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Introduction to Oceanography

by: Winfield Lesch

Introduction to Oceanography GSC 120

Winfield Lesch
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.59

John Klasik

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John Klasik
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This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Winfield Lesch on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GSC 120 at California State Polytechnic University taught by John Klasik in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/218277/gsc-120-california-state-polytechnic-university in Geology at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
GSC 12001 Lecture Xlll 0 Thermal Properties of Water 0 Evaporation phase change 39 Liquid to gas add heat 39 Gas to liquid release heat 600 calgram 39 Most important way the atmosphere is heat D Evaporation and condensation 0 Physical Properties of Water 0 States of matter 39 Solid water ice D Crystal structure All solids have a regular internal array internal arrangement to atoms or molecules Water sixsided hexagonal structure ltgt quotOpenquot structure Characteristic external shape morphology ltgt Regular internal arrangement is reflected by a predictable external shape ltgt ie snowflakes 39 Gaseous water water vapor D Like all gases intermolecular bonds are broken D No definite shape or structure U Uniformly disperse fill container completely 39 Liquid water D Intermediate phase B Properties of both hexagonal rings or chains windividual molecules D Not necessarily fill container completely D Take shape of container 0 Density behavior of water 0 Most dense phase liquid water Least dense water vapor Intermediate density ice Change density 39 Change temperature D Increase decrease density D Decrease increase density 000 39 Salinity D Increase salinity increase density 39 Pressure D Increase pressure increase density GSC 120 Page 1 GSC 12001 Lecture XIV Monday February 07 2011 406 PM Fresh water 00 10 gmcm3 Sea water 350 102 103 gmcm3 Density behavior of water continued 0 Increases the density 39 Fresh 00 10 gmcm3 39 Sea 350 102103 gmcm3 O Lowers the freezing point 39 Fresh freezes at 0 C 39 Sea freezes at 2 C 0 Variable freezing point 39 Depend on salinity freezing point will be between 0 and 2 C 0 Initial freezing point 39 Sea water if kept at 2 C never completely freezes 39 Fresh water 0 C is absolute freezing O Salinity of remaining water increases 39 Salt 2 cubic 39 Ice hexagonal 39 No compatible solid structure between ice and salt III Ice forms 2 no site in the structure to put the Na or Cl III Dissolved salts stay wremaining liquid salinity in liquid increases 39 Higher concentration lowers freezing point 0 Temperature of max density merges with the freezing point 39 Density of sea water increases all the way to the freezing point 39 Sea water as it cools always creates an unstable density pattern Light Interaction with Water 0 Surface and light 39 1 meter below 63 of light gone 39 10 meter 2 84 all red light gone 39 100 meter 2 left all colors but blue removed 200m 275m 0 All colors of light are influenced by passing through water 39 Recap III 63 of light lost by 1st meter III 84 ofall light absorbed by 10m Colors are selectively absorbed 39 Red strongly absorbed 10m 39 Blue is least absorbed 200m Light is attenuated with depth 0 O GSC 120 Page 2 0 Limit is around 200m Photic Zone 0 Region illuminated by sunlight up to 200m 0 Only animals reside beyond the photic zone 0 Plants must reside in photic zone 39 Upper most 100200m O 95 of ocean is dark 80 out of 92 natural elements can be found in sea water 0 Most abundant Cl Na S Sulfate S04 Mg Ca K 99 of all dissolved 0 Major constituents Cl Na S Mg Ca K 0 NaCl make up 86 0 Only 14 elements more abundant than 1 part per mile Salt concentration does not vary much 0 Salinity 39 Total amount of dissolved solids expressed in grams per kilogram of sea water solution 39 Total salts in ocean 48x108 kg 39 Avg concentration of salinity 350 Methods to measure salinity O Evaporation 0 Density 39 00 1gmcm3 39 350 102gmcm3 O Freezing Point 0 Salinometer 39 Measures salinity by electrical conductance O Refractometer 39 Bending of light GSC 120 Page 3 GSC 12001 Lecture XV Wednesday February 09 2011 429 PM Methods to Measure Salinity 0 Chemical analysis of sea water 39 Challengerexpedition18721876 39 77 samples studied Principle of Constant Proportions Major constituents are always present 2 Major constituents are always present in the same order 3 Major constituents are always present in constant proportion to each other mathematical relationship 39 CNa constant 39 NaC constant 0 If you know the concentration of one element you can calculate others 0 50 1806XClo 0 Origin of the Salts 0 Weathering crustal rocks 39 Chemical and physical breakdown 39 Granite O COZ H20 gt Na Ca Mg K amp Clay I Clay does not have Na Ca Mg K D on poor 0 Volcanism Cl S 0 Age of Earth 0 46 billionx109 years old 0 Oldest rock granite 0 Salt concentration 39 Elements must be removed as a rate equal to the rate of supply 39 Ocean is steady state wrespect to salinity 39 Steady state D A dynamic balance has been achieved between the rate of supply of materials and the rate of removal of materials no net change in value over time GSC 120 Page 4 GSC 12001 Lecture XVI Friday February 11 2011 429 PM Ocean Chemistry 0 Chemistry of river water does not