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Introduction to American Government

by: Moshe Romaguera

Introduction to American Government PLS 201

Moshe Romaguera
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.85

William Mark

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William Mark
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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Moshe Romaguera on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PLS 201 at California State Polytechnic University taught by William Mark in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/218275/pls-201-california-state-polytechnic-university in Political Science at California State Polytechnic University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
Public Opinion Political Opinions Political Socialization How we come to have the beliefs that we do Agents of Political Socialization Family Most significant agent of our overall socialization The biggest impact on politics comes from the family table First Party Identification Party ID Usually that of your parents Party ID rubs off on their children Conservative Family tends to be ideologically conservative School K 9th High School CollegeUniv History of USWorld Civics Presidents We are socialized political during our time in education system K 9th tend to be Conservative High School N has more flexibility with the classes you can take But your peers start to rub off on you and disobedience grows Become more Liberal CollegeUniv people start to ask you what your Major is Focus on Liberal because you have the freedom to take the classes you wish to take Work strictly conservative and restrictive on flexibility quotReport on time or get dockedquot quotFollow corporate policyquot Make sure the company survives Labor Unions RaceEthnicityClass Today a lot of concern for the Latino voters Grouping of CentralSouth American voters under the title of Latino39s Asian voters are very conservative Doesnt matter which part of Asia they come from Asian Americans are grouped as a force to be recon with Gender MaleFemale Gender gap 1980 quotSoccer momquot Mothers involved in everything Political Generations These are the times that we grow up in One good example of the political movement is shown by the Great Depression left hoarding on the generation whom where affected by it Vietnam public opinion on the war from all the media on the war September 11th 911 Measuring Public Opinion Public Opinion Polls Self Selected Opinion Polls SLOP State of nature is a term in political philosophy used in social contract theories to describe the hypothetical condition of humanity before the state39s foundation John Locke Two Treatises of Government Optimistic view of man man has the potential to create peace through cooperation Promoted Barter exchange trade Social Development 0 Rights and Rules 0 Some sort of small government to enforce laws particularly a government ruled by the people Democracy 0 Cooperation Natural Rights inalienable rights selfevident and universal quotThe state of Nature has a law of Nature to govern itquot and that law is Reason Locke believes that reason teaches that quotno one ought to harm another in his life health liberty or possessionsquot and that transgressions ofthis may be punished This view of the state of nature is partly deduced from Christian belief Thomas Hobbes Leviathan Pessimistic view of man man is driven by greed a consequence that leads to war Man is short nasty and brutish and driven by self interest Strong government is needed to enforce strict rules Any strong government that can promote peace and protection to the people we should lay down our right to all things and allow them to reign over us Promoted Monarchy Oligarchy Dictatorship Totalitarian government during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe they are in that condition which is called war and such a war as is of every man against every manquot quotthat every man ought to endeavour peace as far as he has hope of obtaining itquot and the second is quotthat a man be willing when others are so too as far forth as for peace and defense of himself he shall think it necessary to lay down this right to all things and be contented with so much liberty against other men as he would allow other men against himselfquot Government a Government the political and administrative organization of a state nation or locality i Why do we have govt a Maintaining orderly society b Organizing society c Tax us so we can have an educational system ii 17th century mid to late 1600 s 1 Empires were in decline Roman Ottoman a The question became what would the world be like without these huge empires b Theorists began to look at the question i State of Nature Theorists of the 17th century 1 Theoreticalhypothetical time when there was no govt 2 The idea was to go back to square one begin where there is no govt What is the true nature of man The start is a guy living in the woods and doesn t need govt because he can do whatever he wants a He finds an orange tree and he wants to take some oranges but another guy comes out another man jumps out and says those are his oranges 5 Both men believe we must have some form of govt a What type of govt is where they differ i What type of orwhat kind of govt ii Locke Democracy9 govt by the people gt John Locke European a Life liberty and property b Optimistic view of the true nature of man i Says man is willing to cooperate in the orange example ii The guy with the deer meat says to the guy with oranges trade we ll trade social contract c These two men won t need govt maybe but on a larger scale a govt is needed Needs boundaries and agreement to cooperate and follow rules to maintain order but not a lot because everyone is willing to cooperate d Social contract cooperation e Social Contract Theorists believe that govt works when people make social contracts with one another f Belives govt should be some type of democracy 9 Democracy Demos the people Kratos the Authority The people have the authority iv Believed in Direct Democracy and Representative Democracy v Direct Democracy 1 New England Town Meeting a These still take place currently Fit small towns better than large cities Vermont maine new Hampshire People are discussing topics and when they talk about a dog go loose people know who s dog it is 900 e When The Town grows adnd They don T know whose dog39s if is They discuss maybe The nexT Thing To do is wriTe a dog leash law f Some oTher people Talk and decide They wanT To make parking meTers An announcemenT comes ouT lawmaking nighT local Discuss and voTe proposed laws i AfTer They have discussed and passed laws everyone goes home and lives by These laws vi RepresenTaTive Democracy People aren T going To rule direchy Themselves They are going To elecT people To represenT Them and Then govern Them vii Today39s Democracy 1 Lawmakers are above us wiTh benefiTs 2 Congress man have full healThcare and Their gas is paid for a Gold plaTed healThcare sTaTus 3 We do have a form of direcT democracy in California called lnTiaTivesProposifions Proposed law is puT on The balloT by an individual or group 1 Hundreds or Thousands of signaTures To be puT on The balloT 2 Everyone voTes everyone in California b Prop 13 Howard Jarvis Businessman felT ThaT if was Too easy To raise our Taxes AbouT 25 years ago To raise our Taxes iT Took a simple majoriTy 50 1 of The lawmakers iv T passed and changed from simple majoriTy To an exTraordinary majoriTy 23 or 6623 v There are