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by: Miss Jairo McDermott

HumanGeography GEO102

Miss Jairo McDermott
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.72


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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Jairo McDermott on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO102 at California State Polytechnic University taught by KristenConway-Gomez in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/218271/geo102-california-state-polytechnic-university in Geography at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of March 28 Introduction Chapter 1 I Geography 1 Webster s de nition A science that deals with earth and its life 2 Greek to describe the earth 3 The study of the distributions and interrelationships of the physical environment 4 The study of human behaviors over the earth with a focus on spatial patterns II What Geography is Not 1 Just a description of where things are located III What Geography Considers 1 Based on curiosity about the world 2 Why things are the way they are 3 How they are constituted 4 What is the likely lture IV Two Main Divisions of Geography 1 Physical Geography a deals with the natural environment 2 CulturalHuman Geography a study of spatial variations among cultural traits and spatial lnctioning of society V How Geographers See Things Physical Features gt People amp Culture Spatial Patterns amp Processes VI Five Main Themes of Geography 1 Location 2 Place 3 MovementLinks 4 Regions 5 HumanEnvironment Interaction Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of March 28 Human Geography Chapter 1 I What is Culture I Learned collective human behavior 2 Common to a group 3 Involves communication system of beliefs memories perceptions traditions amp attitudes Ways Language Government II Geographers say culture is l A process in which people are actively engaged 7 Kay Anderson amp Fay Gale 2 Describing amp analyzing ways in which cultural phenomena vary or remain constant 3 Spatial variations III What is Human Geography 1 The themes in cultural geography A Culture region i is grouping of similar places or the lnctional union of places to form a spatial unit ii Cultures overlap and miX such boundaries are rarely sharp even if only a single cultural trait is mapped There are border zones rather than lines iii Core periphery reveals the center or core where the de ning traits are all present If you move away from the core the characteristics would weaken and disappear iv Node is the center points where the lnctions are coordinated and directed B Cultural diffusion i the spatial spread of learned ideas innovations and attitudes throughout an area ii Independent invention occurs the same or a very similar innovation is separately developed at different places by different people C Cultural ecology i the study of relationships between the physical environment and culture defines the study of culture as an adaptive system that facilitates human adaption to nature and environmental change D Cultural interaction i the relationship between various elements within a culture ii recognizes that the immediate causes of some cultural phenomena are other cultural phenomena Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of March 28 iii A change in one element of culture requires an accommodating change in others a Topophilia love of a place E Cultural landscape i the arti cial landscape the visible human imprint on the land ii Human or Cultural landscape is composed of all the built forms that cultural groups create in inhabiting the Earth iii Every inhabited area has a cultural landscape fashioned from the natural landscape and uniquely re ects that culture or cultures that create it iv Landscapes mirror a culture s needs values and attitudes toward the Earth and the cultural geographer can learn much about a group of people by care llly observing and studying the landscape v Dominant and alternative cultures use alter and manipulate landscapes to express their diverse identities vi The cultural landscape is our collective and revealing autobiography re ecting our tastes values aspirations and fears in tangible forms IV Elements of Human Geography 1 Language human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication 2 Religion establishing symbols of human beliefs and values 3 Ethnicity common heritage 4 Demography aspects of human population 5 Agriculture cultivation of animals plants and other sources of food to sustain life 6 Urbanization the physical growth of an urban area as a result of global change 7 Politics a process by which people of groups make collective decisions V Geographers are interested in the imprints of culture amp associated patterns on the landscape VI Chapter Sections 1 Region A Geographic unit based on characteristics amp lnctions of culture i Formal area inhabited by people who have 1 cultural traits in common Ex Language or religion ii Functional clearly de ned borders Functions politically socially or economically Ex Countries de ne borders iii Vernacular grows out of sense of belonging Ex Dixie doesn t lnction politically economically and mixed with different religionscultures 2 Mobility A How and why does did culture spread or not spread Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of March 28 3 Globalization 4 NatureCulture A Interaction of people amp nature i ecosystem gt functioning environment