reflect the abundance of elements in earth39s crust List of elements in river water and sea water look similar 0 Not identical River water and sea water are not chemically identical Sea water is not just concentrated river water There must be processes in the ocean that quotconvertquot river water into sea water Processes are related to the selective removal of elements from sea water 000 0 Recap age of Earth etc 0 Residence time 39 Measure of how long a particular constituent remains in ocean before removal El Residence time years amount in gramsrate of input or outputgramsyear El Sea water 14 x 10quot24 grams 37 x 10quot9 grams per year 38000 yrs Average water molecule quotresidesquot in the ocean for 38000 yrs before removal Measure of cycling time Measure of how long it would take to replace a constituent Measure of how long it would take to remove a constituent Measure of how long it would take to double the present value of a consituent 0 Residence times of major constituents are long homogenously distributed 0 Minor elements have relatively short residence times no uniform concentrations throughout ocean Removal Processes 1 Biological 39 Marine sediment removal of elements from ocean El Ca Si 39 Rapid process 39 Short term 2 Geological Processes 39 Clay ion exchange El on poor clay land enters ocean through weathering process absorb sea water elements Na K Ca Mg El Become ion rich El Rapid short term process 39 New mineral formation El Manganese nodules remove elements copper cobalt etc El Take from water Cl Grow slowly 2 mm per 10quot6 years 39 Basalt sea water reactions El Oceanic ridges earthquake active brokenfractured El Exposed basalt El SO4 Fe Co Zn Mg El Entire volume of ocean goes through oceanic ridges 810 x 10quot6 years million El Slow pocess GSC 120 Page 5 Dissolved gases 0 Sources of gas in ocean 1 Atmosphere El Dissolve in ocean El External source El N2 02 C02 2 Living organism El Biologic respiration Animals drive down 02 and drive up C02 Plants drive down C02 and expel 02 El Internal source 3 Volcanic Activity El Seamounts El Oceanic ridges El Internal source CL C02 5 GSC 120 Page 6 GSC 12001 Lecture XVII Monday February 14 2011 705 PM 0 Gas Solubility Factors 1 Pressure 39 Lower pressure gas release Relatively high pressure more gas in solution Ocean pressure increase with depth El Every 10m in depth up 1min atmospheric pressure 2 Temperature 39 Colder holds more gas Hotter more bubbles release more gas Dual consideration in ocean El Go down in depth is colder El Poles cold equator warm Amount of gases in location change 3 Salinity 39 Eg salt in soda releases bubbles El High salinity low gas solubility 5 0 above El Low salinity favors more gas 50 below 0 General circulation of the atmosphere 0 The long term time averaged prevailing wind systems of the lower atmosphere 39 Winds El Represent horizontal motion of the atmosphere El Classified by direction from which it blows Northwind air moving N to S Westwing air moving W to E CI The prevailing wind systems are responsible for surface circulation of water quotoceanquot Vertical motion of air CI The vertical motions Ascent air moving upward Descent air moving downward Vertical ascent updrafts Vertical descent downdrafts Narrow regions are responsible for world39s major climate change Vertical motion controls the distribution of surface salinity values 39 Controls precipitation and salinity of groundwater Low latitude winds horizontal trade winds Westerlies windbelt quotUS to Alaskaquot 00 OO Intertropical convergence zonedoldrums 0 Vertical updraft north of equator 39 South America Hawaii 0 SE trade winds below ITCZ 39 N amp S trade winds circulate cells quotmeshquot at equator Region of general ascent of the atmosphere Generates cloud and controls climate El Warm to hot temperature El Where air rises generate clouds Region of maximum rainfall world39s rainforests GSC 120 Page 7 39 Region of high humidity and low evaporation rates because of rain 39 Where clouds are light variable winds 0 East pacific hurricanes from ITCZ bend moves wtrade winds Subtropical high pressure regionhorse latitude 0 Sinking air descending 39 25 degrees of equator O Westerlies and trade winds quotmeshquot 0 General descent of the atmosphere 39 Hot to warm in temperature 0 Clear to cloud free skies 39 No clouds no rains 0 Winds light and variable 0 Polar front 0 50 60 degrees N 39 Vancouveralaska Maine 39 Ascending air 0 Westerlies and polar easterlies quotmeshquot 39 Region of general ascent of the atmosphere 39 Relatively cool snow but not freezing 39 Region of persistent cloudy contain rainfall 39 Area of high humidity and low evaporation rate 0 Stormy and windy 0 Region of net gain excess precipitation vs evaporation of H20 0 Corresponds to area of low surface salinity 0 Where currents end has either higher or lower because of full cycle complete GSC 120 Page 8 GSC 12001 Lecture XVIII Wednesday February 16 2011 752 PM Warmest SE equator high salinity Coldest NW pole low salinity Surface Salinity Distribution 0 Low surface salinity values 39 Off Africa 340 200 39 Off NW 320 0 Correlate to areas of net gain of water 39 East part of pacific 39 NW portion near pole 0 Center 39 High surface salinity values D Near Sahara D 37380 middle of ocean 39 Correlate to areas of net loss of water D NW of Hawaii D East of australia Surface Temperature Distribution 0 High temperature 39 East side of equatorial oceans 39 Western pacific ocean 