more regisTered democraTs Than republicans 23 To 13 T DemocraTic sTaTe Therefore prop 13 made if possible for The 13 Repub To be able To block The 23 DemocraTic of The lawmakers 2 Republicans Think ThaT if you pay for your educaTion Then you39ll value if more you won39T wanT To fail if privaTe educaTion is beTTer vi DemocraTs have been able To whiddle cerTain Tax voTes To 60 4 Referendums proposed laws are puT on The balloT by legislaTors a nsTead of puTTing iT up and voTing Themselves They leT The people voTe Recall Co are allowed To elecT and remove councilslawmakers Clearly our forefaThers Took from boTh Hobbes and Locke deciding To go noT Too far ToTaliTarian and noT Too far inTo democracy 3quot 901 III Thomas Hobbes European a PessimisTic view b Read locke39s views i He believed locke s Too opTimisTic c He believed humans are shorT nasTy and bruTish d The guy wiTh The deer meaT Tries To Trade buT The orange guy is vegeTarian so he Tells The deer guy To geT ouT The guy wiTh deer meaT plans To killTakesTeal The oranges from The guy e Man againsT man war They are always going To be looking ouT for Their self inTeresT quot llii quot 9 Social ConTracT Theorisls believe Thal govT works when people make social conTra cls wiTh one anoTher h Favors ToTaliTarian forms of govT i DicTaTorships ToTal conTrol by one i If The dicTaTors are Too cruel Then you should remove Them 2 If They are noT TreaTing The people correchy Throw Them ouT and replace wiTh someone else ThaT will be kind To The people BenevolenT dicTaTors ii Monarchy kingsqueens i If The dicTaTors are Too cruel Then you should remove Them 2 If They are noT TreaTing The people correchy Throw Them ouT and replace wiTh someone else ThaT will be kind To The people BenevolenT dicTaTors i Oligarchy China Ruled by a few 1 One group conTrols govT and ThaT group is elecTed from The members of The communisT parTy 2 Only 10 of The people in china voTe IV Edmund Burke 18Th CenTury i RepresenTaTive Democracy 1 DelagaTes and TrusTees a Two Types of rep democracy b DelegaTes i Each class in The universiTy sends someone To a meeTing and To decide whaT we wanT To eaT ii The person may pass around a lisT and see whaT people like To eaT 1 Poll iii A couple of weeks laTer we see exachy whaT we liked To eaT ouT and didn T see anyThing we didn T like c TrusTee i UniversiTy wanTs a represenTaTive from each class To Talk abouT compuTers 1 IT goT a big chunk of money To buy compuTers for The sTudenTs To use 2 So The person goes around and geTs a general idea of whaT people like buT he knows compuTers and undersTands pricing so he Tells people They have To TrusT him To make The righT decision When he makes a decision one way or The oTher a Some people are dissaTisfied b And some people are saTisfied d Today39s Democracy i Congress members can geT inpuT from The people via emails or phone calls delegaTes and Then someTimes like decisions on buying 22 billion weapons TrusTees And if Their decision upseTs enough people we don T revoTe Them inTo posiTion DespiTe This public discourse 18 of The populaTion approves of congress 80 of The congressmen who Try To geT reelecTed will geT reelecTed 9 PoliTics i PoliTics Who geTs whaT when and how 7 v 1 Who geTs The power how do They geT IT And when do They geT iT b ParTisan PoliTics i DemocraTs vs republicans 1 How do They sTop each oTher from geTTing Things Through 2 How do They geT Their own bills Through c Power i Power the dbility to get someone to do something ii Who hds the power in our countw 1 President Congress 2 Elite theory 3 Pluralist Theory 4 Majoritarian Theory iii Elite Theory 1 Tridngle theow CI Where the elite dre dt the top dnd the mdsses dre dt the bottom 2 3 Elites dre estdblishing whdt Americd ought to be doing d Mdy not necessc1riy be 0 pdrt of govt i CEO s chdirmdn s of the bOdrds of the mdjor corpordtions of Americd l Belong to the Sdme countw clubs pldy golf together lunch togetheretc therefore they tdlk dbout whdt would be good for Americd b Believed to be the ones thdt dre twing to better themselvesAmericd dnd their influence mdke it hdppen c They hdve the power to control the elected officidls i Cdmpdign contributions ii Governor Rick Peml hdd d fundrdising event dnd the WOW to dttend st to pdy 10000 to his cdmpdign l The people contribute money dnd the cdndiddtes owe something to them dnd thdt is howthe influence ided works 4 lded thdt Elites involve the people by credting politich pdrties where they cdn vote dnd pretend they hdve d deetc 5 A little cynicdl d Pluralist Theory el ecl rep gov competition Share Holders I H Competition between the different groups i Poli sci tend to support pluralist theory iv These competiting groups work against each other in a checks and balance system v Everyone fights to get their benefits e Majoritarian Theory i No one believes that this exists in America ii Individuals who want power in America l Vote for your elected officials 2 Join a labor union 3 Buy stock in a big company iii In reality no one person can have the most power in America it requires you being in a powerful group II Definitions for Govt system a Majority Rules i Simple majority 7 50 of those who are voting l a is most common in elections in America 2 Governors 3 Members of congress ii Extraordinary majority 23 or 35 majorities l Note the power of the Minority a 13 can block the 23 when you are requiring a 23 majority iii Absolute Majority 7 all the members must vote b Voting for the President i The Electoral College actually elects the president 538 members l To win the presidency a 50 l of the total 538 or 270 votes 2 538 members consists of a 435 members in the House of representatives i They aren t in the electoral college b TOO senators c 3 representatives from the United States territories 3 Popular Vote a All citizens can vote for who they want to be president b California Candidate A gets 2 million votes Candidate B gets 2 million l vote Candidate B gets ALL of California s electoral college votes Claifornia has 55 members that are voting in the electoral college 2 55 39 v Winner Take all syslem where whaTever The popular voTe is ThaT candidaTe geTs all The voTes from The eecTora college 1 4 Times in our hisTory during an eecTion a candidaTe goT more popular voTes buT sTi osT The eecTion due To The amounT of voTes in The eecTora college a Al Gore and Bush eecTion i Al Gore goT more popular voTes Than Bush buT Bush goT more eecTora college voTes c Why do we have EIecToraI college i Why can T we jusT have a huge popular eecTion across The counTry ii EIecTed officials in The sTaTe wanT iT kepT This way 1 The candidaTes who win don T forgeT which sTaTes helped Them geT eecTed iii During The George Bush and Al Gore eecTion 1 Al Gore won California and George Bush won Texas 2 A huge conTracT comes along a muTi million dollar conTracT for The UniversiTies a And The Two compeTing schools were one from CA and one from Tx i The Texas universiTy won ThaT conTracT because Bush didn T forgeT c Tyranny by The majoriTy The MajoriTy always geTs iT way i If The majoriTy is always geTTing iTs way Then The minoriTy will say I ve had if I wanT some 1 During The 196039s a African Americans were The minoriTy and if sTirred The Civil RighTs MovemenT b RioTs happened ii To Try To prevenT This from happening amelioraTe This siTuaTion T MinoriTy Righls MinoriTy have To be given righTs a Freedom ofSpeech i Can T Tell The minoriTy To shuT up b Try To geT someone eecTed ThaT speaks for Them i Happens every eecTion c Can run for office yourself i Try To change