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by: Ignatius Ortiz

LifeScience BIO110

Ignatius Ortiz
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.98


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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ignatius Ortiz on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO110 at California State Polytechnic University taught by MarciaEwers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/218292/bio110-california-state-polytechnic-university in Biology at California State Polytechnic University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
Study Guide Exam 3 CHAPTER 13 How Populations Evolve Why This Chapter Matters 1 Evolution integrates and informs all of biology 2 Applications of evolutionary biology are transforming medicine agriculture biotechnology and conservation biolo 3 Evolution helps us understand the historical context of life through common descent Chapter Objectives Biology and Society Persistent Pests 1 Explain how pesticideresistant insect populations evolve an antibiotic resistant bacteria etc 2 Explain Why an understanding of evolution is important Charles Darwin and The Origin of Species 3 Compare the ideas of Aristotle Buffon Lamarck Wallace and Darwin on the ability of species to change 4 Explain how Darwin s voyages on the Beagle influenced the development of his thoughts on evolution 5 Explain how Lyell s ideas impacted Darwin s thinking 6 Describe Darwin s two main points in The Origin of Species Evidence of Evolution 7 Explain how each of the following provides evidence that evolution occurs the fossil record 39 J 39 anatomy r 39 eru ur ulu and molecular biology Natural Selection 8 Describe Darwin s two main observations that led to the concept of natural selection 9 Explain how natural selection is more a process of editing than a creative mechanism Evolutionary Trees lOExplain how evolutionary trees are constructed and What they represent The Modern Synthesis Darwinism Meets Genetics 11 Explain What is meant by the phrases modern synthesis and population genetics Further define a population describe its properties and explain Why a population is the smallest unit of evolution 12 Explain the relative importance of mutation and sexual recombination in the evolution of life Mechanisms of Evolution Evolution Connection The Genetics of the SickleCell Allele l3 Explain Why sicklecell disease is much more common in African Americans than in the general US population Key Terms Biogeography The study of the geographic distribution of species Bottleneck effect 7 Genetic dri resulting from a drastic reduction in population size Comparative anatomy 7 The comparison of body structures in different species Evolution 7 Descent With modi cation genetic change in population or species over generations the heritable changes that have roduced earth75 diversity of organisms Evolutiona adaptation7 A population s increase in the frequency of traits suited to the environment Evolutiona tree 7A branching diagram that re ects a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms Fitness The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contribution of other individuals n the population Fossil record 7 The ordered sequence of fossils as they appear in the rock layers marking the passing geological time Fossils A preserved imprint or remains of an organism that lived in the past Founder effect 7 The genetic dri resulting from the establishment of a small new population Whose gene pool differs from that of the parent population Gene pool 7 All genes in a population at any one time Genetic dri 7 A change in the gene pool of a population due to chance Homology 7 Anatomical similarity due to common ancestr Microevolution 7 A change in a population s gene pool over a succession of generations Modern sEthesis 7 A comprehensive theory of evolution that incorporates genetics and includes most of darvvin s ideas focusing on population as the fundamental unit of evolution Natural selection 7 A process in which organisms With certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce Population 7 A group of interacting individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area Vestigjal structures 7A Structure of marginal if any importance to an organism Vestigial structures are historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors 1 Which of the following is a good example of evolution occurring in our time A The development of pesticideresistant insects 2 According to current evolutionary theory which of the following is true A Populations are the units of evolution 3 ln evolutionary terms an organism39s Darwinian fitness is measured by its A Contribution to the gene pool of the next generation 4 A process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are individuals with other characteristics is called A Natural selection 5Sicklecell disease is caused by A A recessive allele 6The relationship of the genome to an organism is the same as that of the to a population A Gene pool 7 The study of comparative anatomy A Provides information about the evolutionary history of species 8Which of the following is the study of the geographic distribution of species on Earth A Biogeography 9 Natural selection A Relies on variation among individuals in a population 10 Imagine that a new population of humans is established on a new planet from ten randomly selected people in your biology class Over thousands of years the descendants of those ten people reproduce and prosper but do not re ect well the diversity of humans onEarth This change in the diversity of people on the new planet is an example 0 A The founder effect 11 A challenge to traditional pre1860 ideas about species came from embryology where it was discovered that A Embryos of dissimilar organisms such as sharks and humans resemble each other 12Which one of the following was an assumption of Charles