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Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 12 Social Stratification What We Will Learn To what extent do the societies of the world vary in terms of the equitable distribution of power prestige and wealth How do class systems differ from caste systems What are the different ways of interpreting systems of social stratification Social Inequality Max Weber s criteria for measuring social inequality Wealth the extent to which they have accumulated economic resources Power the ability to achieve one s goals and objectives even against the will of others Prestige social esteem respect or admiration that a society confers on people Wealth With a net worth of over 50 billion in October 2006 Microsoft s Bill Gates represents the upper level of wealth in the United States and the world Three Types of Societies Based on levels of social inequality Egalitarian no individual or group has appreciably more wealth power or prestige than any other Rank unequal access to prestige or status but not unequal access to wealth or power Stratified societies considerable inequality in all forms of social rewards powerwealth and prestige Egalitarian Societies No individual or group has more wealth power or prestige than any other Everyone depending on skill level has equal access to positions of esteem and respect Found most readily among geographically mobile food collectors Ju hoansi of the Kalahari region lnuit Hadza of Tanzania Egalitarian Societies Smallscale foraging societies such as the Hadza of Tanzania tend to be egalitarian Rank Societies Unequal access to prestige but not to wealth or power Fixed number of highstatus positions which only certain individuals can occupy Primogeniture is the exclusive right of the eldest usually the son to inherit his father s estate Found most prominently in Oceania and among Native Americans of the Northwest Stratified Societies Considerable inequality in power wealth and prestige As societies become more specialized the system of social stratification becomes more complex Stratified Societies E U E 52 E o In stratified societies different groups have different levels of power prestige and wealth In the United States over the past three decades the gap between those at the bottom and those at the top has widened Status Achieved status The status an individual acquires during the course of her or his lifetime Ascribed status The status a person has by virtue of birth Class Versus Caste In class systems an individual can change his or her social position dramatically within a lifetime Caste societies have no social mobility membership in a caste is determined by birth and lasts throughout one s lifetime US Class Structure Class Income Education Occupation Capitalist 1000000 Fires CEOS 1 univerSIties investors heirs Upper Top colleges Upper 100000 managers 14 middle postgraduate profeSSIonals Lower High school managers Middle 55000 30 some college teachers civil servants US Class Structure Class Income Education Occupation Working 35000 High school Clencal sales 30 factory Working 22000 Some high Serwce laborers 13 poor school Underclass 10 000 or some h39gh Unemployed 12 less school USClass Structure Katrina Many Katrina victims waited for days at the New Orleans Superdome for government help because they didn t have a Saab to drive to a Marriott Hotel further inland USClass Structure Donald Trump You re fired The capitalist class has considerable power overjobs held by the rest of society Hindu Caste Society Social boundaries are strictly maintained by caste endogamy and notions of ritual purity and poHu on Caste system has persisted for 2000 years and enables the upper castes to maintain a monopoly on wealth status and power Varnas are caste groups in Hindu India that are associated with certain occupations Hindu Caste Society Dalit is the politically correct term for those formerly called the Untouchables in India Jati are local subcastes found in Hindu India Sanskritization is a form of upward social mobility found in contemporary India whereby people born into lower castes can achieve higher status by taking on some of the behaviors and practices of the highest Brahmin caste Hindu Caste Society 39 39 The Dalits in India engage in only the loweststatus jobs Race Race classification based on physical traits Ethnicity classification based on cultural characteristics There are no pure races Different populations have been interbreeding for thousands of years resulting in a continuum of human physical types Ethnic Stratification A Gypsy Roma woman and children beg outside a church in Bratislava Slovakia Race And Ethnicity In The United States If Tony Manero played by John Travolta in the 1977 film Saturday Night Fever was living in Brooklyn today he would be sharing his Italian American neighborhood with large numbers of Chinese Russians and Ukrainians Race And Ethnicity In The United States W V Tiger Woods one of the greatest golfers of all time is the son of an Asian American mother and an AfricanAmerican father What race is he Forms of Intergroup Relations 1 Pluralism two or more groups live in harmony and retain their own heritage pride and identity 2 Assimilation a racial or ethnic minority is absorbed into the wider society 3 Legal protection of minorities the government steps in to legally protect the minority group Forms of Intergroup Relations 4 Population transfer physical removal of a minority group to another location Longterm subjugation political economic and social repression for indefinite periods of time Genocide mass annihilation of groups of people Social Stratification Theories Functionalist Class systems contribute to the wellbeing of a society by encouraging constructive endeavon Conflict Stratification systems exist because the upper classes strive to maintain a superior position at the expense of the lower classes Conflict Theory Bourgeoisie Karl Marx s term referring to the middle class those who own the means of production Proletariat The term used in conflict theories of social stratification to describe the working class who exchange their labor for wages Global Stratification The average income of people in the United States is roughly 376 times as much as this Ethiopian farmer Ten Richest Nations Per Capital GNI 2004 Luxembourg 56380 Norway 51 810 Switzerland 49600 Bermuda estimated United States 41400 Denmark 40750 Liechtenstein estimated Iceland 37920 Sweden 35840 Japan 37050 Ten