0 Cold temperature 39 Coldest waters in NW portion of oceans 0 Warmest waters NOT in east portion of equatorialpacific 0 The surface waters of the ocean acquire their temperature and salinity values signature thru interaction woverlying atmosphere 39 Subtropical Circulation 30 degrees D Temp C 24C D 50 380 39 SE equator D 50 340 0 Water sample reliant on climate precipitation etc Vertical Distribution Temperature and salinity 0 Thermocline 39 A region in the ocean usually between 200 and 1500 meters which exhibits a rapid change a decrease in temperature with depth 0 Halocline 39 Region in the ocean usually between 200 and 1500 meters which exhibits a rapid change in salinity and depth 0 Thermocline and halocline separate two regions of the ocean which possess fairly uniform temperature and salinity values 0 Thermocline and halocline are present in the tropical and subtropical waters of the ocean found between SON of the equator 0 No thermocline or halocline in polar oceans beyond SONS of the equator GSC 120 Page 9 Ocean circulation O 0000 O 0 Large scale horizontal motion of the ocean caused by the wind or pressure density differences Caused by wind Caused by pressure or density differences deep ocean circulation ZOObottom Surface circulation wind drive 39 Extends to where wind induced motion ceases 200 meters Wind exerts stress on sea surface sets water in motion pulls drags and pushes water weak frictional interaction between wind or sea surface Wind drift currents 39 Circumglobal currents which would appear or do where there is water covered glove eg Antarctica Gyres 39 Nearly closed circular or oval surface water wind driven circulation systems 1 Tropical 2 Subtropical 3 Polar GSC 120 Page 10 GSC 12001 Lecture XIX Sunday February 27 2011 826 PM Coriolis effect 0 Result from earth39s rotation 0 Deflecting quotforcequot caused by the earth39s rotation any object moving relative to the earth is defected by the Coriolis effect 39 N Hemisphere right deflection 39 S Hemisphere left deflection Gyres and coriolis need to be right Conv convergence div divergence Conver gence Diverge nce I Surface r Surface water moves apart water comes togethe Downw Upwelli elling ng Surface Water Circulation 0 Subtropical gyre eastwest circulation asymmetry West side of subtropical gyre Direction E South to north flow Temperature D Warm current Speed D Rapid northward velocity 100120 kmday Width D Narrow 5060 km wide Depth D Deep flow 5001000 meters Well defined flow easy to determine whether you are in or out of the current 0 East side of subtropical gyre 39 Direction E North to south flow 39 Temperature D Cold to cool current Speed D Gentle drift of water 56 kmday Width D Very broad 100s km wide Depth D Shallow 100 meters or so Broad diffuse flow difficult to determine whether you are in or out of the current 0 Coastal and center great areas of upwelling 0 Surface circulation is wind driven GSC 120 Page 11 GSC 12001 Lecture XX Wednesday February 23 2011 1148 AM Ocean circulation continued 0 Langumur Circulation 39 local small scale circulation caused by quothigh velocityquot winds El These wind rows mark places where there is convergence and downwelling El Areas between these rows have divergence and upwelling Free of debris etc 39 NorCal Tomales bay El Afternoon El Strong onshore wind El Characterized by light bubbles floating material in wind rows El Areas free of debris are in between 39 Circulation and wind rows El 510m 39 Enhanced evaporation causes unstable density pattern 0 Thermohalinecirculation 39 Deep circulation of the ocean caused by pressure density differences a circulation based up temperature thermo and salinity haline differences El Occurs below the zone of wind induced circulation 200 meters to the bottom Refer to back of bottom water formation paper 1 Antarctic bottom water i Heavy and dense sinks to bottom 2 North Atlantic Deep Water i Closer to greenland and iceland ii Sinks down to deeper ocean iii Floats above antarctic bottom 3 Intermediate Water i Intermediate latitudes ii Tip of south america iii Float about 1000 meters down 4 Central water i Center of subtropical ocean ii Central latitudes about 30 degrees iii Couple 100 meters down 0 All move very slow 15cmsec Velocity of deep thermohaline currents O GSC 120 Page 12 GSC 12001 Lecture XXI Friday February 25 2011 1156AM 0 Beginningof subject matterforlast quiz 0 General Characteristics of Waves 0 Waves 39 Regular periodic disturbances of the sea surface caused by wind sudden motion of the sea floor or gravitational influences D Wind wind generated waves wind waves D Sudden motion of the sea floor tsunamis D Gravitational influences tides 0 Wave Terminology O O O O O Crest 39 The highest part ofa wave Trough 39 Lowest part of the wave Wavelength 39 Horizontal distance between similar features on successive waves Crest to crest distance most common Wave Height 39 Vertical differnce between crest and trough Wave steepness 39 Ratio of the wave height to wavelength D Height to length ration or HL ration or HL D Like sea floor gradients a vertical to horizontal relationship D Defines a stable vs unstable wave D Thresholdvalue is HL217 or HL 17 orL27xH LgtHx7Stable O 150 degrees L H x 7 Threshold Stable Wave O 120 degrees Llt H x 7 O Unstable too sharp 0 Motion associated with Waves 0 All waves travel across the sea surface 0 Wave period 39 The time it takes for one wavelength to pass T 0 Wave velocity 39 The speed