Things yourself d Nalural law a higher Iaw higher Than The man made law don T confuse wiTh sTaTe of naTure i STaTe of naTure The period where TheorisTs were musing abouT whaT The world will be wiThouT govT ii Laws emanaTe from a religious higher beingnaTure 1 Man made laws exisT in GovT a Some of Those laws are based on The laws of God Allah NaTure buT are sTi man made ThaT we musT abide by iii Law of AborTion Roe vs Wade 1 Supreme courT ruled ThaT women could have aborTions in America 2 Some people in The socieTy ThaT say no ThaT my religious beliefs say ThaT aborTions are wrongsinful so I don T care whaT The manmade law says I m going To blow up an aborTion clinic a Being guided by some higher auThoriTy b These people can T do ThaT f iv In America we have To sTop aT The Manmade laws and parTicularly The judges in The courT To abide by The consTiTuTion 0 Q LasT year a soldier was killed in AfghanisTan when his body was broughT back his faTherwanTed To hold a funeral a Honoring his son flags and everyThing b Across The sTreeT where The funeral was being held were demonsTraTors a group from a parTicular BapTisT church i soldiers lltill soldiers are evil Gays are evil The faTherwas ouTraged wanTed To have a dignified ceremony for my son who was in The miliTary and was killed and we have To puT up wiTh This He Toollt The group To courTs and if made if all The way To The UniTed STaTes Supreme CourT i The courT favored The demonsTraTors i Morally This may be wrong buT The law sTill says ThaT These people have The freedom of speech ii If The courT creaTed excepTions To The freedom of speech iT will creaTe more excepTions and iT39ll snowball and Then There will be a huge hole in our sysTem In order To change The consTiTuTion To reflecT This cerTain viewpoinT Then you change The consTiTuTion i Amending The consTiTuTion is noT easy e laissezfaire leave Them alone i Two applicaTions iii Foreign Policy While The naTion was sTarTing up The belief was To sTay ouT of The issues of oTher counTries a We have enough problems aT home we don T need To be involved in The Le giTim a cy 1 Economic Policy 2 Foreign Policy ii Economic Policy 1 Adam SmiTh wroTe a book called The Wealfh of Nafions in 1776 a EconomisT said There is no need for The govT To geT involved in The economy The economy will regulaTe iTself invisible hand ThaT guides The economy i There will always be supply and demand i If you have scarciTy people will pay more if you have surplus The prices will come down 2 UniTed STaTes were able To follow Adam SmiTh39s ideas for The firsT 100 years a Today Adam SmiTh would probably be Turning over in his grave aT The amounT of govT s involvemenT in The economy 3 People sTill say geT The govT off The backs of business eTc eTc l 0 a Laissez faire people are sTill ouT There sTill Trying To geT The govT ouT of The economy resT of The world s issues Too Were able To follow These laissez faire policies for The firsT 100 years of our naTion s Similarly There are sTill people who wanT To follow These laissezfaire policy To geT ouT of Iraq geT ouT of foreign naTion39s issues i LegiTimaTe business 1 They have sTores you can go To wiTh reTurn policies posTed 0 They have fair prices 2 We like dealing wiTh legiTimaTe businesses 0 Ifwe don39T lillte whaT we boughT we can reTurn iTeTc ii LegiTimaTe GovernmenT 1 SocraTes is from AncienT Greece 0 Oquot 0 Q 9 i j 2 Young a b In AThens aT ThaT Time There were The AThenian SenaTors Gole i DemocraTic SocraTes was in his early To mid 60 s and he ThoughT of himself as a Teacher i He was consTanle surrounded by young people who wanTed To learn from him ii SocraTes used To ask Them quesTions Ex WhaT makes a good ciTizen 1 Abides by The laws Pays Their Taxes respecT Their neighbors ii Ex WhaT makes a good govT 1 TreaTs people fairly has good laws eTc iii Ex WhaT makes a good senaTor These senaTors would walk by and hear Them Talllt abouT how SocraTes is quesTioning whaT The govT does i Sounded lillte SocraTes was commiTTing Treason 1 PunishmenT is deaTh SocraTes defends himself prosecuTion defends Their case There39s ajury of 500 ciTizens i SocraTes is found guilTy and senTenced To deaTh SocraTes is Tallten up To The Tower ThaT overloollts The harbor and given hemloT i A merchanT ship is coming onTo shore and ThaT is The signal To drink The poison His good friend a rich merchanT wanTs To help him escape from prison and live The resT of his life SocraTes Tells his friend ThaT he can39T leave he says I believe and supporT The law and counTry of AThens i Now The law has come down on me if I leave now whaTwill ThaT mean If will mean ThaT I have lived my life a lie SocraTes drinks The poison and dies UlTimaTe legiTimizing acT To die for your counTry people dying for our counTry FighTing Today in AfghanisTan Iraq WWII These people are giving The counTry The legiTimacy The counTry asked of Them During The VN War 1 Some young men who didn39TwanT To geT drafTed and fighT in VN O b c They had a leave and wenT To Canada i Gave up Their UniTed STaTes CiTizenship I am noT giving The GovT The legiTimacy They are asking Big difference beTween Them and SocraTes i These guys were 1819gt years old 1 These guys haven39T lived Their lives ii Socrdtes st in his 60 s 1 He hdd lived his life dnd given the Govt the legitimacy iv We dre known to hdve one of the most if not the most legitimate governments in the world i Evew yedr you hedr dbout people who dre willing to die to come to Americd d Some guy crdwls into the wheel well in Africd to tw to come to Americd i He freezes to dedth lll Ideologies Wdy of thinking i Wdy of thinking dbout government Lehrwing ngwtrwing lCommunism Socialism Liberalism Conservatlvlsm Anarchism I l b i ls how it is refered to left dnd right winged c In redlity it should look like i d Types of Ideologies i Andrchism lV Andrchism d The stdte must be destroyed b It does not do good for people c Violence begets violence i Govt hds been inflicting violence on the people therefore they deserve to hdve violence inflicted on them d Mikail Bdkunin dssocidted with Andrchism i Bdkunin dnd his followers were dndrchists living in Russid dt the time of the CZdrs i CZdrs were pdrticuldrly cruel d Setting villdges on re b Killingimprisoned people 2 Bdkunin deted to overthrow the CZdrs d He nod to Wdit for the opportune time ii Russidn Revolution Bolshivic Revolution i Communist inspired ii Red Russidns iii deted to put communism in the pldce of CZdrs b Menshevics i Cdpitdlists ii They det the CZdr removed dnd deted to put Cdpitdlism into its pldce iii Common ided during thdt time Andrchists dre given the job to kill dll the CZdrs dnd dll of their fdmily N V Communism They goT rid of The Czars and ThoughT everyThing would be happy a BuT The Bolshivics come inTo power b The Menshevics hear abouT whaT communism is going To be involved i All The wealTh needs To be redisTribuTed ii So They leave Russia and go To America 1 Red Scare in America a We believed ThaT These Russians were communisTs and They were persecuTed in America 0 a Karl Marx lt S g viii Was observing ndusTria RevoluTion in ManchesTer England 1 The IR was a huge change where machines began replacing people 2 People were moving from The farms info The ciTies a They were beginning To work in The facTories 3 People moved away from The farms due To an invenTion a The plow was invenTed and if replaced The mom and pop farms so Those people moved To The ciTies Machines worked on waTenNheels and could Turn 247 9 Coals 9Diesel 1 These equipmenT were designed To be simple a A bunch of