Darwin39s theory of natural selection A Populations produce more offspring than their environment can support 13 Which mechanism for evolution was proposed by Lam arck A Evolution by inheritance of acquired characteristics CHAPTER 14 How Biological Diversity Evolves Why This Chapter Matters lRecognizing the types of life on Earth and relationships between them helps us understand the reasons for the similarities and differences between organisms 2Life on Earth has a long and dynamic history Understanding how the earth has changed helps us understand the processes occurring on Earth today Chapter Objectives Biology and Society The Sixth Mass Extinction lExplain why scientists think we may be in the middle of the sixth mass extinction in the last 600 million years Macroevolution and the Diversity of Life 2Describe the processes included in the study of macroevolution Distinguish between speciation and non branching evolution The Origin of Species 3Define the biological species concept Explain its limitations when applied to all types of living organisms 4Describe the different types of prezygotic and post zygotic reproductive barriers noting Examples of each 5Distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation noting examples of each Earth History and Macroevolution 6 List in order the four distinct ages in the history of life on Earth 7 Explain how analyzing sedimentary rock layers and radiometric dating help us understand the Fossil history of life on Earth 8Explain how the formation and breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea affected the evolution of life on Earth Key Terms Allopatric speciation7 The formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral population becoming isolated by a geographic barrier Analogy 7 The similarity of structure between two species that are not closely related attributable to convergent evolution Biological species concept 7 The definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential in nature to interbreed and produce fertile offspring Convergent evolution 7 Adaptive change resulting in nonhomologous similarities among organisms Domain A taxonomic category above the kingdom level The three domains of life are ArchaeaBacteria and Eukerya Geologic time scale 7 A time scale established by geologists that re ects a consistent sequence of geologic periods grouped into four divisions Precambrian Paleozoic Mesozoic and Cenozoic Macroevolution Evolutionary change on a grand scale encompassing the origin of new species the origin of evolutionary novelty diversification and mass extinction P ylum 7 ln classification the taxonomic category above class and below kingdom Members of a phylum all have a similar general body plan Phylogenetic tree 7 A branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships between organisms Postzygotic barriers 7 A reproductive barrier that operates if interspecies mating occurs and forms hybrid zygotes Preggotic barriers 7 A reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization of eggs if memebers of different species attempt to mate Radiometric dating 7 A method for determining the age of fossils and rocks from the ratio of a radioactive isotope to the nonradioactive isotope of the same element in the sample Reproductive barrier Anything that prevents individuals of closely related species from interbreeding even when populations of the two species live together Speciation 7 The information of new species Species 7 A group of populations whose members possess similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed Sympatric speciation 7 The formation of a new species as a result of a change that produces a reproductive barrier between the changed population and parent population Sympatric speciation occurs without a geographic barrier Threedomain system 7 A system of taxonomic classification based on three basic groups Bacteria Archaea and Eukarya Sam le uestions lThe process that leads to the multiplication of species is called A Macroevolution 2The observation that led scientists to hypothesize that a meteor caused the mass extinction of dinosaurs 65 million years was A Finding iridium in rocks deposited about that time 3In the late 1900s molecular studies and cladistics led to the development of a classification system A Threedomain 4Which of the following is a true statement A Massive extinction of species results in less species diversity but is followed by an explosive diversi cation of certain remaining species 5Because of plate tectonics about 250 million years ago A All the landmasses were united in one supercontinent 6 Two animals are considered members of different species if they A Cannot interbreed 7 Older fossils usually A Are found in the deepest strata 8Which one of the following is an example of a post zygotic barrier A The production of sterile hybrids 9Which of these is an example of temporal isolation A One species is nocturnal and the other species is diurnal active during the day lOThe model describes the no gradual evolutionary changes in organisms A Punctuated equilibrium 11Different species that occupy similar niches in isolated areas develop morphological similarities This phenomenon is called A Convergent evolution 12 Mammal fossils older than 65 million years showed mammals to be A Mostly small and not very diverse 13Animals that possess homologous structures probably A Shared a common ancestor 14 Sympatric speciation is A The appearance ofa new species in the same area as the parent population 15 The meaning of quotThe Sixth Mass Extinction is A The prediction that a sixth humancaused mass extinction of life on Earth will occur CHAPTER 18 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Why This Chapter Matters 1 Our biosphere is the sum of all ecosystems 2 Understanding the diversity of PM fem their 1 39 39 and L ueii 39 39 enables us to better appreciate the natural world in which we live 3 