at which the wave form moves through the water The rate of propagation of the wave form through the water D Velocity LT Wave velocity increases with wavelength and with wave period Wave length increases more quickly wave period ONLY the wave form moves through the water The water within a wave does not move forward with the wave Water does not move forward at the same rate as the wave After one wavelength has passed there is not net forward motion to the water 0 Orbital velocity 39 The speed at which the quotwater particlesquot circulate within a wave GSC 120 Page 13 D Orbve pix HT 39 Orbital velocity slower than wave velocity D Example 1520 of wave velocity 0 Example 39 L 100m 39 H 6m 39 T Ssec D Wave velocity LT 1008 125msec D Orbital velocity pix HT pix 6m8 23msec 0 Relationship wave height and wave energy larger wave height and more wave energy 0 Stable or unstable wave 39 For stable wave min B 42m 6m x 7 39 Example D 100m gt 42 stable wave 0 Orbits decay the deeper you go in the ocean 0 What depth do orbits vanish 39 Take wavelength and divide by 2 D D L2 0 Deep water vs shallow water waves 0 Deep water wave 39 Waves traveling through water where the water depth is greater than half the wavelength 39 D gt L2 39 Velocity LT 39 Velocity s constant in deep water waves 0 Shallow water wave 39 Wave traveling through water where the water depth is less than one half the wavelength 39 D lt L2 39 Velocity of a shallow water wave equals the square root of gravity times the water depth D Velocity Igravity x depth Become variable Depends solely on water depth Only decrease as water depth decreases EDD GSC 120 Page 14 GSC 12001 Lecture XXII Wednesday Iarcl102 2011 1158mm Greaterthe length of water surface largerwaves created by wind Wavestravel until obstacle is met Beginfrom creation area Wave reach shore at angle 0 Part ofthe wave closest to shore will slow down 0 The furtherportion continues at speed until it reaches shoreline o Waves will bend convergence and divergence Wind Wave Formation 0 Sea I Anyareaofthe oceanwherewavesareactivelyformingsustained bywinds I Representareas where energyfrom the wind is beingtransferred to the ocean o Factorswhichfavorwindwaveformation I Windvelocityspeed El Higherthespeedthelargerthewave I Winddurationstormduration CI The longerthe wind blows the largerthe wave I Fetch El Longerthefetchthelargerthewave o Windinteractionenhancesheightrelativetolength I Thuswavesteepness I HLratio17 Distinctive wave morphology 0 Wave shape I Sharp crests I Smooth flat troughs o Superposition I Many waves superimposed upon each other 0 Complex irregular sea surface 0 Broad wave spectrum variety ofwavelengths wave periods wave velocities 0 White caps occur with wind blowing over surface on waves I Every wave has HL ratio I Over steep wave spils off heightcollapses gt produces white caps El Return to ratio 0 Poorlateralcontinutiy I Many waves superimposed more interference I Di fficultto trace waves 0 Wave Travel Across the Ocean 0 Area offormation complex irregular chaoticsea surface sea o Broad wave spectrum of 39 g h periods 39 quot39 g density I Short slow I Long fast 0 Long period waves advance relative to slower velocity waves I Waves separate organize into wave groups El Form ocean swell smooth round crests and troughs I Lose all of short period waves and some long period waves GSC 120 Page 0 Increased travel wave group is refined and narrowed Remember Waves from a distant storm that arrive at shore have a narrow range of wave periods 0 Waves in shallow water Wave changes from a deep waterwave to a shallow water wave when the waterdepth becomes less than a wavelength2 Orbits now intersect and interact with the sea floor Velocity is now control led by Vgravityxdepth WAVE VELOCITY DECREASES as depth decreases so doe sthe velocity decrease WAVE LENGTH DECREASES because waves are movingat differing speeds WAVE HEIGHT INCREASES because the wavelength decreases the same energy is compressed into asmallerdistance WAVES APPROACH UNSTABLE AND ULTIMATELY BREAK III The Hsztin pr 39 17 and finally39 unstableand breaks WAVE PERIOD CONSTANT because velocity and length are decreasing at the same rate due to the decreasing depth the wave period does not change ORBITALVELOCITYINCREASES Wave velocity becomes less than orbital velocity and the wave breaks GSC 120 Page 2 GSC 12001 Lecture XXIII FridayIIarcl1042011 1142 W WavesinShallowWatercontinued o WaveRefraction I Changeindirectionofwavetravelcausedbytheshallowwaterrelationbetweenwater depthandwavevelocity III Causeswavesto quotbendquot and approach any coastabout parallel to the coast III Causeswaveenergytobeallocatedunevenlyalongtheshore III Causesheadlandstobeerodedandbaystobefilledwithsand III Causesastraighteningofthecoastlineovertime o Waveconvergence I Associatewithpoints I Moreconcentratedwaveenergy I Higherwaveenergyhigherwaveheight I Preferentialerosion o Wavedivergence Associatedwithembayments Lessonconcentratedwaveenergy Lowerwave energy lowerwave height Deposition beaches GSC 120 Page 3 GSC12001 Lecture XXIV Monday Ma rch O7 2011 1144 AM Waves Breaking 0 Types of Breakers I Spilling Breakers El Occurs on very gentle slopes 0 1 to 4 degrees for offshore slopes Forgiven wave height break poi nt is farfrom shore Slow loss ofwave energy height over long horizontal distance HL ratio hovers at 17 Difficult to decide if wave has broken or not Nearly horizontal beach 0 1 to 4 degrees Multiple waves i n various