Modern Architecture Since 1750
Modern Architecture Since 1750 ARC 363
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Kayla Ratke on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARC 363 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Arthur Hacker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/218263/arc-363-california-state-polytechnic-university in Architecture at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Frank Emerson ARC 363 Spring 2009 Question 4 Since 1750 architects have been utilizing state of the art technology to keep up with the demand of the population The world s population has grown from roughly 791000000 people to 6707000000 people since 1750 For the past 250 years it has been the architects job to find new ways to accommodate this large fluctuation in population They have had help with the new technologies from the Industrial Revolution I will introduce 4 buildings that sum up the work of architects to utilize this technology and address the needs of the world s population The Crystal Palace is a direct product of the Industrial Revolution It was designed by Joseph Paxton in 1850 to house the Great Exhibition of 1851 K pp598 At this exhibition all the new technologies of the Industrial Revolution were to be displayed Besides housing some ofthe most important developments of the Industrial Revolution the Crystal Palace itself was an example of where the world of building was headed It was the first example of a modular construction system which was prefabricated offsite The parts were machine manufactured in a shop and put together on the site as quickly as they were made K pp595 This made it possible for the building to be designed and built in less than a year This method also made it possible to make every piece to exact specifications and of the greatest quality Paxton used cast iron and glass which he was familiar with from his work as a gardener at Chatsworth in Derbyshire He practiced building greenhouses and witnessed the strength and durability of Frank Emerson the materials This led to Paxton choosing cast iron and glass for the construction of the Crystal Palace The Saint Pancras Station Shed responds to the growing population of England It houses a major transportation center that allows a large number of passengers to travel from city to city on public transportation With the growing population it was necessary to have somewhere for these people to wait for their train protected from the elements The Shed also responds to the new technologies of the Industrial Revolution because it was at one point in time the largest single span structure standing K pp594 597 The iron frame roof spans an astonishing seventy four meters This was necessary because it allowed for the entire station to be covered without any obstructions which in turn allowed trains to pass with ease The Saint Pancras Station also addressed the acceleration of urbanization The demand placed on the city by people wanting to travel to and from the station it became necessary to have a large area where these people can be organized and dispersed The Saint Pancras Station Shed made this possible The effect of the single span roof is felt from the platform right where the passengers stand The vault extends from the platform level giving the passengers a sense of the scale of the structure Seaside Florida is thought of as the first New Urbanist development It was designed by architects Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater Zyberk The project was started in 1984 and finished in 1991 At this time there were no zoning regulations in the county which gave the architects freedom to design a completely original development The most important part of the design of Seaside is the fact that it recognizes the importance of creating mixed use program and almost over densifying an area The architects wanted to create a development in Frank Emerson which all ofthe houses were individually distinguishable They also wanted to make it possible for people to walk anywhere they desired This is a design decision based on the large demand that people have created through urbanization With the ever growing population it is necessary to accommodate a large amount of people in a smaller area K pp696 697 The implementation of mixed use program is a perfect solution for this problem Densifying the area makes it possible for people to get the urban feel without the big city therefore nullifying the ever growing problem of urban sprawl The Lake Shore Drive Apartments are a direct response to the growing population and the need to house them The problem of urban sprawl is also being addressed in the design of these apartments Creating skyscraper apartments maximizes the amount of people that can live on a given site The fact that the population is growing is not the only problem The problem occurs when these people all want to be in close proximity to the cities With the trend of accelerating urbanization the skyscraper apartment building became a necessity Mies van der Rohe utilized a glass and steel system to create the towers that would become an example for many skyscrapers to come K pp727 Simplicity is the key to the design of the Lake Shore Drive Apartments K pp728 Mies van der Rohe embraces the structure and does not ornament his facade The buildings have steel skeletal frames with glass curtain walls forming the facade The ever growing population and accelerating urbanization are serious problems that must be addressed It is a burden that architects must bear They must continue to adapt to the constantly changing social conditions and continuously evolving urban environment The Frank Emerson constant improvement of technology is one of the most important tools that architects have to combat these problems These four buildings utilize the new technologies ofthe Industrial Revolution and address the problems that are introduced with the accelerating population growth
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