Life Science BIO 110
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ignatius Ortiz on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 110 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Brandon King in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/218297/bio-110-california-state-polytechnic-university in Biology at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Ch 15 The Evolution of Microbial Life 0 Origin of Life 0 All organisms arise from previous organisms and all cells arise from previous cells I If life begets life how did the first organism the first cell evolve o The early earth was a very different place than it is now I The early atmosphere consisted of many gases that are much less abundant today 0 However no oxygen was present I The primitive oceans were much warmer I There was constant volcanic and lightning activity 0 Biologists believe on a four stage hypothesis for the origin of life as each stage is backed by supporting evidence I The first stage involved organic monomers being synthesized from inorganic molecules I The second stage involved the formation of polymers from the monomers 0 Solutions of monomers exposed to hot rock will polymerize The third stage involved packaging the polymers within a membrane 0 This resulted in pre cells The fourth stage involved chemical evolution giving away to biological evolution 0 The most successful pre cells were selected for gradually being refined and producing the first true cells 0 Prokaryotes o The origin of life took more than one billion years 0 The earth is best estimated to be 46 billion years old 0 The earliest fossil prokaryotes are 35 billion years old 0 Prokaryotes o Prokaryotes are incredibly abundant I There is a greater number of prokaryotes in a single human mouth than the total number of humans that have ever lived I Prokaryotes live in environments that are inhabitable to other forms of life 0 Bacteria I There are two prokaryotic domains Bacteria and Archea 0 Most prokaryotes belong to bacteria I Bacterial Anatomy 0 Bacteria are approx 110 the size of eukaryotic cells 0 Bacteria are unicellular but frequently form colonies 0 Bacteria lack nuclei and other organelles 0 They do possess a cell wall outside of their plasma membrane I Bacterial Nutrition 0 Most bacteria are heterotrophs o Heterotrophs are organisms that cannot make their own food molecules and therefore must consume food 0 Certain bacteria called cyanobacteria are autotrophs o Autotrophs make their own food by photosynthesis o Cyanobacteria were Earth s first autotrophs and therefore the first organisms to introduce oxygen into the atmosphere I Harmful Bacteria 0 Some bacteria produce toxins that make humans ill 0 The toxins are produced by the bacterial cell wall I Antibiotics therefore often target bacterial cell walls 0 Examples of disease caused by bacteria include o Pneumonia o Tuberculosis o Meningitis o Plague 0 Food poisoning o Chlamydia gonorrhea and syphilis o Lyme disease I Beneficial Bacteria o Bacteria are chemical recyclers 0 They break down decompose dead organisms returning their nutrients to the soil to be reused o Archea I Archea are quotextremophilesquot found living in 0 Hot acidic and high pressure environments 0 Hot springs and hydrothermal vents o Anaerobic environments 0 Swampy marsh mud o Protists I The first eukaryotes to evolve were the protists o The earliest fossil protists are 21 billion years old I Some protists such as amoebas are heterotrophs o Amoebas are unicellular I Other protists called algae are autotrophs o Algae can be multicellular or unicellular o Algae were the first multicellular organisms to evolve o The earliest multicellular fossils are 12 billion years old
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