stages of breaking I Plunging Breakers El Occurs on intermediate slopes 0 4 to 8 degrees El Forgiven wave height break poi nt shifts closer to shore El Distinct point where waves arch and curl forward 0 Point where orbital motion exceeds propagation velocity ofthe wave El Unique break point El Easy to decide ifwave has broken or not El Only one wave in the process of breaking I SurgingCollapsingBreakers El Occurs on steep beaches 0 8 to 12 degrees 0 Occurs righton shoreline El No wave development offshore El Wave surges upthe beach and down Quiz is on waves info ends right here Beaches and Beach Processes 0 Beach I Long narrow coastal accumulation oflocally abundant material sediment physical feature whichis notremovable 39uyr quot 39 39 39 away dynamic physical feature El No stipulation to particle size and composition I Marine source shells I Terrestrialsourcesand Beach Costal Terminology 0 Coastal terms I Generic I Offshore El That portion ofthe coastal zone which starts at the breaker point and extends seaward to where the depth exceeds a wavelength divided by two I Nearshore El Portion ofthe coastal zone which starts at the breaker point and extends landward to the low tide line I Foreshore CI The portion of the coastal zone which starts at the low tide line and extends landward to the highest limit of normal wave activity DEBUG D wave may wan cu ut Lake GSC 120 Page 4 O Backshore El Starts at the highest limit ofnormal wave activity and extends landward to some perennial feature not influenced by marine conditions Be ach te rms Specificto beaches Barand trough topography El Long continuous quotridgesquotquotvalleysquot of sand Nearshore trough El Trough or quotval leyquot in the nearshore corresponds to surf zone and zone oflongshore current and longshore transport Beachface Backbeach GSC 120 Page 5 A THE WATER MOLECULE Structure of the Water Molecule L Shell Oxygen Nucleus 1 Electron 8 Protons 8 8 Neutrons Nucleus 1 Proton K Shells Hold 39 Maximum of Two Electrons HYDROGEN ATOM M L Sheliss E Jlld ATOMIC 1 mum 0 cm OXYGEN ATOM ATOMIC 8 Slgn39r6imme 09 pm Hw molecule QMV m SHck WES 0nd mermrewte Chain 39Col mmhmo mung Chain 1 Gew amind1viduay knowleng O 6 H20 x 0 long Chain Water Molecule 39 mmm gt m c 105 0 term dam K b mt inawm Wiewlvc H m en bond adhem 39SO WH M has Shared Electrons Wamm W d39 tssvlved mtmim quotEbm39gn smbsiances m wowP SHdA fb reign wadanoes I o Covalent Bond Also Note 1 Asymmetrical Molecule 2 Polar Molecule 3 Can not explain structure o GSC12001 Lecturel WednesclayianLia ryOS 2011 329 PM Oceanography o The scientific systematicstudy of the world39s oceans Whystudythe oceans o 70 ofthe earth39s surface iscovered in ocean I 361 million sq km I 25x more ocean than land I 1sqkmofocean4 sq km ofland Aboutthe ocean o Avgdepth 4000 meters 0 14 billion cubickmofwater o Oceanography beginsat the shore 0 Need research vesselstostudy Disciplines of oceanography o Gealogicaloceanographymarinegeology I Examination into composition structure origin morphologyevolution and natural process operative on and to the sea floor I Methods El sea floorsamplesGRAB SAMPLES El CORE SAMPLES penetrate a few feet into sea floor El Deep sea photography El Echo amp seismic profilingacoustical techniques 0 Chemicaloceanography I Analysis of components and chemical properties ofsea wateras well as processes which maintain and control ocean chemistry through time 0 Physical oceanography I Study the physical properties and physical processes of the ocean I Methodsin accordance with chemical oceanography El Watersampling El Watertemperature El Deep sea current meters 0 Use devicesto measure salinity temperature and currents o Biologicaaceanography I Examination of marine organisms and their relation to each other and theiroceanic surroundings GSC 120 Page GSC 12001 Lecture II Wednesdaylanuary05 2011 355PM Oceanographyamp History Note regional geography South is NAfrica hot dry desert North an eastwest chain of mountains Italy Greece mountainous Islandsin the Mediterranean Sea especially the E Mediterranean wai I Peoples ofthis region established empires commerce regionaltrade 0 Used sea and boats 0 Reasons 1st Easy to move on 2nd Able to get places rapidly 3rd Haul large quantities of goods people amp materials NAVIGATION info 0 Longitude I northsouth orientation I measure eastto westdistance I Measure timetodeterminelongitude o Latitude I Eastwest orientation I Measure northsouth distance I Measure sun and north star angle to determine latitude Earliest records of boats date to 4000 BC o depicted intombs Phoenicians 0 East mediterranean 2000 BC to 200 BC o Masterseafarersofthe ancientworld I Atlantic Mediterranean Red Sea Indian Ocean 0 Discovered Canary Islands 0 Visited Great Britain 0 MAY have circumnavigated Africa in 590 BC AncientGreeks o Pytheas 3255C Explorer astronomer geographer Exploretravel Med amp Black sea Venture into Atlantic gt France England Norway Iceland Circumnavigated and gauged measured the coast of England Tidal observations III Relate tides tidal range to the moon 0 Eratosthenes 276 196 BC I Controlled the Great Library ofAlexandria Egypt I Calculated circumference ofthe earth45000 km GSC 120 Page 2 40000 IS MORE ACCURATE Ancient Rome 0 Seneca 54 BC 30AD I Developed general concept of the hyd rologic cycle Noted rive rs always added waterto the ocean Why sea level never changed evaporation Recognized importance ofevaporation to balance input Recognized