Poorest Nations Per Capital GNI 2004 Niger 210 Rwanda 210 Sierra Leone 210 Eritrea 190 Guinea Bissau 160 Malawi 160 Liberia 120 Congo Democratic Republic 110 Ethiopia 110 Burundi 90 ANT 102 CAL POLY UNIVERSITY NAME SYLLABUS SEARCH List the name of this class What is the class number How many exams are scheduled for the quarter Date for the final What happens if you leave the classroom during an exam What is the policy on making up an exam What is the policy for cell phones during class and especially during exams I a What is the policy for computers in the 1 If you are absent when an activity takes place in class can the activity be made up After reading the Policy on classroom decorum which of the rules do you feel are the most important What is plagiarism How many points must you earn to receive the grade you want in this class Are questions permitted during lecture Is it permissible to talk during films When is your instructor available to you voice mail office hours Check which source is listed in the syllabus Email What is your instructor s name Please list any questions or concerns you may have about this class AFTER YOU COMPLETE THIS TURN IT IN ON WEDNESDAY JANUARY 5 2011 Exceptions are made for late adds WINTER 2011 STUDY GUIDE CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY 102 MID TERM EXAM CH 18 CH 1 CULTURAL RELATIVISM GLOTTOCHRONOLOGY RACE ETHNOLOGY ETHNOCENTRISM PRIMATOLOGY What kinds of things do anthropologists study What is a holistic approach in anthropology What does ethnographic research involve What do Physical biological anthropologists study Which subdiscipline excavates material remains from prehistoric societies CH 2 CULTURAL DIFFUSION CIVILIZATION SUBCULTURE ENCULTURATION INNOVATIONS MONOCHRONIC CULTURE POLYCHRONIC CULTURE What does the concept of culture include What causes culture change When we study a culture what is our main goal De ne a smallscale society according to Ferraro Is ethnocentrism declining throughout the world due to globalization CH 3 EMIC VIEW HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE Understand the difference and similarity between Applied anthropologists and Pure anthropologists Review the different roles that an Applied anthropologist might play During WWII what role did applied anthropologist ful ll What does Cultural relativism foster In which subdiscipline of anthropology does a Cultural Resource Manager have training What happened to the babies health after being fed the Nestle baby formula Forensic anthropologists and their work What happened when Christian missionaries insisted that small scale societies give up Polygyny CH 4 CULTURAL ECOLOGY THEORY INDUCTIVE APPROACH ETHNOSCIENCE HYPOTHESIS THEORY The three stages for Unilineal evolution What did diffusionists concentrate on Which early anthropologist trained most of the American Anthropologists during the first half of the 201h century and which famous anthropologists were his students The two men who gave us our eldwork methods Understand the Functionalist theory and the men involved with this theory Neoevolutionism and White and steward What was White s major theory based on What was Margaret Mead s research topic when she went to Samoa The three female anthropologists involved in Feminist Anthropology in the 1960s and 1970s LeviStrauss and his theory of binary oppositions Which anthropologist is associated with American historicism CH 5 INFORMANT FIELDWORK HRAF CULTURE SHOCK If we talk about the Concept of Culture what can we say about all culture What culture features do all cultures share Anthropology considers our discipline to be holistic so what do we study What characteristics do we nd associated with civilizations Advice for conducting participantobservation in eldwork What does eldwork involve What can we use photography for in eldwork Is it important for anthropologists to leain another language Do all data collection methods work in all eldwork situations Who do anthropologists have a responsibility Symptoms for Culture Shock How should you conduct ethnographic interviews CH 6 MORPHEMES SYNTAX DIALECTS DOUBLESPEAK CODE SWITCHING Understand how Black English Vernacular is seen by linguists What features of communication do we hare with nonhuman primates The number of discrete languages today An example of a free morpheme SapirWhorf hypothesis Diglossia is What is included in nonverbal communication What do sociolinguists focus on The way people hold their bodies communicates what type of information What is a moribund language CH 7 CARRYING CAPACITY NOMADISM TRANSHUMANCE PEASANTRY Which food getting strategy has been used for the longest time in human history Does the environment have any effect on food strategy Food collecting or Foraging depends on what for the main part of their diet Optimal Foraging Theory What did the Inuit depend on where did they live what was their diet What body type do Inuit people tend to have Food foragers live in what kind of social group When did food production become important for humans When did plant and animal production first begin What happened after the Neolithic Revolution Whey did specialization increase The difference between horticulture and intensive agriculture Shifting cultivation is also known by two other names What type of crops do people grow who practice swidden agriculture Nomadic pastoralism has what kind of settlement pattern Do pastoralists ever use cultivation Intensive agriculture characteristics Industrialized agriculture characteristics and advantages Medicinal plants and the Amazon What kind of environments do we find pastoralists and food foragers today Ch 8 TRIBUTE RECIPROCITY REDISTRIBUTION BRIDEWEALTH POTLATCH GLOBALIZATION F 39 quot 39 39 study J 39 quot distribution and consumption in what type of societies Do all societies have rules that govern the allocation of resources Do food collectorsforagers have the concept of land ownership Which subsistence strategy do we find landownership is held by the kin group The POTLATCH served what purpose Define PRODUCTION in most nonindustrialized societies where does production take place KULA RING is an example of what type of reciprocity Sex and age are the basis for division of labor how is this exhibited Why are men given the dangerous jobs Wage employment of children under age 14 Why is it condemned Different types of reciprocity Which members of a group usually practice generalized reciprocity
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