liTTle Tasks like pulling a lever or sTacking a carT i ProducTion line Marx was observing people being used up i No workers compensaTion or unions a If you couldn T work anymore TheyjusT kicked you ouT 2 Workers were being exploiTed a Paid TO cenTs an hour child labor Marx said people will evenTually be Tired of being exploiTed and They are going To wanT To Take over He believed ThaT gradually The people will begin To Take over 1 NOT a revoluTion He envisioned a perfecT socieTy i No formal govT 2 People Truly governed by The people There are no communisT counTries Today 1 They all have a formal govT 2 They all goT sTuck aT socialism SovieT Union 1 80 year experimenT ThaT failed 2 Had no unemploymenT for a while 3 There were no ncenTives To work hard a Ifyou were going To have a job To work hard and Then geT a bonus ThaTs an incenTive b However in SU There was no incenTive you were going To geT paid regardless of how hardnoT hard you worked i There were peer pressure from each oTher if you worked Too hardquickly your friend would Tell you To slow down if you didn39T work fasT enough people would pressure you info working asTer 4 Had shorTages due To lack of incenTive a There were lines in for ToileT paper b There were huge lines for food i Farmers grew jusT enough To saTisfy The leaders 5 The shorTages made people sTarving a And blamed if on The UniTed STaTes because if we didn T have To expend energy To race wiTh The US To make weapons and feed our miliTary we would have enough for everyone 6 CommunicaTion becomes The downfall of The SovieT Union a Group produced a movie abouT a disasTer The group wanTed To geT people39s reacTion To This impending disasTer IT was shown To Russians To see Their reacTion jusT as a sTudy IT was allowed and Russians for The firsT Time saw ThaT Americans had carTs and wenT Through a supermarkeT and boughT Things b This began The downfall of The SovieT Union 7 The leaders handled The disTribuTion a BureaucraTs people in charge of The disTribuTion i DisTribuTed milk gasoline everyThing ii FirsT we have To Take care of our fellow BureaucraTs 1 They Take some of The milk firsT and Then disTribuTe The resT have The besT housing for ourselveseTc ix He believed Socialism is The sTage leading To Communism 1 Then governmenT was supposed To equiTably disTribuTe everyThing 2 Gasoline would be equiTably disTribuTed 3 Everyone would have an educaTion food medical care housing job 4 No unemploymenT x He believed ThaT evenTually The leaders would back ouT of The picTure and live The life wiTh everyone V Socialism a GovernmenT ownership i GovernmenT owns everyThing l Happened in China SovieT Union Cuba b GovernmenT was going To equiTably ConservaTism a Classic Early ConservaTive i Emphasis is on The preservaTion of The whole 1 The Kingdom orThe Roman Empire orThe CaTholic Church a Above all The empire kingdom or insTiTuTion musT survive b Individuals are sacrificed people foughT in The name of preserving These insTiTuTions ii The socieTy musT survive even aT The expense of The individual iii Experience is The besT Teacher 1 The king and The kings helpers are Those wiTh The mosT experience 2 They are The ones ThaT will hold onTo TradiTions iv Edmund Burke ElecT good people and Then leT Them govern l TrusTees amp DelegaTes a Burke comes down on The side of The TrusTees 2 He says you shouldn39T expecT The common person To know whaTs good for Them a The leaders know based on Their experience 3 However if The leaders are being Too cruel revolT and replace Them v Social Darwinism The people who work hard should reap The benefiTs i anvinism survival of The fiTTesT species 2 The people who work hard They should be The ones Tth prosper 0 So if you re 0 hard worker Then you deserve The prosperiTy 3 Help yourself don39T rely on The governmenT To help you vi Pringe Educhion 1 You won T dpprecidTe your educhion unless you re paying for if vii We need 0 sTrong milderydefense 1 Even The church had soldiers To fighT for Them viii STrong governmenT b Neoconserngism ConTempordry Conserngism i RedcTed To The direcTion The liberdls wenT To ii They began Trying To geT people ouT of people39s lives iii PopulisT MovemenT i We need To geT The governmenT bdcllt info The hands of The people 2 Can be applied whenever The GovT is Too inTrusive hedvy hdnded 3 Spring up from Time To Time ThroughouT hisTory iv Calling for d loT less governmenT and Taxes Conserngives and liberals swiTched pldces v STill hold onTo TrddiTions 1 Ideas on gun conTrol dborTion Liberdlism d CldssicEdrly i RedcTion To cldssic conserngism ii Emphasis is on The individual 1 People Tth wonder wth does iT deTer if The empire is doing gredT if I don T feel gredT d RdTiondliTy iii Tth governmenT Tth governs ledsT governs besT iv Believed in Trying new ideas don T be wed To TrddiTion i nvenTions Discoveries v ATTempT vi EqugliTy i In order dchieve This we musT de people 2 Equdeble disTribuTion of income in order To achieve The equgliTy of resulTs 3 To Try To achieve This liberdls begdn moving lefngrd Towgrds socialism and communism d The idea of Taking dey from The whole To Try To achieve equgliTy vii In order To fund This idea of EqugliTy They needed 0 sTrong cenTrdl governmenT ConTempordry Liberdlism b ConTempordry Liberdlism 1 Public Educhion along 0 Has Three layers of govT i DisTricT sTdTe federdl educhion levels 2 Social welfdre mdllte sure no one sTdrves 3 Everyone should have 0 place To live public subsidized housing ii Progressivism 1 Franklin D RoosevelT 2 Woodrow Wilson 3 When people are all ouT ofjobs or need help you con39TjusT ledve Them helpless d UnemploymenTinsurdnce b ReTirees need someThing To fall back on Social SecuriTy c Workman s compensalion 4 Lyndon B Johnson 5 John F Kennedy a Champions of how govl has lo help people iii Neo Liberals l Came aboul as a resull of loo much bashing of capilalism a We need lo work wilh lhe capilalislic syslem iv Liberlarians l Revival of Classic Liberalism a Taxes i Lessen laxes b Laissez Faire Foreign Policy i Gel lhe governmenl oul of olher counlries 2 Came aboul 20 years ago 3 Lels gel govl oul of our lives and we need lo pay a lol less laxes v Tea parly Aclivisls look over all lhose ideas 1 Lower our faxes is lhe slrongesl way 2 Ron Paul a Gel lhe Govl oul of all lhese counlries where we re al war Breakdown of America Ideology Parly Malrix a Liberal democrals is lhe highesl b More middle of lhe roal democrals lhan liberal democral c Conservalive democrals Lincoln was republican 1 Republicans were anli slavery The civil war crealed a huge anlirepublican senlimenl due lo lhe emancipalion of slaves Bul in realily lheir ideologies are conservalive bul since lhey refuse lo idenlify lhemselves as republican lhey are considered democralic conservalive iv Aboul 40 of Congress are democralic conservalive 1 They are more likely lo vole wilh lhe republicans because lhey have conservalive ideologies v Blue Dog Democrals conservalive democrals d Higheslindependenls are middle of lhe road e Highesl percenlage of lhe malrix are conservalive republican f Only2 are republican liberals i Jewish usually 1 Business bul social polices 2 Bul lend lo side wilh lhe democrals V Framing lhe Conslilulion a Colonies commonweallhs Each of lhem were separalely governed Each of lhem had lheir own conslilulions The oldesl conslilulion in America is lhe Commonweallh of Pennsylvania iv These conslilulions were called commonweallhs 1 Each commonweallh had a governor appoinled by lhe King in England v Each colony had a biCameral legislalure or lwo house legislalure