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by: Miss Jairo McDermott

PhysicalGeography GEO101

Miss Jairo McDermott
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.72


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Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Jairo McDermott on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO101 at California State Polytechnic University taught by TerenceYoung in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/218266/geo101-california-state-polytechnic-university in Geography at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 4 Where is the water In the hydrosphereocean land amp atmosphere Realm of water Ocean 97 salty Land 28 fresh some salty Atmosphere 001 fresh Hydrologic cycle Waters movement from land and ocean to atmosphere What is humidity And why is it relative Amount of water vapor compared parcel 2 measurements Specific Possible amount of precipitation actual amount in parcel by weight gkg Relative quot 39 39 39 ratio of specific humidity to possible humidity maximum dependent r I I I Determine relative humidity Relative Humidity Specific Humidity Maximum Possible Humidity 100 RH quotSaturatedquot Temperature Relative Humidity inverse relationship under normal conditions increase of temperature results in decrease of relative humidity f air cools sufficiently it will reach saturation Dew Point Temperatureair is saturated not fixed Condensation occurs when air temperature reaches saturation at dew point temperature gas water vapor liquid latent heat released I What is adiabatic heating amp cooling Temperature changing with changes in air pressure Inverse Temperature decreases when air ascends Temperature increases when air descends Air pressure change Adiabatic principle adiabatic lapse rates predict temperature change predict precipitation Dry lapse rate 10 C1000m no condensation occurring Wet lapse rate 5 C1000m fixed variable Condensation warms it surroundings Ascending parcel Dew point temperature saturated 1100 RH Altitude at which condensation starts at is lifting condensation level Temperature goes down relative humidity goes up Temperature goes up relative humidity increases NO dropping condensation level No dew point temperature going down Condensation only occurs when increasing altitude If parcel keeps rising amp cooling hits condensation level and dew point temperature reached and continues to rise Wet lapse rate is used IV What causes it to rain or snow sleet etc Moist air rise and cools PPTPrecipitation rain snow sleet No Precipitation Fog layer of cloud at the ground 2 major types 1 Radiation Fog result of reradiation quottulequot fog San Joaquin Valley occurs when cool moist air comes into contact with colder ground air parcel condenses on ground 2 Sea Fog occurs when cool moist air comes into contact with colder water Precipitationrising cooling air Warm air rises source is ground Condensation or deposition will bring gas liquidproduce water droplets condensation and gas solidice crystals deposition ce crystals snowflakes through more deposition Droplets9drops by collision Types of Precipitation 1 Rain condensation 2 Freezing Rain condensation ices as soon as it touches items on ground 3 Snow begins as deposition crystals don t melt 4 Sleet begins as deposition but crystals melt and partially refreeze 5 Hail begins as deposition ice crystals melt partly refreeze then melt and then partly refreeze and continues in cycle for awhile get caught in air going back up and down caught in air each time changes form Fog drying warmth out ofair Clouds air parcels are rising 3 mechanisms Convectional unequal heating of surface causes air parcel to become warmer amp less dense than surrounding air Thunder cloud cumulonimbus Orographic air moves up amp over a mountain barrier no condensation descending Frontal don t automatic mix Chapter 5 What is atmospheric pressure weight of the air measured in millibars mb Column atmosphere one cm in cross section 1 kg standard 0 m 10132 mb High over standard Low under standard Pressure decreases rapidly when elevation increases Barometerused to measure atmospheric pressure Why do winds occur Air follows pressure gradients Winds are named from the direction they come Wind Horizontal Draft Vertical Pressure gradient high pressure 9 low pressure If you are at high or low pressure you feel no wind you only feel when at the middle Greater pressure differences stronger winds Lesser distance stronger winds Isobars lines that connect locations with equal pressure I How are air temperature amp wind related through convection Convective wind system goes sideways can t go down can t go up just sitting there turns into high pressure temperature cools air gets warmer IV What sort of winds do we have here Sea land amp Santa Anas Water heats amp cools slower more stable Sea Breeze High to Low pressure coming from the ocean city becomes warmer in afternoon causing sea breeze Land Breeze High to Low pressure coming from land cooler city to Warmer Ocean Santa Ana winds blow from Northeast to Southwest Colder air will go downlower high pressure 1000 5000 m American West Tejon Pass I5 Cajon Pass 15 Banning Pass 10 Santa Ana winds pass through pass initially cold warms as descends Radiation Fog associated with Santa Ana V Why don t winds travel in straight lines Coriolis effect motion spirals surface of earth is moving appear to bend air is deflect North hemisphere right South hemisphere left Northern Hemispheres cyclones low pressure anticyclones high pressure Southern Hemispheres low pressureclockwise inspiral high pressure counterclockwise outspiral W What is the pattern to global pressures and winds The Earth is banded Horse Latitudes be calmed horses thrown over ships because of water W What are ocean currents Horizontal flows Persistent Flows at surface Gyres dominant system pick up trash Currents 1 Equatorial move warm water westward pole ward along east coasts of continents 2 Return move cold water equatorward along west coasts California current Northeast trade winds push water westward Chapter 6 Weather Systems How is weather different than climate Momentary conditions vs the average Weather is todaytomorrow vs climate long term Weather Moving air masses Climate avg Mediterranean climate live in Cool wet winters Warm dry summers What s an air mass Large body of distinctive air temperature moisture content 10005 km top of troposphere What s a front Boundary between two air masses one is moving or both Types Cold colder air mass moving into warmer air Midwest amp East 400 km Warm warmer air mass moving into colder air Pacific Coast North