B Study of the causeeffect interplay between cultures amp physical environment i How cultures interact with their environment 5 Cultural Landscape A Visible material imprint that cultural groups create on earth Thomas Freedman Countries avoiding war country prosperous enough to have McDonalds franchises If two countries have McDonalds they don t go to war because it makes war unattractive to its people Have to spread economic prosperity VII Types of Dif lsion 1 Expansion Ideas spread in snowballing process A Hierarchical i from one important personurban center to another EX Internet access not everyone had access B Contagious i wavelike spread EX Common cold spreads to everyone in the way regardless of what they are or what religion or culture Everyone is exposed to a new culture 2 Relocation A Through migration 3 Stimulus A Something like it seen elsewhere EX People in Siberia had reindeer but didn t use them One person saw that animals were being domesticated and a thought occurred to them to maybe domesticate the reindeer VIII Factors Affecting Diffusion l Time distance decay A takes months to move from east to west by wagon B Everything changes Styles walls i becomes less an impact in cultural dif lsion because of television broadcasting news and communication 2 Absorbing barriers A spread of popular culture lessening absorbing baniers B don t allow spread of culture i In 1998 the fundamentalist Islamic Taliban government of Afghanistan decided to abolish television videocassette recorders and videotapes viewing them as causes of corruption in society As a result the cultural diffusion of television sets was reversed and the Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of March 28 important roles of television as a communication device to facilitate the spread of ideas were eliminated 3 Globalization A Permeable barriers allowing part of the innovation wave to dif lse through but acting to weaken or retard the continued spread B allows some modi cation of cultural traits but allows spread of culture i because of globalization there has been a reduction of time distance decay and absorbing barriers VIX School of Thought 1 Environmental determinism is the belief that the physical environment is the dominant force shaping cultures and that humankind is essentially a passive product of its physical surroundings 2 Possibilism has been the favored view among geographers Possibilists claim that any physical environment offers a number of possible ways for a culture to develop 3 Environmental Perception is the belief that culture depends more on what people perceive the environment to be than on the actual character of the environment A Possibilist sees humankind as having a choice of different possibilities in a given physical setting the environmental perceptionist declares that the choices people make will depend more on what they perceive the environment to be than on the actual character of the land 4 Human as Modi es of the earth A Humans can do whatever they want wherever they want B Clever enough to deal with most physical environment 1 Humans through Ingenuity to defy nature but there was more power to nature 2 Humans believe that they can hold power over nature 3 Nature demonstrates its power because Humans can hold dominion over nature to a certain extent Scale projection direction and labeling X So you ask how is this all human geography 1 Spatial patterns in culture 3 2 Cultural landscape Direction is important 3 Ecological interpretation because its emphasrs 4 Mobilitleultural dif JSion on geography 5 Cultural interaction 6 Maps A Atwodimension geographical representation of the surface on the earth B ways that cartographers manipulate maps projection scale simpli cation aggregation i Types of Maps referencethematic 1 Reference for directions that get you from point Ato B a show landmarks 2 Thematic illustrates cultural phenomena a use symbols to show certain geographic information Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of March 28 i Qualitative quality languagetechnology ii Quantitative numerical data b comparison and relationship among distributions c general statistics i density of English speaking countries ii Spatial distributions of land ii In search of a good map projection Location size shape C Direction Base for Maps i geographic grid coordinate system 1 Equator 0 degrees 2 Latitude Parallel separates northern southern hemispheres 3 Longitudinal Meridians 7 separates western eastern hemispheres D Projections Different map projections result in different spatial relationships between regions i area shape direction conformity l A country in the tropics asks for a cylindrical projection 2 A country in the temperate zone asks for a conical 3 A polar area asks for an azimuthal projection Azimuthal Projection gt Equator 0 degrees Conical Projection Cylindrical Projection E Map scales and distance i representative fraction 1 l24000 ii word scales bar or graphic scale F Map scales i refers to the amount of generalization 1 Large scale a area on map scale covers little area on ground b much detail c example topography of Pomona California Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of March 28 2 Small scale a area on map scale covers a lot of area on ground b little detail c example topography of the world G Map simpli cation i reduction of amount of detail presented in a map H Map aggregation i nal thing cartographers