law making body composed of l A lower House House of Commons elecled by lhe people 2 An Upper House House of Lords appointed by the King of England vi Lawmaking in these colonies were dominated by the Upper housethe King l The two houses would vote but everything the king wanted would occur vii Unitary System laeG People 1 2 Whatever th eking wants the king gets 3 People have little say only through the house of commons and that wasn t very much initially vi As the colonies begin to grow and become more populated the people begin to say where is our representation l We are being taxed but no representation 2 taxation without representation 3 People become angry ix Thomas Jefferson writes the Declaration of Independence on July 4th l776 l They form a government the Articles of Confederation Vl Articles of Confederation a b Each commonwealth had different forms of money i Couldn t take people to court because there was no court and universal law Each commonwealth had its own laws as well iii George Washington was put in charge of the Army they have representation in the central Govt But the central Govt is only going to do what the people want the govt to do There was no universal anything Washington had militia from different states and different commonwealths making it extremely difficult to run the army e States under the AoC had the power i During the civil war the States also had power Confederacy 1 Wanted to maintain states rights 2 Confederacy wasn t able to order people to make anyone do anything because they were for States rights and states doing whatever they want f Daniel Shays Rebellion Fought in the war Owned his ranchfarm And while the warwas being fought they would say to the banks hey we re fighting this war we don t have time to farm or bring in the crops so you have to hold off on collecting your money 1 Right after the wars the Banks tried to get the money but they didn39t have time to bring in the crops yet and make money iv Daniel Shays brings a group of farmers and businessmen to block the entrancehouse of the court v Shays rebellion made the rest of the world dubious of this new govt who didn t seem able to control its people v Met in Philadelphia VII Meeting in Phila 1787 a Wanted to strengthen the AoC b Need a stronger govt in place c As a result of the confusion and contentiousness amont the states a meeting was called for May 1787 in Philadelphia with the main idea of revising the Articles of Confederation 510 i Virginia Plan d Every state sends delegates to Philadelphia except a few Rhode Island etc e Virginia Plan i Edmund Randolph Friend and colleague of Jefferson 1 He and Jefferson work out this new plan for a new form of govt a Jefferson isn39t there because he s in France working on Foreign Relations so Randolph is supposed to present the plan 2 Calls for a new form of govt a Involved separation of power i Executive Banch l Executes the laws 2 Article 2 ii Legislative Branch 1 Makes the laws 2 Article 1 iii Judicial Branch 1 Determines if the laws are fair and just 2 Article 3 States LegTsT T me I BTCameral representatives eTectoraT CoHege president TT T The ohTy ThThg Tth s chdhged Ts Tth The beobTe how VoTe for The sethe ds weTT before They dT h T Two TdcTTohs Th The youhg COUT TTT y T FederdTTsTs T deored The hew pTdh TT AT TTTiFedeTOTTSTS T Op The hew Tdh g ArTTcTes begTh dbbedrThg ThroughoUT The coUhTry Th VdrToUs sTdTes ATTT T obThTohs oh The hew deh T ArTTcTes from The TederdTTsTs TdTKThg ObOUT wths good ObOUT The pTOT TCOT TSTTTUTTOT T TT ArTTcTes from AT TTTifederOTTSTS TdTKThg ObOUTWT TOT They doh T TTTlte ObOUT The pTOT TCOT TSTTTUTTOT T TTT FederdTTsT sTde drgues ThTs Ts wth we heed d sTrohg govT h RdTTTTchToh cohvehTTohs The COT TSTTTUTTOT T Ts pUT OUT ThTo The sTdTes To be VoTed oh T RepresethTTyes yoTed oh The COT TSTTTUTTOT T hoT The beobTe TT MOSSOCT TUSGTTS 7T87 Y T 68 N TTT New HombshTre 57 Y46 N TV VTrgTth 89 Y79 N V Rhode TsTdhd 34 Y 32 N T The COT TVTT TCTT Tg TocTorwos The bill of lights TTrsT TO dmehdmehTs 0 deed The cohsTTTUTToh s body of drTTcTes TT dTT drdTTed how bowerTUT The thToth govT WTTT be BTTT of RTghTs These bTTT oT rTghTs were credTed To broTecT The TT TdTVTdUOT Ohe yedr dTTer The COT TSTTTUTTOT T wos rdTTTTed The BTTT oT rTghTs wos credTed dhd ddded T TT VTTTCOT TSTTTUTTOT T d SebdrdTToh of Power T Power onTd be dTVTded by The Three TUT TCTTOT TS TT Powers a Delegatedexpressenumerated in the constitution specific powers stated in the constitution Commander in Chief of the Military a President is the commander in chief of the military i Has the power to send troops anywhere in the world that the president wants them to go ii However congress controls the money that may or may not fund the president39s ventures i If the action takes more money than is in the defense department s budget the president has to go to Congress to ask for more money and Congress has the power to say no N 3 Congress a Declaration of War i President must ask congress to declare war ii Presidents have found loopholes in this they don t refer to it as war its referred to conflict b Checks and balances c McCulloch v Maryland Congress created the isT and 2hd National Banks 1 National Banks lend money to State banks 2 State banllts lent money to customers small businesses individuals a Up to the individual state banks to make good loans b Some of the state banllts made bad loans and couln39t pay the national bank bacllt c The NB foreclosed on some of the banks in Maryland Maryland was one of the states that said you see here we go this is why we don39t like the idea of a strong govt look at what its done its closed some of our banks 1 State of Maryland discouraged people from doing business with the National Bank 2 State of Maryland imposed a tax on all transactions involving the National Bank William McCulloch works in one of the banks in Maryland 1 Believes theres something wrong about taxing the national bank a He refuses to collect the tax b He is sued Chief Justice John Marshall writes the opinion for the majority of the justices i Majority was voting in favor of McCulloch 2 Said not everything is going to be spelled out in the constitution some things have to be implied a A national bank is impliedwhy Because you have tax money coming into the govt you39ve got the govt writing checks and paying bills out of that tax money that39s what a bank does the national govt has the right to create a national bank 3 Creates this idea of implied powers and National Supremacy v National Supremacy That the national govt is supreme over the states 1 Once all the people ratified the constitution the people are giving the national govt the right to reign supreme over the states 2 In taxing the national govt Maryland is attempting to tax the rest of the country d Con National Govt JVN temporaw times i Implied Powers 1 Military Draft a The constitution does not say militaw draft i It says Congress has the power to raise and support an army b This implies that they can draft 2 Universal Healthcare a One of the issues are going to be that the constitution does not allow for universal healthcare b Rebuttal National govt has a right to protect its citizens i National Supremacy 1 Arizona attempted to create laws to tw to stop illegal immigrants from entering the state a The Federal govt said they can t do that because it is the federal govt s responsibility to create those overall laws 2 Civil War a Some states in the south that say I don t wan tto be a part of this national govt anymore b Sucession from the