Human interactions in the natural world routinely disrupt ecosystems We cannot Understand our impact without first understanding the natural properties of these systems Chapter Objectives Biology and Society Penguins and Polar Bears in Peril 1 Describe the global climate changes already documented over the past century An Overview of Ecology 2 Define ecology and explain how ecologists learn about the structure and processes of our Natural world 3 Define the biosphere and the four levels of ecology Living in Earth s Diverse Environments 4 Explain why the biosphere is patchy List and describe the major abiotic factors affecting the distribution of life in the biosphere 5 Define and describe examples of the three main types of responses that enable plants or animals to adjust to changes in their environments Biomes 6 Define the term biome and describe the two traits that usually determine what type of biome will exist in a particular region Also explain how biomes get their names 7Explain how climate affects terrestrial biome distribution 8Explain how humans have impacted the world s biomes and describe the goals of sustainability Global Climate Change 9Explain how greenhouse gases affect global climates 10 Explain why C02 levels may be increasing in the global atmosphere 11Explain how global climate change impacts the distribution and interactions of species 12Explain how you can decrease your carbon footprint Evolution Connection Climate Change as an Agent of Natural Selection 13Explain why organisms with low genetic diversity and long life spans might suffer the most in a rapidly changing climate Key Terms Abiotic factors 7 A nonliving component of an ecosystem such as air water light minerals or temperature Biome A major terrestrial or aquatic life zone characterized by vegetation type in terrestrial biomes or the physical environment in aquatic biomes Biosphere 7 The global ecosystem39 the entire portion of earth inhabited by life39 all of like and where it lives Biotic factors 7 A living component of a biologica1community39 any organism that is part of an individual s environment Carbon footprint 7 The amount of greenhouse gas emitted as a result of the actions of a person nation or other entity Chaparral 7 A terrestrial biome limited to coastal regions where cold ocean currents circulation offshore creating mild rainy winters and long hot dry summer also known as the Mediterranean biome Chaparral vegetation is adapted to fire Community 7All the organisms inhabiting and potentially interacting in a particular area an assemblage of populations of different species Community ecology The study of how interactions between species affect community structure and organization Coniferous forests 7 A terrestrial biome characterized by conifers conebearing evergreen trees Coral reef 7 Tropical marine biome characterized by the hard skeletal structures secreted primarily by the resident cnidarians Deserts 7A terrestrial biome characterized by low and unpredictable rainfall Ecology 7 The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments Ecosystem 7 All the organisms living in a given area along with the nonliving factors with which they interact39 a biological community and its physical environment Ecosystem ecology 7The study of energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among he various biotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem Estuary 7 The area where a freshwater stream or river merges with seawater Greenhouse effect 7 The warming of the atmosphere caused by C02 CH4 and other gases that absorb heat radiation and slow its escape from Earth s surface Greenhouse gases 7 Any of the gases in the atmosphere that absorb heat radiation including C02 methane water vapor and synthetic chlorofluorocarbons Habitat 7 A place where an organism lives a specific environment in which an organism lives Organismal ecology The study of the evolutionary adaption that enable individual organisms to meet challenges posed by their abiotic environments Permafrost 7 Continuously frozen subsoil found in the arctic tundra Polar ice 7 Terrestrial biome that includes extremely cold temperature and low precipitation Population 7 A group of interacting individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area at the same time Population ecology 7The study of how members of a population interact with their environment focusing on factors that in uence population density and growt Savannas 7 A terrestrial biome dominated by grasses and scattered tress Frequent fires and seasonal droughts are significant abiotic factors Sustainability 7 The goal of developing managing and conserving earth s resources in ways that meet the needs of people today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs Taiga 7Northern coniferous forest long snowy winter and short wet summers Temperate broadleaf forests 7 A terrestrial biome located throughout midlatitude regions where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large broadleaf deciduous trees Temperate grasslands 7Terrestrial biome located in the temperate zone and characterized by low rainfall and nonwoody vegetation Tree growth is hindered by occasional fires and periodic severe drought Temperate rain forests 7 Coniferous forests of coastal North America supported by warm moist air from the Pacific Ocean Temperate zones 7Latitudes between the tropics and the Arctic Circle in the north and the Antarctic Circle in the south39 regions with milder climates than the tropics or polar regions Tropical forests 7 A terrestrial biome characterized by warm temperatures yearround Tropics 7 Region between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of Capricorn latitudes between235 north and south Tundra 7Woody shrubs grasses mosses and liches Wetland 7 Between Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem Wetland soil is saturated with water permanently or periodically Sam le uestions