manipulate when creating maps 1 Choropleth color 2 compares percentagesages and results with country states 3 Grouping data in county level state level Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Professor Kristen ConwayGomez Week April 4 Chapter 8 Agricultural Geography Food from good earth 1 Importance of Agriculture The cultivation of domesticated crops and the raising of domesticated animals 1 Food Production a Technology Money Mechanization 2 Topography a soil conditions b knowledge c climate 3 Less percentage of population engaged in agriculture US Canada Western Europe 4 Higher percentage of population engaged in agriculture South Africa Asia 11 Agroregions Agricultural regions are de ned by a distinctive combination of physical environmental conditions A Swidden Shifting Cultivation Tropical Environment 1 Slashandbum burned clearing i they use machetes chainsaws axes to chop away the undergrowth from small patches of land and kill the trees by removing a strip of bark completely around the trunk ii After the vegetation dries out the farmers set re it on re to clear the land iii Farmers then plant a variety of crops in the askcovered clearings 2 Landrotation system i the planting cycle is repeated in the same clearings for perhaps three to ve years until soil fertility begins to decline as nutrients are taken up by crops and not replaced ii the elds are abandoned and new clearings are prepared to replace them 3 Intercropping i the practice of growing two or more different types of crops in the same eld at the same time ii this technique allows taller stronger crops to shelter lower more fragile ones reduces the chance of total crop losses from disease or pests 4 Knowledge i the complexity of many intercropping systems reveals the depths of knowledge acquired 5 Subsistence i Farming to supply to minimum food and materials necessary to survive ii Food production mainly for family and local community rather than for market 6 Sustainable i ecologically sustainable Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Professor Kristen ConwayGomez Week April 4 Ex One condition that may diminish the sustainability of Swidden cultivation occurs when a population experiences a sudden increase in its rate of growth and political or social conditions restrict its mobility 7 Can be destructive i population growth may encourage farmers to shorten the period during which the land is recuperating a departure from past practices that can lead to environmental deterioration B Paddy rice farming cultivation of rice on a paddy or small ooded eld enclosed by mud dikes practiced in the humid areas of the Far East 1 Dominant in Asia i Rice 2 Dominant crop for vegetable civilizations 3 Most farms tiny 4 Diked ooded elds often on slopes 5 High yields i doublecropping yields more food per acre 6 Most produce for urban markets i dams electric pumps and reservoirs now provide a more reliable water supply and highyielding seeds pesticides and synthetic fertilizers boost production C Peasant grain root amp livestock farming 1 In colder drier regions 2 Diverse system i practice system based bread grains root crops and herd livestock 3 Crops wheat barley sorghum millet oats amp maize Dominant grain crops i common cashcrop cotton ax hemp coffee and tobacco 4 Animals cattle pigs sheep llamas amp alpacas i the livestock pull the plow provide milk meat and wool ii they also consume a portion of the grain harvest D Plantation agriculture 1 Introduced commercial system 2 Concentrated American tropics a Seacoasts b Workers livein c Twoclass society i rigid social and economic segregation oflabor and management produces a twoclass society of the wealthy and poor 3 Base for European amp American economic expansion i plantations expanded into Asia Africa and Latin America ii they maximize the production of luxury crops 4 Crops i sugarcanes bananas coffee coconuts spices tea cacao pineapples rubber and tobacco Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Professor Kristen ConwayGomez Week April 4 5 Specialize in l crop 6 Globalization major changes E Market gardening9 truck farming l Developed countries i specialized in cultivating nontropical fruits vegetables and vines ii they raise no livestock 2 Specialized crops i wine table grapes raisins olives oranges apples lettuce potatoes F Livestock fattening 1 Farmers raise and fatten cattle and hogs for slaughter 2 Farmers raise corn and soy beans to feed cattle and hogs 3 Slaughterhouses are located close to feedlots creating a new meatproducing region H Dairying 1 Large dairy belts in northern US 2 Need for winterfeed crops in colder area 3 Types of dairy product closeness to market factor i diary belts near large urban centers usually produce milk which is more perishable while those farther away specialize in butter cheese and processed milk 4 Dairy feedlots i feedlots are factory like farms devoted to either livestock fattening or dairying all feed is imported and no crops are grown on the farm 1 Nomadic herding l Graze cattle sheep goats and camels 2 The cold tundra forms a zone of nomadic herders who raise reindeer 3 Mobility i herders move with their livestock in search of forage for the animals as seasons and range conditions change ii Measures how wealth is measured J Livestock ranching l Specialize in animal husbandry 2 Raise livestock for market on large scale not their own subsistence 3 Worldwide K Urban Agriculture