union c Abraham Lincoln said you can t sucede from the union we can t allow one state to reck the union e Marbury vs Madison 2 lt John Adams President a federalist for the constitution 1 Thomas Jefferson VP A Democratic Republican grew out of antifederalists President can appoint federal judges supreme court 1 Federaljudges serve for life 2 Adams appoints 6 people Gives them to Secretary of State to deliver their appointments but they didn t have fax machines and etc so its super slow process 1 Before the appointment is delivered a presidential election occurs Jefferson becomes President 1 His secretary of state is James Madison a He finds the supreme court appointment letters and through jefferson s command he doesn t send the appointments i Jefferson wants to appoint people from his own party William Marbuw hears that he was supposed to get one of these appointments so he takes Madison to court i Demanding that Madison deliver his appointment a Writ of Mandamus a court order demanding that a govt official do something heshe is supposed to do 2 All lower courts could issue the writ of Mandamus a All the lower courts are created by congress and congress gave the lower courts the power to do this b Lowercourts all federal courts beneath the national court 3 Marbury goes to the US Supreme court to issue the writ of mandamus a Congress thought when it passed The Judiciary act of 1789 gave the power to issue the writ of mandamus to the US Supreme Court 4 Congress gave a power to the US Supreme court that the supreme court does not already have in the constitution a If congress can increase the power of another one of the branches then congress can decrease the power of another branch b The law was in violation of the separation of powers Very first law that congress passes that is found unconstitutional The Judiciary Act of 1789 a Separation of PowerOne branch of govt can neither increase or decrease the power of another branch vi The majority opinion written by Chief Justice John marshallof this case i Marshall39s position before becoming chiefjustice was John Adam39s Secretary of State a The appointment letters were on his desk that he didn39t deliver b Jefferson appointed him Chief Justice 2 He had to get through this case without stepping on either of the presidentex president s toes 3 He tells Marbury you went to the wrong courtjust go back and get the writ from a lower court a Marburyjust gives up because of all the trouble vii The Supereme court has the ability to hear the case 1 Judicial Review First time declaring an act of Congress unconstitutional 01 IX Concurrent Powerspowers both national govt and state govt have 0 Taxes i Federal income tax and state income tax California income tax ii Gasoline tax Federal gas tax and state gas tax iii Healthcare 1 Both national and state govt has a responsibility for healthcare X Reserved Powers Supreme court makes policy first time about abortion Policy ought to be made in congress or the president but the supreme court makes this policy 10th Amendment Xth Amendment i Those powers not delegated to the national govt nor forbidden to the states are resened to the states and the people Abortion Roe v Wade i Every state has its own laws on abortion because of the 10th amendment 1 Some states have really easy laws on abortions and other states have really strict laws a Women oftentimes would drive across the border to get an abortion in an easier state or in stricter states some women would try to abort themselves ii Jane Roe hidden identity wanted an abortion 1 State of texas said you cannot 2 She takes her case to the courts 3 The Supreme courT felT ThaT This is a Topic where The law should be universal XI LimiTaTions in The ConsTiTuTion a ArTicle IV 4 i Full faiTh and crediT shall be given 1 Came ouT of The idea ThaT prior To The consTiTuTion people39s crediTs were noT carrying over from sTaTe To sTaTe 2 ConTemporary Times Gay Marriage a WhaT difference does iT make To Wyoming if Hawaii wanTs To allow gay marriage The oTher sTaTes objecT because aT The end of The day They are allowing a marriage conTracT ThaT marriage has To be respecTedaccepTed in all The oTher sTaTes as well ii Privileges and ImmuniTies Any privileges enjoyed by your ciTizens shall be given To anyone enTering your sTaTe 2 Drivers license are accepTed in every sTaTe due To ArTicle IV iii ExTradiTion 1 Someone commiTs a crime They flee The sTaTe and geT caughT in anoTher sTaTe California says I would like This individual exTradiTed back To California a NoT always auTomaTic jusT because They ask for you doesn T mean They ll geT you i The sTaTe someTimes refuses To exTradiTe The person because when They are exTradiTed The laws ThaT are incurred in The sTaTe may be differenT b 10 AmendmenTs To The consTiTuTion are limiTaTions on The naTional govT and sTaTes i CannoT resTricT a person s freedom of speech ii People have a righT To bear arms iii People have a righT To illegal searches c ArTicle SecTion 9 i WriT of Habeas CorpusProduce The body cannoT be suspended excepT during Time of war insurrecTion rebellion i PrevenTs The govT aT any level from arbiTrary arresT arresTing you randomly 2 Produce my body in courT wiTh a reason or I will go free ii ConTraversy 1 Does This apply To individuals who are suspecTed of Terrorism a For abouT The 5 or so years if doesn T apply To TerrorisTs i ParTicularly TerrorisTs from anoTher counTry b The supreme courT for a liTTle over a year ruled ThaT when a person enTers The UniTed STaTes They are given The same righTs as UniTed STaTes CiTizens i all Those individuals being held in GuanTanamo prisons are allowed aTTorneys and geT wriTs of habeas corpus iii No Bills of A ainder shall issue laws ThaT single ouT an individual or group for punishmenT 1 Signs along The inTersTaTe This secTion of highway sponsored by a In Two sTaTes Florida and Missouri along comes The lltu Klux lltan i We d like To sponsor a secTion of highway i This secTion of inTersTaTe highway sponsored by Ku Klux Klan ii BoTh sTaTes rejecT Their donaTions 1 They file lawsuiTs American Civil LiberTies Union union ThaT supporTs people and groups who feel They are being I File an African American aTTorney To represenT The Ku Klux Klan To baTTle againsT The Two sTaTes 2 Florida says ThaT s if no more signs you can sponsor a secTion of highway buT you can T have your name on if anymore 3 Missouri a This secTion of highway sponsored by The Ku Klux Klan 2 ConTemporary Times sTocllt brollters working for some of The big bailouT companies received huge bonuses Through The bailouT a Congress was up in arms b Congress came up wiTh a special Tax for Those bonuses c One of The sTocllt brollters goT an aTTorney and filed on The case of No Bills of ATTainder shall issue iv No Ex PosT FacTo Laws no laws afTer The facT I You can make someThing effecTive Today buT you can T go back XII Federalism The relaTionship beTween The NaTional GovernmenT and The STaTes and The Local GovernmenTs i TradiTional areas of NaTionalFederal ConTrol I MiliTary 2 NaTional SecuriTy a Going To The airporT and There are people ThaT check us and our baggage federal employees 3 Foreign RelaTions TreaTies 4 Economy a WhaT is The federal govT going To do To geT The economy To move info The righT direcTion if is a federal responsibiliTy ii TradiTional areas of STaTe and Local ResponsibiliTy I Schools KI2 and Colleges and UniversiTies 2 Law enforcemenT STaTe Police 3 ZoningLand use XIII Federalism a TradiTional areas of Federal ConTrol i NaTional SecuriTy ii RegulaTion of The