine and mass production w simple geometry and standardization creating rep eating vocabulary of forms 4 Constructivism Russian a Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919 which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art The movement was in favor of art as a practice for social purposes Constructivism had a great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century in uencing major trends such as Bauhaus and De Stijl movement Its in uence was pervasive with major impacts upon architecture graphic and industrial design theatre film dance fashions and to some extent music Flourished just before and after Russian Revolution 1917 prior to Soviet turned against AvantGarde Art and their institution of quotSocialist Realism as official style finally suppressing all else by decree 1934 Encompassed all visualspatial arts Utopian movement seeking to define universalist aesthetics for new society communist based on universalist Egalitarian and anti bourgeois individualistsubjectivist principles Aleksandr Rodchenko model of Soviet Worker s Club Paris Expo 1925 i Geometric components and exible parts allowing individual and collective activities 1 Adjustable tables glass wall w posters on rollers moveable platform for speakers and folding screen for film proj or posters 2 Industrial manufacturers not realized a Depressed economy and marginalization of avantgardism f Liubov Popova textile design in LEF Magazine Moscow 1923 U can 51 11 Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 i Textile design published in LEF journal of the left front of the Arts avantgarde group showing consistent app of quotuniversalquot geometry g Aleksandr Rodchenko sketch for advert Trademark for Russian aircraft manufacturer Dobrolet 1923 39 As in graphic design i Dynamism of circle and diagonal as well as consistent geometry Economical design 1 Simple contrasts of color and value and use ofnegative space h Aleksandr Rodchenko poster for Russian section of Paris eXpo 1925 i Same in poster for 1925 Paris exhibit 5 Bauhaus German a School founded in Weimar 1919 by archeologist Walter Gropius German 18831969 moved to Dessau 1925 and shut down in Berlin 1933 by Nazi s Integrated all fine and applied arts in an in uential curriculum featuring a preliminary course of study focusing on fundamentals of form taken by students of all disciplines from painting to architecture c Ioost Schmidt Bauhaus eXh Poster for Arts and Technology A New Unity 1923 i Students and quotmastersquot alike contributed to design of Bauhaus products publications and promotional materials ii This announces in uential 1923 eXh Of Bauhaus designs given revealing title Art and Technology A New Unity iii Exemplifies Herbert Bayer universal alphabet 1926 i Bayer s sansserif quotuniversalquot alphabet had modular elements and eliminated capital letters in effort to standardize and simplify forms e Bauhaus collab EXh ofmode kitchen 1923 i This collaborate design ofa modern kitchen for 1923 eXh may have in part in uenced SchuetteLihotzky s design of the Frankfurt Kitchen 192627 ii Similarly in builtin upper cabinets and continuous counters f Walter Gropius Dessauu Bauhaus 1926 i Bauhaus collaboration continued in Dessau H ii39 U SE 12 Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 ii Gropius designed the new Bauhaus bldg and students contributed to production of fixtures and furnishings Walter Gropius Dessau Bauhaus 192526 restored 1976 i Expanses of glass allowing dynamic interpenetration of spaces possible by eliminating load bearing walls as Le Borbusier had done Walter Gropius Dessau Bauhaus workshop wing int second oor i The design stressed open circulation and visibility throughout i Marcel Breuer nesting tables model no B9 192526 i Cesca side chair model no B32 1931 ii Bent Tubular steel 9 a central aesthetic and constructive feature iii Nesting tables lacquered plywood amp Cesca chairs wood cane j Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Barcelona chair 1929 i Mies s quotBarcelonaquot Chair named after German pavilion at int exh in Barcelona 1926 ii Steel frame tufted leather seats and back cushions Gunta Stoelzl linen and cotton wall hanging 192728 amp Anni Albers rug design 1925 i Textiles with geometric compositions ii Some Bauhaus textiles iii Some were machine made and some were not 6 Immediate in uences of the MachineAgequot AvantGardes a California Modernism i Architects working in US in uenced by American FL Wright and European quotmachineage avantgardes 1 Rudolph Schindler 18871953 2 Richard Neutra Austrian 18921907 ii Both esp in uential on him architecture in California beginning 1920s w styles combining FLW s responsiveness to natural environment w quotmachineage severe geometries Both FLW and quotmachineage movements in uenced their use of op en plans and interpenetration of internal and external space Schindler Apartments external 1925 Rudolph M Schindler walker house 1937 Neutra Tremaine House external front garden 1946 Neutra Tremaine house external and terrace 0 0 7 7 ii39 999 13 Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 f Neutra Tremaine house living room i Rectilinearity open plan and interpenetration of internal and external spaces g Neutra Tremaine view ofliving room front terrace 7 Immediate in uences of machineagequot Avant Gardes a New Typography i Strongest advocate ofBauhaus principle in 1920s and 30s outside of these movements in graphic design Ian Tschichold ii Tschihold not Bauhaus student but saw 1923 Bauhaus eXh