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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Okey Ziemann on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT201 at California State Polytechnic University taught by MeredithMontagne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/218316/ant201-california-state-polytechnic-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 4 Themes of Anthropology Culture What is included in culture Everything people have material possessions Everything people think ideas values and attitudes Everything people do behavior patterns Characteristics of culture Culture is learned Learn to satisfy biological needs in socially appropriate ways Culture is shared Aspects must have meaning to everyone Societies must exist Culture is symbolic Symbols are signs emblems and or other things that are arbitrary but represent something in a meaningful way Culture is in tegra ted All aspects function as an integrated whole A change in one part affects another Culture is dynamic Respond to motions and actions within and around them Must be exible Cultural adaptation complex of ideas technologies and activities that allow members of a group to survive and even thrive in their environment Culture Adaptive and Maladaptive Cultural adaptations help people to survive Allows humans to live in otherwise uninhabitable areas The Inuit Clothing Caribou Coats Eyewear Snow Goggles Transportation Sled pulled by dogs Housing Snow house http wwwyoutubecomwatchvRx5 ZOSgP3E Culture Adaptive and Maladaptive Maladaptive adaptations that become harmful Example pollutants in the air What is the function of culture 1 Survival of individuals 2 Survival of the population a Ensure the biological continuity of its members b Provides a social structure for reproduction and mutual support 3 Pass on knowledge 4 To adapt to changing environments How do you know if a culture is meeting the needs of the people Cultures can be evaluated according to 1 Nutritional status 2 Physical and mental health of population 3 Incidence of violence crime and delinquency 4 Demographic structure 5 Stability and tranquility of domestic life Is culture a unique human characteristic Culture in Nonhuman Primates Chimpanzees make and use tools Chimpanzee termite fishing http wwwianegoodallorgmedialvideos termite shing Concepts and Generalizations Understand termite behavior Understand how to exploit the behavior and extract the termites Making and using the tool requires planning and forethought Culture in Nonhuman Primates Degree of culture varies Macaques Potato washing http wwwyo utubecomwatchveuMlL901Kc Not all criteria for culture were demonstrated Lack of an artifact This can be considered protocultureinvolving the use of an ecofact Culture and Nonhuman primates Apes have the ability to understand language but do not have the vocal apparatus to speak it Apes and Language Brains and Culture Rcomplex Reptilian brain found in all vertebrates A primitive portion of the brain Selfpres ervation behaviors Limbic System Mammalian brain Emotions Neocortex Enlarged in primates Conscious thought Spatial reasoning Sensory perception A Comparison of Primate Brains Brain and Culture Advertisement Purchase this new exercise video based on dance moves to get the body you have always dreamed aboutquot RcompleX Can I eat the instructorquot Limbic system Buy it I want to look goodquot NeocorteX I want to know why these moves will help me burn calories more ef ciently than my current workoutquot Brain and Culture Situation You are just about to escape a burning building when you hear someone call for help A Model for the Study of Cultural Systems The Cultural Filter Culture has two identities It is our major adaptive mechanism for coping with our basic biological needs It is our environment Cultural systems must be viewed on their own A Model for the Study of Cultural Systems Worldview An imaginary lter a set of assumptions about the way things arequot The worldview is shared by the group It helps people to cope with changing environments Ethnocentrism This is the idea that one39s own culture is best Is it wrong to think this way Why is ethnocentrism problematic for anthropologists It leads to judgments Researchers must try to avoid ethnocentrism Omit personal views into research Avoid ranking system for cultures How is ethnocentrism avoided Cultural Relativism The researcher describes a culture from its own point of view without in uence from hisher own cultural values Ethnographic Fieldwork Participant observation The technique of learning a people39s culture through direct participation in their everyday life over an extended period of time Hallmark of anthropological research The best technique for understanding a culture Ethnographic eldwork Ethnography systematic description of human culture Participant observation Ethnology systematic comparisons across cultures Identify similarities and differences ls judgment suspended inde nitely
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