lThe definition of your carbon footprint is A The amount of greenhouse gas emitted as a result of your actions 2 Human activity especially significantly alters the amount of atmospheric water vapor available for the water cycle A Destruction of tropical rain forests 3 Terrestrial ecosystems are grouped into biomes primarily on the basis of A Vegetative type 4 The goal of developing managing and conserving Earth39s resources in ways that meet the needs of people today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs is known as A Sustainability 5 The dominant greenhouse gas is A Carbon dioxide 6An organism39s environment consists of A Abiotic and biotic factors 7 The rising average global temperature is having the greatest effect on the A Northermnost regions of the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic Peninsula 8 Latitudes between the tropics and the Arctic Circle in the north and the Antarctic Circle in the south are called A Temperate zones 9 Environmental problems of today will be better understood by looking to the study of A Ecology 10 Photosynthetic organisms such as plants and algae depend on the availability of two important inorganic nutrients and A Nitrogen phosph0rus llWhich of the following is a true statement A The increase in global temperature is often called the greenhouse effect 12Which of the following is a population A All of the redwood trees that live in a forest This includes the individuals of one species in one place that presumably interact use the same resources and live under the same environmental conditions 13 Evolutionary adaptation may not save longlived species such as polar bears and penguins from extinction because A of rapid habitat loss The rate of climate change today is incredibly fast compared to major climate shifts in evolutionary history CHAPTER 19 Population Ecology Why This Chapter Matters 1 The human population explosion is now Earth s most significant biological phenomenon 2 The current mass extinction of species is related to the exploding human population 3 To understand human population growth we must understand the principles of ecology that apply to all species Chapter Objectives Biology and Society Multiplying Like Rabbits 1 Describe the impact of the introduction of European rabbits and European red foxes into Australia An Overview of Population Ecology 2 Define the terms population population ecology and population density 3 Explain how life tables are used to track mortality and survivorship in populations 4 Compare Type I Type II and Type III survivorship curves 5 Compare the characteristics of species that show opportunistic or equilibrial life histories Describe examples of each Population Growth Models 6 Compare the exponential growth model to the logistic growth model Describe examples of each 7 Distinguish between densitydependent and densityindependent factors 8 Explain why the hare and lynx populations cycle in a boomandbust fashion Applications of Population Ecology 9 Explain how population ecology can help guide efforts to save populations close to extinction Distinguish between endangered species and threatened species 10 Explain how population ecology can be used to provide the highest sustainable yields from harvests of natural populations Human Population Growth llDescribe the growth of the human population over the last 2000 years 12Explain how age structure diagrams can help to predict changes in a population and in social conditions l3Explain how the ecological footprint of a nation indicates the country7s impact on the world s resources Evolution Connection Humans as an Invasive Species 14 Explain how and why the North American population of mammals has changed in the last15000 years Key Terms Age structure 7 The relative number of individuals of each age in population Biological control 7The intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population Carrying capacity 7The maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain Densitydependent factor 7 A limiting factor whose effects intensify with increasing population density Densityindependent factor 7 A limiting factor whose occurrence and effects are not related to population density Ecological footprint 7An estimate of the amount of land required to provide the raw materials an individual or a population consumers including food fuelwaterhousing and waste disposal Endangered species Eguilibrial life histog Exponential population growth 7 A model that describes expansion of a population in an ideal unlimited environment Life history 7The traits that affect an organism s schedule of reproduction and survival Limiting factors 7 Environment factor that restricts the number of individuals that can occupy a particular habitat thus holding population growth in check Logjstic population ggowth 7 A model that describes population growth that decreases as population size approaches carrying capacity Opportunistic life history Population Population density 7The number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume of that habitat Population ecology 7 Study of how members of a population interact with their environment focusing on factors that influence population density and growth Population momentum Survivorship curve 7 Plot of number of individuals that are still alive at each age in the maximum life span39 one way to represent agespecific mortality Threatened species Sam le uestions l The single greatest current cause of population decline is A Habitat destruction 2 A population is defined as A A group of individuals of a single species that occupies the same general area 3Which of the following statements about the intentional release of rabbits and foxes in Australia is true A Eradication of introduced species is virtually impossible the best that can be done is to minimize their impact 4 Ecologists represent life table data graphically in a A Survivorship curve 5 One piece of