must be adynamicbalance between the rate ofinput and the rate of removal El Ocean volume constant El Concept of STEADY STATE DarkMiddle Ages 0 The Chinese Connection I Peoples of arabian peninsula like phoenicians had trade with SEAsia El Chinese technological and scientific marvels First seismometer explosives time pieces Masterexplorers of the SW Pacific Huge vessels 100s offeet long Crude compass Steerwrudder 0 0000 o Vikings Scandinavian group ofpeople I Noted forvicious savage invasions of N Europe I Excellentsea travelers I Excellent evidence they had habitations in Iceland Greenland eastern Canada Vineland El Traveled when climatewas warmer and much more mild gt deteriorated 1250 AD GSC 120 Page 3 GSC 12001 Lecture Friday January 07 2011 1033 PM Historycontinued 14921522 1492 Columbus 1522 Magellan circumnavigated the globe 30 year period of ti me when all major continents except Antarctica were discovered Others I Vasco da Gamma 1498 El Repeated the Phoenicians circumnavigated ofAfrica I Vasco Balboa 1513 0 000 All exploits primarily economicallydriven o Oceanography was a byproduct o Understandocean todelivergoods 17001872 0 1711 LuigiMarsigi I Titleofcount I GeneralintheAustrianArmy I Memberof French amp London Royal Societies I ExplorerTurkeyAustriaSweden El 1stoceanographytext 0 StudyofMediterraneanampBlackSea 0 Informationderivedfromfishermen ltgt Geologicaloceanographydescriptionsampsamplechartsofsediment ltgt Physicaloceanographysurfaceampbelowsurface chartofcurrents temperatureanddensity ltgt Biological oceanography identi ed ampclassified the forms 0 1769 Benjamin Franklin I Postmastergeneral ofthe colonies I Noted transatlantic mail delivery varies by as much as two weeks I Timothy Folgercousinwhalerfrom Nantucket El Used majorcurrent in AtlanticTheGulfStream I Franklinand Folgermade 1st chart oqulf Stream and gave instructionsfor using temperature tofindavoidthe current 0 17681779 VayagesafjamesCook I Understood the issue of scurvy vitamin Cdeficiency I Orders were to explore the Pacific Ocean I Complained after his 1st voyage he could not accurately chart his position El 1701 Major British Naval Disaster 0 Navigational errorboats ran aground amp 2000 died El Give 20000 pounds to whoevercan accurately measure longitude I John Harrison clock makercreated several versions of his chronometersea worthy clock El 1735 1st version 3 degrees off12 mins GSC 120 Page 4 El 1761 4th version 9 seconds oftime offin 2 months El 1775 finallyawarded money 83years old I Cook39sanvoyageofJamesampJohn Ross El John Ross18171818 arctic exploration El James Ross 18371893 antarctic exploration 0 Neededtoknowthedepthofwater 0 Usedadevicetosampletheseafloor ltgt Results 1 Firstaccuratedepthmeasurements 2 Lifeexistedatalldepths 3 Uniformlycolddeepocean o 1855 Matthew Maury I US Naval officerassigned to the US Naval Depot 1842 I Examine recordsand compile data I Result PhysicalGeographyoftheSea El Storm tracks sea conditions winds currents gulfstream El Sea floor maps 6000 12000 18000 24000 ft I Start foundation for modern physical oceanography 0 18721876 Voyage of the HMS Challenge I lstwhollyscientific expedition I Touched in all aspects of modern oceanography El Biological oceanography 0 5000 new species identi ed and described El Chemical oceanography 0 77 total chemical analyses ofsea water Cl Geologicaloceanography 0 361 new acccurate depth measurements and samples El Physical oceanography 0 Ocean surface currents amp deep currents 0 19005 Centers ofOceanography Research I Example 1930 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution I Example of research voyages El 1925 1927 Germany Meteor Expedition sonar El 1968 to present DV GlomarChallenger and latervessels 0 Drilling vesselstime perspective GSC 120 Page 5 GSC 12001 Lecture IV MondayJanuary 10 2011 1148 AM SeafloorGradient o Sonarmeasuresdepthnotangle o Depthampdistanceeasiesttomeasure I Verticalhorizontalratio I Egzvertical 100 meters horizontal 1000 meters El 110ratio El Lowersteeperhigherflatter Texture ofthe Sea Floor 0 Particle size 0 M 2mm 063 mm o it 63mm 004 mm 0 1 004mm finer Sea FloorMorphology 0 Atlantic Type Con tinentalllIargins I India Australia Africa Eastern US 0 Passive Continen tallllargins notseafloorfeatures 1 No earthquakes 2 No volcanoes 3 Noactive mountain building 4 Notassociated with plate boundaries 0 ContinentalShef I Portionoftheseafloorextendingfromtheshorelinetothefirstincreaseinthegradient I Width to shelf is not constant El Avg6575km I Depthisnotconstant El Avg2120 meters I Gradient El 11000 o Continen taIGIaciationEurope amp N America I 18000 years ago 30 covered by glaciers I Sea level has changed in the last 40000 years El Fig 65 pg 3 I Sea level lower by 120 meters 18000 years ago I Note over10000 years sea level rose rapidly to present levels rate of rise 2 meters by 100 yrs 18000 yrs ago continental shelfdry land Rivers would have drained acrossthe shelf Sea level rise shoreline migrate toward present day coast D EDD o ContinentalSope I Portionoftheseafloorextendingfromtheouteredgeofthecontinentalshelfseawardto thefirstDECREASEinthegradient El Fig 1013 pg5 NovaScotia GSC 120 Page 6 El Extends tothe depth of 120m to 2500m El Narrow 20 to 40 km wide El Gradientranges from 16 to 140 Marks the true descentinto the deep ocean Occupies the transition between the 2 majorearth surface elevations El Continental and sea True edge of the continent Texture siltamp some clay o Submarine