Human Geography GEO 102
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Jairo McDermott on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 102 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Kristen Conway-Gomez in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/218268/geo-102-california-state-polytechnic-university in Geography at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Professor Kristen ConwayGomez Week April 4 Chapter 8 Agricultural Geography Food from good earth 1 Importance of Agriculture The cultivation of domesticated crops and the raising of domesticated animals 1 Food Production a Technology Money Mechanization 2 Topography a soil conditions b knowledge c climate 3 Less percentage of population engaged in agriculture US Canada Western Europe 4 Higher percentage of population engaged in agriculture South Africa Asia 11 Agroregions Agricultural regions are de ned by a distinctive combination of physical environmental conditions A Swidden Shifting Cultivation Tropical Environment 1 Slashandbum burned clearing i they use machetes chainsaws axes to chop away the undergrowth from small patches of land and kill the trees by removing a strip of bark completely around the trunk ii After the vegetation dries out the farmers set re it on re to clear the land iii Farmers then plant a variety of crops in the askcovered clearings 2 Landrotation system i the planting cycle is repeated in the same clearings for perhaps three to ve years until soil fertility begins to decline as nutrients are taken up by crops and not replaced ii the elds are abandoned and new clearings are prepared to replace them 3 Intercropping i the practice of growing two or more different types of crops in the same eld at the same time ii this technique allows taller stronger crops to shelter lower more fragile ones reduces the chance of total crop losses from disease or pests 4 Knowledge i the complexity of many intercropping systems reveals the depths of knowledge acquired 5 Subsistence i Farming to supply to minimum food and materials necessary to survive ii Food production mainly for family and local community rather than for market 6 Sustainable i ecologically sustainable Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Professor Kristen ConwayGomez Week April 4 Ex One condition that may diminish the sustainability of Swidden cultivation occurs when a population experiences a sudden increase in its rate of growth and political or social conditions restrict its mobility 7 Can be destructive i population growth may encourage farmers to shorten the period during which the land is recuperating a departure from past practices that can lead to environmental deterioration B Paddy rice farming cultivation of rice on a paddy or small ooded eld enclosed by mud dikes practiced in the humid areas of the Far East 1 Dominant in Asia i Rice 2 Dominant crop for vegetable civilizations 3 Most farms tiny 4 Diked ooded elds often on slopes 5 High yields i doublecropping yields more food per acre 6 Most produce for urban markets i dams electric pumps and reservoirs now provide a more reliable water supply and highyielding seeds pesticides and synthetic fertilizers boost production C Peasant grain root amp livestock farming 1 In colder drier regions 2 Diverse system i practice system based bread grains root crops and herd livestock 3 Crops wheat barley sorghum millet oats amp maize Dominant grain crops i common cashcrop cotton ax hemp coffee and tobacco 4 Animals cattle pigs sheep llamas amp alpacas i the livestock pull the plow provide milk meat and wool ii they also consume a portion of the grain harvest D Plantation agriculture 1 Introduced commercial system 2 Concentrated American tropics a Seacoasts b Workers livein c Twoclass society i rigid social and economic segregation oflabor and management produces a twoclass society of the wealthy and poor 3 Base for European amp American economic expansion i plantations expanded into Asia Africa and Latin America ii they maximize the production of luxury crops 4 Crops i sugarcanes bananas coffee coconuts spices tea cacao pineapples rubber and tobacco Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Professor Kristen ConwayGomez Week April 4 5 Specialize in l crop 6 Globalization major changes E Market gardening9 truck farming l Developed countries i specialized in cultivating nontropical fruits vegetables and vines ii they raise no livestock 2 Specialized crops i wine table grapes raisins olives oranges apples lettuce potatoes F Livestock fattening 1 Farmers raise and fatten cattle and hogs for slaughter 2 Farmers raise corn and soy beans to feed cattle and hogs 3 Slaughterhouses are located close to feedlots creating a new meatproducing region H Dairying 1 Large dairy belts in northern US 2 Need for winterfeed crops in colder area 3 Types of dairy product closeness to market factor i diary belts near large urban centers usually produce milk which is more perishable while those farther away specialize in butter cheese and processed milk 4 Dairy feedlots i feedlots are factory like farms devoted to either livestock fattening or dairying all feed is imported and no crops are grown on the farm 1 Nomadic herding l Graze cattle sheep goats and camels 2 The cold tundra forms a zone of nomadic herders who raise reindeer 3 Mobility i herders move with their livestock in search of forage for the animals as seasons and range conditions change ii Measures how wealth is measured J Livestock ranching l Specialize in animal husbandry 2 Raise livestock for market on large scale not their own subsistence 3 Worldwide K Urban Agriculture the raising of food including fruit vegetables meat and milk inside cities especially common inthe third world 1 Often creates surplus to sell from tiny plots 2 Surplus often sold in urban markets L Nonagricultural areas 1 Areas of extreme climate i do not support any form of agriculture 2 Hunting amp gathering groups division of labor i gain livelihood by hunting games fishing were possible and gathering edible and medicinal wild plants Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Professor Kristen ConwayGomez Week April 4 III Agricultural diffusion A Origins amp diffusion of plant domestication l Domestication defined 2 Process a Perceive a plant useful b Select seeds 3 Association with female deities i women first worked the land ii Women had daytoday contact with wild plants and their mobility was constrained by childbearing B Locating centers of domestication C Pets or meat Tracing animal domestication 1 Definition 9 domesticated animal is one that depends on people for food and shelter and that differs from wild species in physical appearance and behavior as a result of controlled breeding and frequent contact with humans 2 later than first planting of crops i animal domestication apparently occurred later in prehistory than did the first planting of crops 3 Dogs are very early companions i pig and the dog probably attached themselves voluntarily to humans merely tolerated these animals later adopting them as pets or as sources of meat 4 Herds in Fertile Crescent area i herded cattle pigs horses sheep and goats ii First to integrate domesticated plants and animals D Modern diffusions 1 Role of European exploration amp colonialism i instrumental in redistributing a wide variety of crops on a global scale 2 Diffusion both ways across the Atlantic 3 Discussion of the diffusion of pump irrigation 4 Green revolution both good and bad a Higher yielding b Less diseaseresistant c More costly to raise d Uneven acceptance 5 Problems with adoption of hybrid seeds IV Agroecology A Markets amp cultural ecological change 1 Importance of climate amp physical environment a People adjusted strategies b Importance of soil type c Limit crop types amp cultivation practices 2 Global markets Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Professor Kristen ConwayGomez Week April 4 3 Altered ecology 4 Effects of plantation agriculture 5 Great variety of foods now available 6 Abandonment of local crop varieties in poor countries 7 Example Quechua peasant farmers V Agrocultural interaction A Intensity of land use 1 Human labor 2 Massive amounts investment capital 3 Argued response to population growth 4 Alternative argument response to higher population density B Can the world be fed 1 Food production grown faster than population 2 Poverty amp politics cause hunger 3 Poor countries cannot afford to buy food 4 Poor transportation C Globalization 1 Genetically modified GM crops 2 Some European countries actively protest against 3 European Union against United States over international trade in GM seeds amp foods VI Agricultural landscapes A Fencing and hedging l Heighten visibility of field borders 2 Different cultures have own methods 3 Stone fences 4 Barbed wire 5 Hedges are major aspect ofrural landscape
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