the raising of food including fruit vegetables meat and milk inside cities especially common inthe third world 1 Often creates surplus to sell from tiny plots 2 Surplus often sold in urban markets L Nonagricultural areas 1 Areas of extreme climate i do not support any form of agriculture 2 Hunting amp gathering groups division of labor i gain livelihood by hunting games fishing were possible and gathering edible and medicinal wild plants Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Professor Kristen ConwayGomez Week April 4 III Agricultural diffusion A Origins amp diffusion of plant domestication l Domestication defined 2 Process a Perceive a plant useful b Select seeds 3 Association with female deities i women first worked the land ii Women had daytoday contact with wild plants and their mobility was constrained by childbearing B Locating centers of domestication C Pets or meat Tracing animal domestication 1 Definition 9 domesticated animal is one that depends on people for food and shelter and that differs from wild species in physical appearance and behavior as a result of controlled breeding and frequent contact with humans 2 later than first planting of crops i animal domestication apparently occurred later in prehistory than did the first planting of crops 3 Dogs are very early companions i pig and the dog probably attached themselves voluntarily to humans merely tolerated these animals later adopting them as pets or as sources of meat 4 Herds in Fertile Crescent area i herded cattle pigs horses sheep and goats ii First to integrate domesticated plants and animals D Modern diffusions 1 Role of European exploration amp colonialism i instrumental in redistributing a wide variety of crops on a global scale 2 Diffusion both ways across the Atlantic 3 Discussion of the diffusion of pump irrigation 4 Green revolution both good and bad a Higher yielding b Less diseaseresistant c More costly to raise d Uneven acceptance 5 Problems with adoption of hybrid seeds IV Agroecology A Markets amp cultural ecological change 1 Importance of climate amp physical environment a People adjusted strategies b Importance of soil type c Limit crop types amp cultivation practices 2 Global markets Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Professor Kristen ConwayGomez Week April 4 3 Altered ecology 4 Effects of plantation agriculture 5 Great variety of foods now available 6 Abandonment of local crop varieties in poor countries 7 Example Quechua peasant farmers V Agrocultural interaction A Intensity of land use 1 Human labor 2 Massive amounts investment capital 3 Argued response to population growth 4 Alternative argument response to higher population density B Can the world be fed 1 Food production grown faster than population 2 Poverty amp politics cause hunger 3 Poor countries cannot afford to buy food 4 Poor transportation C Globalization 1 Genetically modified GM crops 2 Some European countries actively protest against 3 European Union against United States over international trade in GM seeds amp foods VI Agricultural landscapes A Fencing and hedging l Heighten visibility of field borders 2 Different cultures have own methods 3 Stone fences 4 Barbed wire 5 Hedges are major aspect ofrural landscape Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of April 18 Chapter 2 Folk amp Popular Culture 1 What is culture 1 A people s way of life A Seeing differences that appear along racial ethnic gender and other lines of distinction Sometimes groups within a dominant culture become distinctive enough that we label them as subcultures 2 Their behavior 3 Shared understanding of themselves A The history of legally enforced spatial segregation of whites and blacks has been important in establishing and maintaining cultural differences between these groups 4 Shared understanding of the world A Cultural difference is evident everywhere B Geographic expression of difference both among and within cultures 5 A guide for how we act amp interpret the world 11 Folk Culture is to a large degree distinguished in relation to popular culture As Europe industrialized and urbanized in the 19111 century folk culture was invented to distinguish traditional ways of life in rural spaces from new urban industrial ones 1 Rural A Folk describes a rural people who live in old fashioned way a people holding onto a lifestyle less in uenced by modern technology 2 Cohesive 3 Traditional A religious concept of demut humility clearly re ects the weakness of individualism and social class so typical of folk cultures and a corresponding strength of Amish group identity is evident 4 Little change 5 Strong familypersonal relations A Order is maintained through sanctions based in religion or the family and interpersonal relationships 6 Selfsufficient 7 Homogenous 8 Less division of labor some gender division EX Amish having farming sects that largely renounces the products and labor saving devices of the industrial age though they do practice commercial agriculture 111 Popular Culture is synonymous with mass culture and is defined as a dominant form of cultural expression It is generated from and concentrated mainly in urban areas Popular material goods are massproduced by machines in factories and a cash economy rather than barter or subsistence dominates l Individualism Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of April 18 A strongly developed B Accepted large part of expression 2 