canyons AssociatedwithcontinentalslopedeepquotVquotshapedvalleyswhichareerodedintothe continentalslope Eg Monterey Submarine Canyon El WideranddeeperthantheGrandCanyon Turbidity curren ts El Sedimentchargedladenflowsofwaterwhichstartattheshelfslopebreakand travel downslope to the deepsea El Erodesthesubmarinecanyonsintothecontinentalslope GSC 120 Page 7 GSC 12001 Lecture V Wednesdaylanuary 12 2011 1148 AM Recap o Continentalslopestartswhereshelfends o Gradient changedeg 16 and 140 o Submarine canyons created by turbidity currents I Debrisfromriversdeposited I Movedownslopeiesubmarinelandslide Turbidity currents o FiglOpg 5 o Rocklayersare not deformed 0 Continental slope and shelfare partofthe continent 0 Continental slope and shelfunderlain by quotcrystalline basementquot I Continentalcrustcomposedofgranite Continental Crust 0 Granite I Lightin color I Low density about27gmcm3 I Relatively high in Na K ASi and relativelylow in Fe Mg Ca 0 Grand Canyon I Exposed continental crustgood model of rock layers Sea FloorMorphology continued 0 ContinentalRise Portion ofthe seafloorextending from the lower continental slope seawrd to the first decrease in gradient Fig 1013 pg 5 El Gradientfalls between continental shelf and slope 0 150 to 1300 Texture cay with some silt Covers preexisting features Straddles the transition between continental and oceanicbasement Oceanic basementoceaniccrust Composed of basalt o Oceaniccrust I Basalt El Darkincolor El Relatively dense 30gmcm3 El Relatively rich in Fe Mg Ca and relatively low in Na K ASi 0 Continental riseorigin I Submarinecones a Occur at base of continental slope39ssubcanyon Debriserodedandcarried byturbiditycurrentsisdepositedatthe baseoftheslope Slowlybuildsandcoalescestoformaramplikeaccumulationknownascontinental rise 0 Alluvialfanscontinentalrise DD GSC 120 Page 8 ltgt Thick accumulations depositsof debris where streams exit 0 Coalescence of alluvial fans submarine cones El Continental rise depositional feature 0 Abyssalplains I Flattestnaturallyoccurringfeatureslocatedbeyondtheseawardendofcontinentalrises I Underlainonlybybasaltoceaniccrust El Geologicallybelongtooceanicbasins El Coverburyoceaniccrust El Depositionalfeature I 11500 I Origin El El Present location whereturbidity currents deposit theirsediment load Continental rise builds upward turbidity currents moverocer it bypassing the rise I Texturezsand o PacifictypeContinentalMargins I Active D EDD Earthquakes Active volcanoes Active mountain building Associated with plate boundaries GSC 120 Page 9 GSC12001 Lecture Vl Friday Ja nua W 14 2011 703 PM Continuedfrom active 0 Basalt will experience meltinglava I Due to earthquake o Lava moves toward surface and melts granite o Granitebasaltlavaandesite Recap o Narrowcontinentalshelves Steep continentalslopes No continental rise No abyssal plain Trench Seafloor morphology continued 0 Trenches I Long narrow deep depressions valleys found seaward of the lower continental slope associated with active continental margins Examples oftrenches El Tonga trench 0 Depth of9000 meters 37km wide yetcontinuousfor 700 km El Middle america 0 4000 meters 1050 km wide Deepest portions ofthe sea floor El Mariana Trench isa good example 11000 m deep Earthquake active Fault motion trenches are compressive features Adjacent land undergoingdeformation and active mountain building See pg 7 ofthe handout o Trenches are associated with volcanoes I Produce andesite see above I All are active I Once beyond trenches orabyssal plains universal open ocean features Sea Floorfeaturesfound beyond trenches and abyssal plains o Abyssalhills Most common features on the seafloorand the earth consist of gently rolling undulating knollswith elevations lessthat 1000 meters 30 ofeath39s surface 85 ofthe Pacificsea floor Eggshapes o Seamounts Associated with the abyssal hill regions of the sea floor conical features of volcanic origin which occuras isolated volcanic peaks or more commonly as linear chains ofvolcanic features Elevation higher than 1000 meters Example GSC 120 Page 10 El Hawaiian chain El Volcanoes produce basal o Oceanic ridges Increasingly rugged sea floor feature found beyond the abyssal hill region ridges are longest most continuous volcanic mountain system on earth I Total 6500 km everyocean I Ridgeaxisvalley El Axial vaeyvolcanicand earthquake active El Faultmotionridgespulledapartgtextensionaltensionalfeature 0 Rift valley El Lacks sediment exposed basalt aka oceanic crust o Fracture zones Straightest naturallv occurringfeatures on earth associated with oceanic ridges divide breakthe ridgesinto segments Earthquake active butconfined within ridge sections GSC 120 Page 11 GSC 12001 Lecture V Wednesdaylanuary 19 2011 1004 PM Internal Structure ofthe Earth 0 Crust 565 kmthick o Mantle 2900 kmthickness o Outerinnercore3500km thickness 0 Radius ofthe Earth 6400 km NOTE A ton of this lecture was from the quotInternal Structure ofthe Earthquot Packet so go through it o Lithasphere I Encompassesthevariousquotcrustsquot o Asthenosphere I Confinedtothe mantle Plate tectonics o Terminology I Sea Floor Feature oceanicridge physical feature I Plate boundarydivergentplate boundary I Process Sea floor spreading new oceanic is being created atthe active spreadingcenter GSC 120 Page 12 GSC 12001 Lecture V Friday January 21 2011 1030 PM Terminology continued 0 OO O O Divergentplatebaundary I Associated with risingsegmentsofconvection currents I