iii His in uential text the New Typography 1928 disseminated these principles and eventually became most in uential stand for graphic type and layout especially after WWII as the principles and furthered by groups of other designers b Jan Tschichold Constructivist eXh Poster Kunsthalle Base11937 i Elements of quotthe new typography for clear and lively communication 1 Use grid of original structure for consistent and precise relationships among elements on pages and across pages Use sansserif typefaces Use negative space as compositional element When using imagery use photography 5 Order composition hierarchically and asymmetrically ii Film poster Casanova for PhoebusPalast 1927 1 He integrated photography win grids this time in conteXt of film advert iii Trademark for Der Buecherkreis 1931 1 Early trademark or corp logo design and greatly shaped by the principles of quotnew typography its economy clarity and bold contrasts c The London transport design policy is based on the same principles as the New Typography 39 Simplicity i39 Standardization ii39 Clarity iv Boldness whww HHH 4 Readings 14 Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 Ruskin s Main Argument Ruskin argued that it was an expression of the artisan s joy in free creative work The worker must be allowed to think and to express his own personality and ideas ideally using his own hands not machinery This was both an aesthetic attack on and a social critique of the division oflabor in particular and industrial capitalism in general Taylor s Main Argument pg 8488 He argues the necessity of focusing on training rather than finding the quotright man stating quotIn the past the man has been first in the future the system must be first and the first goal of all good systems should be developing firstclass men First To point out through a series of simple illustrations the great loss which the whole country is suffering through inefficiency in almost all of our daily acts Second To try to convince the reader that the remedy for this inefficiency lies in systematic management rather than in searching for some unusual or extraordinary man Third To prove that the best management is a true science resting upon clearly defined laws rules and principles as a foundation And further to show that the fundamental principles of scientific management are applicable to all kinds of human activities from our simplest individual acts to the work of our great corporations which call for the most elaborate cooperation And brie y through a series ofillustrations to convince the reader that whenever these principles are correctly applied results must follow which are truly astounding Lastly Taylor noted that while the examples were chosen to appeal to engineers and managers his principles could be applied to the management of any social enterprise such as homes farms small businesses churches philanthropic institutions universities and government 39 When one ceases to deal with men in large gangs or groups and proceeds to study each workman as an individual if the workman fails to do his task some competent teacher should be sent to show him exactly how his work can best be done to guide help and encourage him and at the same time to study his possibilities as a workman Taylor 87 39 This organization consisted in this case of one set ofmen who were engaged in the development of the science oflaboring through time study such as has been described above another set ofmen mostly skilled laborers themselves who were teachers and who helped and guided the men in their work another set of tool room men who provided them with the proper 15 Adelina Lang February 10 2014 ART 311 History ofDesign Alison Pearlman TuesdayampThursday 3pm45 0pm For Midterm 2 implements and kept them in perfect order and another set of clerks who planned the work well in advance moved the men with the least loss of time from one place to another and properly recorded each man s earnings Taylor 87 39 quotProsperity for the employ coupled with the prosperity for the employer Taylor 88 Morris Main Argument 39 Theorist of the Arts and Craft movement 39 The goal was to produce reasonably priced welldesigned furnishings wallpapers and textiles while employing skilled craftsmen at fair wages Morris 35 39 Morris championed traditional craft from his method of manufacture but also for the wellpaid and honorable employment that he felt craft production provided Morris 35 Frederick s Main Argument Becoming interested in Taylorism as applied to the domestic sphere Frederick and founded and directed a laboratory for conducting Taylorist experiments at her home in Greenlawn New York She was especially interested in making kitchens more efficient for women and is credited with bringing about standardization of the height of kitchen counters and work surfaces 39 It is therefore cleat that any place for a reorganization of the work of the home on a more efficient basis must begin with a careful study ofpresent kitchen conditions and methods ofwork Frederick 93 39 Have a kitchen that is small and compact without loosely connected pantries and cupboards Frederick 93 39 The shape permits the most stepsaving arrangement of the main equipment Frederick 93 39 Steps in the kitchen 1 Collect 2 Prepare 3 Cook 4 Serve 9Eat9 5 Remove 6 Scrape 7 Wash 8 Lay Frederick 9394 39 This principle of arranging and grouping equipment to meet the actual order ofwork is the basis of kitchen efficiency Frederick 94 16


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