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by: Ignatius Ortiz

LifeScience BIO110

Ignatius Ortiz
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.98


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Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ignatius Ortiz on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO110 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/218300/bio110-california-state-polytechnic-university in Biology at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 24 Immune system isthe body39s defensive system Many diseases are caused by pathogens parasitic viruses bacteria protists fungi and worms n A on a a J Contains 3 main lines of defenses xternal Innate nonspeci c prevents infection ratherthan operate after an infection has occurred Skin is a tough impermeable barrier Openings are lined with mucus membranes 0 Mucus traps pathogen and other debris particles 0 Sweat saliva and tears contain antimicrobial enzymes 0 Acidic gastric juice kills pathogen before they enterthe small intestine Internal Innate nonspeci c operates once a pathogen has breached the external barriers 0 White blood cells calle 39 39 quot engulf an o Fever increases the b dy temperature to make it inhospitable to pathogens Adaptive speci c White blood cells called lymphocytes B cells are stimulated by exposure to a foreign molecule When exposed to an antigen lymphocytes produce receptors called anh39bodies 39 Antibodies immobilizes antigens molecules on the surface of pathogens 39 ducauuy 39 L debris 39 This process can take weeks 0 New lymphocytes secrete their antibodies to immobilize additional antigens 39 T ese act as memory cells They are longlived cells that respond much more quickly to exposure if the same antigen becomes present again 0 This phenomenon serves asthe basis for vaccination o A vaccine is a harmless variant ofa pathogen Memow cells are produced for this pathogen and can respond quickertothe pathogen in the future I Though quot in the body they are more located in the lymph nodes spleen tonsils and appendix 0 Lymph Nodes cleanse the lymph of pathogens 39 L mph the interstitial fluid that surrounds all body cells once it has entered into lymphatic vessels 0 Spleen cleanse the blood of pathogens Tons39 39 protect against pathogens from inhaled air 0 Appendlx protects against pathogens that may tw to enter intothe small intestine from the large intestine AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a disease ofthe immune system Infected by a virus transferred from bodily fluids Unprotected sex b ym phocytes are destroyed by this virus AIDS patients often die from cancer or a disease caused by a different pathogen because the body is not able to defend itself Ca sed by virus HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV is a retrovirus enzymes reverse transcriptase DAN using on RNA template There is no cure but drugs are used to slow down the progression ofthe disease 39 Drug AZT inhibits HIV s reverse transcriptase enzyme Many patients take AZT with other drugs o reast feeding and sharing needles 0 o o 0 Chapter 25 Hormones are molecules that regulate many activities within the body proteins and lipids 1 A gro Hormones are produced by organs called endocrine glands which are located all overthe body 0 They secrete 39 39 the blood and quot39 39 quot target cells 39 T t quot quot for quot39 39 I activated by them Endocrine System hypothalamus pituitary thyroid parathyroid adrenal pancreas testesovaries Hypothalamus and Pituitaw Gland are located in the brain The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland 39 Pituitaw Gland produces the most hormones and controls other endocrine glands o Consist of two lobes Anterior and Posterior o Anterior produces E quot39 39 39 39 also produce growth hormones 39 Overproduction ofGH results in gigantism while underproduc on results in dwarfism Posterior produces An diuretic hormones which target the kidneys to rea bsorb more water from urine to prevent a o quot toregulate 39 39 They o Hypothalamus is considered the gland that controls the entire endocrine system d Parathyroid glands are located in the nec Thyroid produces calcitonin which stimulates the bone to absorb calcium and add itto bone 39 39 quoth quot 39 39 bonesto 39 quot I o Thyroid an I ormones 39 into the blood and stimulates the small 39 Parat yroi intestines to absorb more calcium from food 39 Calcitonin and parathyroid quot quot 39 39 39 39 they opposites o quot 39 g 39 y dueling 39 Insulin and Glucagon 39 They regulate the amount ofglucose in the blood 39 Insulin stimulates the liverto store glucose as glycogen and stimulates all body cells to take up glucose 39 Glucagon stimulates the liverto break down glycogen into glucose and release it into HI blood 39 Diabetes is a disorder in which there is decreased production of insulin type 1 ordecreased uptake of insulin type 2 0 Blood glucose 39 39 quot veryhigh 39 39 39 g39 g theyneed o quot 39 quot 39 quot 39 LU timulate the quotfight or flightquot response 0 uunad are 39 39 Males produce testosterone which females produce estrogen and progesterone 39 Sex hormones 39 quot 39 quot 39 quot quot39 39 and nal behavior Chapter 26 Reproductive System reproduces by the means of sexual reproduction meiosis and fertilization Sexual reproduction creates the genetic variation Male reproductive organs are the testes Male gona s The testes 39 39 anu The epididymis collects sperm from the testes gt leads tothe vas deferens which travels up into the abdomen and wraps around the urinary bladder gt seminal vesicles and prostate gland add fluid nourishes and protects tothe sperm nearthe end of the vas deferens gt vas deferens converges with the urethra t e common ductforsemen and urine gt travels through the penis gt ejaculate


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