America 1000 km Occluded when a cold front overtakes a warm front from behind starts with steady PPT then thunder associated flooding Midwest amp East IV What are the impacts of Traveling Anticyclones amp Cyclones Fair weather and foul sometimes extreme Anticyclone Fair weather Few clouds No PPT Can be very cold Cyclones bring clouds severe conditions mid PPT Tornadoes Tropical cyclones V What s a tornado small intense cyclone 100 500 m 850 millibars mb compared to standard sea level air pressure 10132 mb only meters away from each other inwa rd 100msec very destructive buildings explode as tornado goes over it because ofair pressure change VI What s a tropical cyclone AKA quothurricanequot 150500 km in diameter 8 15 880 mb developing over warm ocean water high winds gt27 C heavy PPT rain warm water evaporates air rising it cools condensation releases latent heat Winds 3050 msec Hurricanes Americas Typhoons Western Pacific Cyclones Indian Ocean VII What are the impacts heavy surf storm surge 16 meters high tides tend to make it worse coastal areas Keywords Acid depositionthe deposition of acid raindrops andor dry acidic dust particles on vegetation amp ground surfaces Precipitationparticles of liquid water or ice that fall from the atmosphere and may reach the ground Sublimationprocess of change of ice to water vapor Depositionthe change of state of state of a substance from a gas to a solid Hydrospheretotal water realm of the Earth s surface zone Hydrologic Cycletotal plan of movement exchange amp storage of Earth s free water in gaseous liquidamp solid state Humiditygeneral term for the amount of water vapor present in the air Specific Humiditymass of water vapor contained in a unit mass of air DewPoint Temperaturetemperature of an air mass at which the air holds its full capacity of water vapor Relative Humidityratio of water vapor present in the air to maximum quantity possible for saturated air at the same temperature Adiabatic Principlephysical principle that gas cools as it expands and warms as compressed no heat flows inout of gas Dry Adiabatic Lapse Raterate at which rising air is cooled by expansion when no condensation occurs Lifting Condensation Levelaltitude at which condensation starts Moist Adiabatic Lapse Ratecooling rate of condensation Clouddense concentration of suspended water or ice particles in the diameter range 2050um Fogcloud layer in contact with land or sea surface or very close to that surface Orographic Precipitationprecipitation induced by the forced rise of moist air over a mountain barrier Rain Shadowbelt of arid climate to lee of a mountain barrier produced as a result of adiabatic warming of descending air Convective Precipitationinduced when warm moist air is heated at the ground surface rises cools amp condenses to form water Unstable Air air with water vapor keep breaking into convectional activity leading to heavy showers amp thunderstorms Thunderstormintense local convectional storm cumulonimbus cloud heavy precipitation Tornadosmall very intense wind vortex with extremely low air pressure in center Air Pollutantunwanted substance in atmosphere from Earth s surface by natural or human activities Smogmixture of aerosols and chemical pollutants in the lower atmosphere usually over urban areas El Ninoepisodic cessation of upwelling of cold deep water of coast of Peru Atmospheric Pressurepressure exerted by atmosphere because of the force of gravity acting on the overlying column of air Barometerinstrument for measurement of atmospheric pressure Windair motion dominantly horizontal relative to Earth s surface Isobarlines on map passing through all points having the same atmospheric pressure Pressure Gradientchange of atmospheric pressure measured along a line at right angles to the isobars Thermal Circulationmotion of air toward a warmer region at low levels amp away from the warmer region at high levels Coriolis Effecteffect of Earth s rotation tending to turn the direction of motion of any objectfluid toward the right in the northern hemisphere amp to the left in the southern hemisphere Cyclonecenter of low atmospheric pressure Anticyclonecenter of high atmospheric pressure Hadley Cellatmospheric circulation cell in low latitudes involving rising air over the subtropical highpressure belts Intertropical Convergence Zone ITCZzone of convergence of air masses of tropical easterlies along axis of equatorial trough Subtropical HighPressure Beltsbelts of persistent high atmospheric pressure trending eastwest amp center on lat 30NampS Polar Frontlying between cold polar air masses amp warn tropical air masses Monsoonlow level winds blowing into a continent in summeramp out of it in winter controlled by atmospheric pressure systems Geostrophic Windwind at high levels above the Earth s surface blowing parallel with a system of straight parallel isobars Jet Streamhigh speed airflow in narrow bands within the upperair westerlies amp along certain global lat zones high levels Jet Stream Disturbancebroad wavelike undulation in the jet stream Ocean Currentpersistent dominantly horizontal flow of ocean water Gyrelarge circular ocean current system centered on the oceanic subtropical highpressure cells WeatherSystemsrecurringpatternofatmospheric 39 39 39 39 Iwith 39 39 39 weather Air Massesextensive body of air within which upward gradients of temperature amp moisture are fairly uniform over a large area Frontsurface of contact between two unlike air masses Cold Frontmoving weather front along which cold air mass moves underneath a warm air mass causing latter to be lifted Warm Frontmoving weather front along which a warm air mass is sliding up over a cold air mass leading to stratiform clouds Occluded Frontweather front along which a moving cold front has over taken a warm front forcing the warn air mass aloft Cyclonic Stormintense weather disturbance within a moving cyclone generating a moving cyclone generating strong winds Tornadosmall very intense wind vortex wextremely low air pressure in center Midlatitude Cyclonetraveling cyclone of the midlatitudes involving interaction of coldamp warm air masses along defined fronts ColdAir Outbreakstongue of cold polar air moving from the midlatitudes into very low latitudes Easterly Waveweak slowly moving trough of low air pressure within the belt or tropical easterlies causes a weather disturbance with rain showers Tropical Cycloneintense traveling cyclone of tropical amp subtropical latitudes accompanied by high winds amp heavy rainfall Storm Surgerapid rise of coastal water level accompanying the onshore arrival of a tropical cyclone


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