economy I WhaT is The federal govTcongresspresidenT going To do To geT more people back To work iii RelaTions wiTh Foreign counTries I WhaT is our relaTionship wiTh various foreign counTries b STaTes and Local GovT i Law enforcemenT I Local and sTaTe law enforcemenT 2 FBI amp CAfederal law enforcemenT is very small compared To local and sTaTe law enforcemenTs 3 Ex a California highway paTrol b Sheriff39s deparfmenf ii Schools 1 K12 2 Communify colleges 3 universifies iii land use zoning 1 new shopping mall 2 new aparfmenfs XIV 1929gt a Prior fo income fax and social securify b Taxes collecfed af fhaf fime i Local 60 1 Largesf source for local governmenfs was properly fax ii Sfafe 23 iii Federal17 XV Greaf Depression a 29 unemploymenf b Franklin D Roosevelf wanfs fo give fhe people a New Deal i Social Securify ii Federal Income Tax XVI 1960s amp 1970s a Lyndon B Johnson b Make sure no one sfarves i Welfare ii Food sfamps iii Subsidized housing c Govf gave back some of fhe fax money collecfed and gave if bacllt fo fhe local cifies i General Revenue Sharing 1 No sfrings affached no accounfabilify for fhe money 2 Used a formula fo disfribufe fhe money a Depended on how old your cify is how old your buildings are how old your schools are efc 3 The sfafes gof fhe money and fhey passed if along based on fhe fed s requesfs and fhe cifies did whafever fhey wanfed fo do wifh fhe money XVII Today 2010 a Taxes collecfed i Local 15 ii Sfafes 19 iii Federal 66 XVIII 1980 s a Reagan insfifufes a change i No more general revenue sharing b Replaces if wifh Cafegorical Granfs i Cafegorical Granfs 1 Very specific granfs a desk replacemenf granf b Building repair granf i Cannof mix whaf fhey re for ii If fhey mixed whaf fhe granf was meanf for fhen you had fo refurn fhe money 2 LoTs of accouhTabTTTTy 3 GrahTs doh T have To be baTd back 4 TWTce a year They had To reborT To The govT whaT They sbehT The mohey oh 5 GrahT erTers came ThTo fruTTToh PeobTe were beThg hTred TusT To erTe grahTs 6 Was reaTTy bad abouT hTrThg peopTe Teachers poTTce ofchers eTc a You coqu rebTace desks you coqu buy hew books buT hoT hTre Teachers b PaTroT cars ahd debaTch eauTbmehT buT ho boTTce of cers 7 No ChTTd LefT behThd a FederaT program b CTassTcresearch desTgh get money test students gam c d Wheh The sTudehTs are reTesTed Tf They faTT To Tmprove The schooT geTs ho mahey e Tf The sTudehTs Tmbrove They cohTThue To geT mohey ThTs chahged educaTToh T No Tohger was educaTToh up To The TocaT deTrTcTs because Th order To geT futhhg They how have To Teach To The TesTs TT Teachers begah foThg scores ahd TusT TeachThg To The TesT TghorThg The oTher asbecTs ThaT sTudehTs heeded To Tearh 8 Law EhforcemehT a Reho Nevada T ATways had boTTcemeh waTkThg The sTreeTs poTTce presehce T WaTkThg arouhd aTT The TTme 2 The chmThaTs woqu see The boTTce ofchers ahd They woqu aTways have To Took arouhd TT SThce There are ho poTTce ofcher grahTs T They sTopbed havThg boTTcemeh waTkThg The sTreeTs 2 ThsTead They buTTT a ng rouhd buTTdThg debaTch cehTer 3 Purchased boTTce baTroT cars ThaT Tthuded debaTchmehT eauTbmehT A Took boTTcemeh off The sTreeTs ahd forced Taw ehforcemehT To chahge a Now boTTce of cers are Th baTroT cars so how you have To geT robbed ahd then you caTT 9T T To geT a boTTce ofcher To come There TTT CrTme wehT up Tv Wheh They reversed whaT They de chme wehT back dOWh 9 ZohThg a New busThess wahTs To obeh sTamb of abbrovaT by TocaT govT b Now a days you have To fTTe federaT thTrohmehTaT TmbacT sTudy T T Tow Ts TT goThg To effecT Trafch waTer poTTuTToh aTr poTTuTToh TO CaTegorTcaT grahTs are how bTock grahTs i Education block grants ii Law enforcement block grants iii Community development block grants b Much less specific c Less accountability d State gets money cities apply to the state and they get funds ii Grants 1 Federal mandates programs that states must participate in a Examples i Food stamps program i 90 federal govt money 2 10 states ii Interstate Highway system i 75 Fed 2 25 States 3 Under Eisenhower a He believed that if we were under attack there needs to be a way for us to move troops quickly throughout the states Federal govt set by the Federal govt on these highways Govt also knows if the state is allowing people to go faster than the speed limit through the monthly reports by the highway patrol a Local govt has lost the power as well b Funded mandate c States don t apply for the grant but they have to use the money towards what the fed wants 5 39gt XIXAmending the Constitution a Framers did not make this easy b Two step process Page 34 in textbook i Proposing amendments i A 23 vote of both house or a national Convention a Extraordinary majority in both houses of congress b National convention called by 23 of the states ii Ratification i Voted on by the legislators of A of the states 2 Or by conventions held in A of the states XX Exam a 40 multiple choice2 pts each i 80 pts b l essay 20 pts c Total of 100 pts d Must have the scantron 886E i Area for both multiple choice and essay e 8010 questions will be coming out of the practice quizzes word forword questions and answers i Only the multiple choice questions from each of those chapters f Essay i Is on John Locke and Thomas hobbes T 45 different parts within the prompt 2 Address every question within the prompt 0 39gt 01 0 As if you were expldining it to someone as if they don39t know dnything about it Should be long enough that you ve dddressed every port of the question sufficiently Does not need to be 0 trdditiondl essdy formdt d Justjump into it and dddress the questions Simildrities and differences 0 Compdrison dnd contrdst pdper prdctice writing something like that 1 Judicial review o a was favored by a majority nf the rounding fathers e b wasravorahly argued in The Fedeialist papers C c Em he found in Article In or the Constitution 0 d was not mentioned in the state ratifying canvenhnns 2 The Kentucky and Virglnla Resaluhons Df1798 C a u uljuuihldl e iew o b ravared decentmlized aver centralized judicial rewew u c uaieo o 39 o d lled for Congress to have the pawer otjudicial review 3 What was the signi cance or Malbury v Madison 39 a of cers of the government could he lled to account in court 5 ry to the Constitution were not valid 0 c The Court claimed authority to decide what the Cnnstllulmn means 9 d 39all ofthe ahave 4 ln Marbury v Madison hier Justice John Marshall ruled that a a writ af mandamus was an improper constitutional remedy ot possess original jurisdiction 0 c the Court muld not rule on the legality af presidential action 0 d Marbury would receive his judidal appointment 00 55 E m In c u E 3 m n o c A E n a 5 The Consumian requlres amendments to he a initiated by Congress ed estdent c adamyed hy tthhirds oi the state legislatures d ppmlnad lav threerourths atthe iat 000 S i a a lt E m s a is called o a republicanism G b popularism a c checks and helances o d rederalisrn 7 Antirederalists opposed the Constitution because it c a was ceiyed in an illegal o b seemed desi ned to promote a commercial empire Cl railed to include a hill oi rights a d all of the crime a u old u Cl 3 all or the state legislatures c In seven or the lhlrteen state legislatures s c popularly elected conventions in nine states 0 d popularly elected conventions in all of lhe states Which ol the lollowing is true or the framers nf the constitutinn a hey wereamong the most talented and intellectual people or the day tly iarmers c They represented a reassemhhng ol the generatlnn that had set the Revalutlnn In mntmn e 0 They were all