Constant change 3 Mainly urban 4 More but less developed personal relations A relationships among individuals are more numerous but less personal than in folk cultures and the family structures is weaker IV Material vs Nonmaterial 1 Things vs lore 2 Material Culture includes all objects or things made and used by members of a cultural group buildings furniture clothing artwork musical instruments and other physical objects A Things you can physically touch 3 N on Material Culture includes the wide range of beliefs values myths and symbolic meanings that are transmitted across generations of a given society A Things you can t physically touch EX Reciting the Rosary Catholicism Folk Popular Indigenous Material Horses for Media Clothing Animals hide Farming grazing cattle drums NonMaterial Legends or Folk Prayers Legends Spiritual Dances Dances stories religion and Rituals V Regions 1 Folk culture varies widely from place to place 2 Popular culture is similar from one region to another because it changes constantly A In popular culture regions food drinks and music are important i Alcoholic Beverages differ from place to place Beer is more common in the west while wine is more common in California ii Food consumption differs from place to place South grits barbecued pork and beef fried chicken and hamburgers are popular than elsewhere in the United States whereas more pizza and submarine sandwiches are consumed in the North EX Cocacola may represent modernization and progress in one place and foreign domination in another iii Music reveals a split personality of the individuals VI Landscapes 1 Folk culture A Architectural amp other landscape artifacts are often all that remain as records 2 Pop culture A Changes made to re ect what people want to see dominant activities or other elements i elitist Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of April 18 ii Consumption iii leisure amenity iv Shadowed ground 3 Cultural Landscape A Cultural values and the landscape B Symbols C Regional identity I Sphere Outer in uence of that cultural trait I Core Centralized zone of Domain Refers to an area where the concentration culture is dominant but less intense then of a trait the core area VII Placelessness A spatial standardization that diminishes regional variety may result from the spread of popular culture which can diminish or destroy the uniqueness of place through cultural standardization in a national or even worldwide scale 1 The concept that in popular culture there little that is unique about different places because ideas spread so quickly 2 Role of popular culture 3 No regional variation 4 The 40 lifestyle clusters VIII Ecology 1 Folk culture A Close relationship with the physical environment i Medicine is often closely linked to the environment 1 Folk societies commonly treat diseases and disorders with drugs and medicines derived from the roots bark blossom or fruit of plants ii Folk culture s close ties to the land and local environment enhances the environmental perception 1 People who are close to nature tend to remain sensitive to very subtle environmental qualities B Mostly have sustainable adaptive strategies 2 Popular culture A Mechanistic view that s less directly tied to physical environment i Nature does not have an enormous impact in the environment ii They have no direct experience with farming mining or logging activities though they could live without commodities produced from those activities iii No intimacy between the people and the land Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of April 18 iv Our vulnerability to environmental factors is gone although security is more apparent than real B Heavy demands on ecosystems i Mass consumption 1 Machines like snowmobiles offroad vehicles and jet skies that are powered by internal combustion engines and have numerous adverse ecological impacts ranging from air pollution to soil erosion C Greater potential for producing ecological disasters i it has enormous environmental impacts 1 Production of air pollution 2 Water pollution 3 Massive amounts of solid waste D Distorted environmental perceptions i Culture fosters limited contact with and knowledge of the physical world ii Our environmental perceptions become distorted VIV Interaction 1 Folk culture A View of nature reduces environmentally destructive practices i folk music gives expression to a unique lifestyle and particular land while dealing with such universal themes as love and hate happiness and sorrow and comedy and tragedy 2 Pop culture A Cultures are converging convergence hypothesis amp becoming more alike B Individuality is strong X Indigenous Culture 1 Native or of Native Origin 2 People present in a state at the time of conquest or colonization A Indigenous have experience conquest or colonization 3 Minorities in their homelands 4 Some similarities with folk cultures but different histories XI Mobility 1 Different rates in folk and popular culture 2 More hierarchical in popular culture A Power B High income C Access to more capital D Urban to Rural 3 Advertising A Promoting products B Consumer goods C Drive of Consumer good 9 drive consumption Adelina Lang Human Geography 102 Kristen ConwayGomez Week of April 18 i correlation between culturediffusion 4 Communication A Mobility has an impact on rate at which culture changes B Globalization and the convergence hypothesis


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