information that is available from a determination of population density is A The number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume of the habitat 6 Which of the following is directly responsible for the rapid extinctions that are occurring at an accelerated pace on Earth A Humans 7 A nonnative species that has spread far beyond the original point of introduction and causes environmental or economic damage is called an A Invasive species 8 Human population growth A Is currently exponential 9 The definition of a densitydependent factor is A A populationlimiting factor whose effects intensify as the population increases in density 10 A set of traits that affects an organism39s schedule of reproduction and survival is called its A Life history ll A combination of biological chemical and cultural methods for sustainable control of agricultural pests is called A Integrated pest management 12 Evolutionary changes in which an adaptation of one species leads to a counter adaptation in a second species is known as A Coevolution 13 Age structures are helpful for predicting A A population39s future growth 14 Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the Earth39s carrying capacity for humans A Our technology has allowed us to keep increasing carrying capacity 15 Which of the following is a definition of the ecological footprint A The estimate of the amount of land required to provide the raw materials an individual or a population consumes CHAPTER 20 Communities and Ecosystems Why This Chapter Matters 1 Humans have an unusually destructive impact on the environment typically reducing species diversity 2 Human activities also disrupt biogeochemical cycles 3 Yet humans have a fascination with the natural world We are naturally curious about our world and wish to preserve it 4 This chapter helps us understand the nature of the problems and our efforts to save what wevalue Chapter Objectives Biology and Society Does Biodiversity Matter 1 Explain why biodiversity matters The Loss of Biodiversity 2 Describe the three levels of biological diversity 3 Describe the main causes of declining biodiversity Community Ecology 4Explain how biological magnification concentrates toxins in the highest trophic levels 5Explain how species richness and relative abundance contribute to species diversity 6Describe the types and effects of disturbances in communities Ecosystem Ecology7Explain why a continuous input of energy is required for ecosystems to function 8Explain why it takes about the same amount of photosynthetic productivity to produce ten kilograms of corn as one kilogram of bacon Conservation and Restoration Biology 9Describe the nature of the issues confronting modern conservation biology 10 Explain how habitat fragmentation affects biodiversity llDescribe the goals and some of the methods of restoration ecology 12Describe the goals of sustainable development KeyTerms Biodiversity 7The variety of living things includes genetic diversity species diversity and ecosystem diversity Biogeochemical cycles 7 Any of the various chemical circuits occurring in an ecosystem involving both biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem Biological magnification 7 The accumulation of persistent chemicals in the living tissues of consumers in food chains Biomass 7 The amount or mass of living organic material in an ecosystem Bioremediation 7The use of living organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems Chemical cycling 7The use and reuse of chemical elements such as carbon within an ecosystem Community 7 All the organisms inhabiting and potentially interacting in a particular area39 an assemblage of populations of different species Conservation biology 7 A goaloriented science that seeks to understand and counter the loss of biodiversity Consumers 7 An organism that obtains its food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants Decomposers 7 Organism that secretes enzymes that digest molecules in organic material and convert them to inorganic form Detritivores 7 An organism that consumes dead organic matter Detritus 7 Dead organic matter Disturbances 7 Ecological niche 7 The sum total of a species use of the biotic and abiotic resources of its habitat Ecosystem Endemic species 7 A species whose distribution is limited to a specific geographic area Herbivores 7 An animal that eats mainly plants algae or phytoplankton Herbivory 7 The consumption of plant parts or algae by an animal Predation 7 An interaction between species in which one species the predator kills and eats the other the prey Primary consumers 7 An organism that s eats only autotrophs an herbivore Primary productioni The amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs in an ecosystem during a given time perio Primary succession Type of ecological succession in which a biological community begins in an area without soil Producers P amid of production Restoration ecology Species diversity Species richness Sustainable development 1 Planting droughttolerant crops and using drip irrigation are ways to conserve A Fossil fuels B Water C Mineral fertilizers D Soil 2 The increased efficiency of fishing has led to A Loss of biodiversity in fish species B A severe reduction in fish catch C Loss of biodiversity of aquatic animals other than fish D All of the choices are correct 3 Hydropower and wind power are similar in that both are A Nonrenewable energy sources B Renewable energy sources C Commonly used worldwide as power sources D Dependent in part on fossil fuels 4 Which of the following is the greatest cause of biodiversity loss A Disease B Pollution C Habitat loss D Overexploitation 5 One important aspect of biodiversity is providing a source of A New genetic material from wild plants for crop plants B Drugs Especially from organisms in the rainforest C Food for humans D All of the choices are correct


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