committed to writing a completely new Constitution 0 Jo 5 4 1 cr 2 E m a a 8 10 One or the few successes oi the Articles of Cnnfederallon was the J a Annapolis Conv ntio e b Northwest Ordinance 0 c Townsend Acts C d threer fths compromise 1 The use Annapolis Convention was originally promoted as a means oi o a consolidating the American military forces C a creating a uniiorrn tariii policy toward Britain 9 c improving commercial relations among askaka o d writing a new national constitution L a too great a policymaking role or the natinna o h the ability or the states to declare war separately 0 c the ease by which the Articles could be amended by the states d theahsence orsumcient power in the cential government 2 One or the major de ciencies of the Articles or Confederation was r courts 3 Which or the rollowing is one oi the main provisions or the Articles of Confederatinn t guaranteed equal representation far the states established a weak separate executive department he national courts were given only limited appellate jurisdiction 0 ongi and a mayority or state legislatures 4 Which oi the iollowing is not a major theme or the Declaration or lndepsndenm o a Humankind shares an eguality c The rights that all people intrinsically posses constitute a higher law pinding government 0 d Governments are bound try their own laws DKD rior to the American Revolution British leaders in London a attempted to fame the colonies to raise armies far self delense o h repealed the Townsend Acts allowing the colonies to tax 0 c gave the colonies power to appoint their own governors e d attempted to hring the colonies under moredirect control 5P O 6 All or the rollowing are constitutional runctions except o a providing an outline for the organization or government 0 p tahlishing a farmal economic system for t e nation 0 c granting power to governmental institutions sewing as a symbol af the nation o a smrce resources 0 h the search for the balance between state and national power C c the social and economic dlfferencas among the states a d all or the above 2 The aprlltv or the national government to forbid spnnsnred prayers in public schools stems fmrn the Supreme Courts lntarpretatinn or the e a due process clause 0 a necessary and proper clause 0 interstate commerce clause 0 o39 elastic clause 3 the FE crime the klnd of federalism illustrated is O a dual federalism re a c marale ke federalis o 1 chocolate cake lederallsm 4 Accnrding tn the text what is he most visible and pervasive mle 0f a stale a tnterstate comm rce 39on 0 rl husrness regulatron ome rule a a granted greater power to county governments o a pmwded a system of general purpose local governments o c created a surge in the numper or local governments e d gave local governments the pawer wlt n rmits to determine their own powers and functionst s The right oi reserved powers was guaranteed in the n o d d Supreme Court case or McCulloch v Maryland 7 The number of electoral votes for each state is equal to the number of O 3 counties in each state 0 o votingcage citizens in each state C 2 its members in the House of Representatives 0 d d lts members ln the House and senate mmhinzd s unoch gnvernment39s C a delegated powers quot b lt x 1 m 39u o Cl 1 reserved powers 9 The states play a crucial role in all oi the following activities except 0 a administering snclal welfare pnllcles e t regulating interstate commerce 0 c amending the Constitution 0 d shaping electoral contests at the national level 1n Federal systems are round in D aAfrica o a Suurh Asi e c North America 0 d all of the abave i The example or Quebec pmvince in Canada illustrates e a palilical con ict in a redetal system 0 eiaiederl st ed r on o c the disintegration ei a redeial system 0 d none or the aeove 2 The government or France is a o a confederate system unitary sys E 3 8 o c iederal system 0 d decentralized system 3 39 39 quotam in iiuiiun In the move to a national gnvemment o a economic policy 9 39d all ortne shave 4 regulate interstate commerce 0 a True e h False a between the values oi o a rreedorn and equality e h unity and d varsity 0 c justice and protection 0 d individualism and nationalism 1 The intellectual roots or lihertarianism can be traced to i a i 39 39 c populsm and lVlsm c b the philosophy of Edmund Burke 9 c dassicallta relism i E 0 d the New Deal 2 Contemporary American socialists rayor DGO c dismantling the New Deal wellare state C husinesses and ractories 3 Democratic socialists believe in o a a lrmrt on noivrdual wealth and property 0 h equality or results C c extens39 overnmental regulation nf the economy a d all orthe ahnve 4 The New Right 7 o a is composed largely of pmrhusiness elites o h delends the established institutions anme i a s a believes the media is responsible for a decline in social morality c d gained support in the late 19805 and early 19905 5 Neoconservatiyes 7 o a support racial and sexual quotas e b shes palides that lower taxes on large inmmes O c call far more regulation or business to romote economic growth a the basis of a stable and ordered society is held by 0 EL 3 m a ct m n e c paleocohservatives Q d contemporary conservatives 7 Which in 39 39 39 p a They defend economic individualism against the growth of the welfare 4 stake 0 mg i C e They challenge the idea of quotas and other af rmative action policies 8 d 4 u angina an inui democracy 8 39 m iw m r has to deal with 7 e l h o a fmenand the hunar uFanen o 1 military defense and civil lilaerties C e sncial welfare and economic gmth d crime and poverty 9 which of the following IS true ofJahn Adams p a e agree lh Burke39s assnciatinn of praparty rights with a landed aristocracy o b He suppuned Jefferson39s notion of the natural goodness of humankind and curb private greed 39 G d He called for universal manhood suffrage 10 Edmund Burke believed that a h society grew sluwly and with purpose C 2 there was a natural equality among men 0 custom 1 Neoliherals a lil ul o a support expandlng the size and role or government unmns o c prerer reducing deiense spending to military rerorms o d ravor tying civil service and military bene ts to the cost of living 2 in the areas or nakiunal security and personal morality liperals 7 eek to increase the role ol government w erent lifestyles c support expanding the role of the cm in foreign affairs 1 advocate arms control agreements with the soviet Uninn Or 55 m l39 e E E 5 a n E O S 3 New Deal contemporary liberalism 39 39 that g guarantees39ror every individual c la ored a decreased role or government in the economy 0 d repudiated the ideals or capitalism OQO 4 d which or pelier Q a A ruling class or epility and property should run government 0 b The railroads telegra h and pasic industries should be nationalized 8 c The role orgovemment should pe limited 0 39 v 5 O a in a strong central government 0 1 9 citizens 4 such as roads and canals slate O a All men and women are allowed a voice in government 8 b The gate gains its legitimacy from the mnsen or the governed O c A ruling class oralnlrtv and property mu t ntrpl g o co 0 d The aperience ipast generations is the most reliable guide In good government 7 Radical ideologies such as democratic socialism and lihertarianism O a b challenge much orthe existing social and political order 0 c lunction outside nf the democratic process F cal ideology is concerned with the 7 o proper runctions or government Ci issues orliaery and equal y o c distribution nf gnnds and services 9 d all l7me almve


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