Oceanicridgesaredivergentplateboundaries El ieceandexposedpartofMidAtlanticRidge 0 Activespreadingcenter 0 Newoceaniccrust El Move2cmyear I Onepieceandanotherpiececometowardseachother El Convergent Sea FloorFeature Trench Plate boundary Convergent Plate I Sitesofoldoceaniccrustbeingconsumedbyearth39sinteriorrecyced Processquot 39J 39 zone 39J 39 39 J Irecycled backintoearth39sinterior divergentinSouth pacificandAtlantic Convergentplateboundaries I quot 39 with 439 Usegmentsof ts I Siteofseafloorsubductionconsumption El Creates active continental margins El TrenchsystemsstopsBajaCalifornia I Continentto continent collision create newsubduction zone El Lightdensitycannotbesubducted El Overtimecontinentsincreaseinsizefewerinnumber I Subductingplateyieldsactivevolcanoesexposive I Subductingcreatesvolcanicarcsampandesitevolcanism GSC 120 Page 13 GSC 12001 Lecture IX MondavJanuary 24 2011 1041 PM Terminology continued 0 Sea FloorFeature Fracture Zone 0 Plate Boundary Transform plate boundary I Active fault between two ridge segments I Inactive outside ofthat way Process Earthquake fault quottransformsquot from an active faultto an inactive fault Two plates move past each other material is neither created ordestroyed at transform plate boundaries 0 Transform Plate Boundaries 0 San Andreas Fault fracture zone I Segment I Moves ata rate of 23 cmyr o Hotspots I Not related to plate boundary processes I Isolated rising plumeof athenospheric material I Remove heat and generate linear chains of island ie Hawaiian Islands Hawaiianlslands o Linearchainofvolcanicislands I Onlyactivevolcanoonmainisland I Allothersareextinct o Ageofislandsincreasesawayfromtheactualhotspot I Islandsareattachedtomovingplate I Move islands away I Newislandsformoverstationaryhotspot MarineSediments 0 Virtually the entire sea floorcovered with particulate matter 0 Someareasoceaniccrustsiscovered byathincoverofsediment I Oceanicridges o Otherareashaveverythicklayersofsediment 39 trenches 39 39 c o Textural classification RECAP from 1st I Sand2mm063mm I Silt063mm004mm I Clayfinerthan004mm III Onlytellssizeofparticles III Nocompositionimplied I Al Classification based on origin or composition 0 Lithogenous I Class of marine sediments derived from the physical amp chemical breakdown weathering of preexisting rock material Derived from land Also cal led terrigenous sediments Delivered to oceans via rivers N umerous quotpoint sourcesquot little rivers along the margins ofthe ocean basins D EDD GSC 120 Page 14 o Biogenous I Classofmarinesedimentsderivedfromlivingorganisms El Representstheorganicsecretionofquothard partsquot 0 Shellsbonesteethetcminorcontributortomarinesediments El Bulkofbiogenoussedimentsderivedfromtheshellsofmicroscopicsinglecelled organisms110mm 0 Liveeverywhere o Hydrogenous I Derivedfromtheinorganicprecipitationofmaterialfromseawater El Animalsplantsnotneededwithoutaidoforganism El Producedthrough 0 Evaporationofseawaterzvarioussalts ltgt ieRedSeaDeadSeaPersianSea 0 Chemical reactions manganese nodules o Cosmogenous I Classofmarinesedimentsderivedfromouterspacesources El FamiliarwquotIargeobjectsquot 0 Meteoritesasteroidscometsetc Majority comes from 100s of tons of minute dust falls from space every day Almostnevermakesalayerofsediment Smallcomponentmixedwithlithogenousampbiogenous EDD GSC 120 Page 15 GSC 12001 Lecture X Wednesdaylanuary 26 2011 230PM 0 Distribution of marine sediments o Turbidity currents I Rapid catastrophic bulk replacement oflarge quantities of sediments confined to a margin El Depositionalprocessquotunderwaterlandslidequot El Produce c rises and abyssal plains o Pelagicsedimentation I Slow particle by particle accumulation of sedimentary material from a very dilute quotsuspensionquot I Everywhereintheocean SettlingVelocity Size Time to Settle 4000ml V lmm Sand 2 days OlmmSilt 12 year OOlmm Clay 50 years o Solubility o CaCa3 calcite I Found above 4000m I Nothing found between 40004500m o SiOZ Silica Opal I Increase in waterdepth dissolve less Silica accumulates deeper El 4500m Biogenouscomposition o CaCo3calciumcarbonateampsilicaSi02 o FourMajorConsituents I Foraminifera El Singlecellanimals5mm El Secreteaquotshellquotofcalciumcarbonate I Radiolarians El ShellofSi02silica El Singlecellanimals25mm GSC 120 Page 16 GSC 12001 Lecture XI Friday January 28 2011 255PM Marine Sediments o Biogenous sediments I Coccolithophorids El Singlecelled plants marine algae El Calcium carbonate accumulated above calcite compensation depth I Diatoms El Singlecelled plants El SecretequotshellquotofSi02siicaopal I Open ocean more biogenous components 0 HydragenausSedimenB I Classofmarinesedimentsderivedfromdirectchemicalprecipitationofsolidsfromsea water Cl Formed byinorganic chemical processes Evaporationofwater ltgt Varioussalts 0 Chemical reactionsoccurringwithintheoceanoratthe sedimentwater interface ltgt Manganesenodules gt Precipitationofhydrogenoussedimentsinthedeepsea b Veryslowprocess F Seawaterisverydilutesolution b Lowconcentration El GreatSaltLake El DeathValley El Lake Manley12000 yrs ago 0 Climatechangedfrommoisttoarid Formationof39 0 J39 requiresr 39contactwithseawater Onlyoccurswhereaccumulationofothersedimenttypesisminimal El Deep ocean abyssalhills ridge flanks far from land 0 Internalstructureslayering 0 Growthmmpermillionyears NodulesatthesedimentwaterinterfaceforlOsofmillionsofyears Accumulated material through precipitation GSC 120 Page 17


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