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l Iquot PS 9 5 599 x 53 H H l l l l 5 RN H 0 H l x 9 H O N N 0 Anthropology systematic study of humankind their culture their behavior their beliefs and their ways of living and surviving Holismbroad comprehensive approach to the study of humankind drawing on the 4 subfields of anthropology and integrating both biological and cultural phenomenalooking at humanity as a whole Anthropological Subdisciplines4 subfields cultural biological archaeological and linguistic Cultural anthropology Bronislaw Malinowski pioneer in fieldworkfunctionalism how social institutions function to satisfy individual needs Alfred Kroeber anthropologist who took shi in to study him Claude L viStrauss The structure of the human mind is universal Binary opposition we view the world through opposites badgood rightwrong shiYahi last member of tribe the tribe ishi was from Monkey chanting ritual it is like the wave Applied anthropologyUse of data perspectives theories and methods in anthropology to identify assess and solve CONTEMPORARY problems Medical anthropologyIdentify health problems gather information on solution to those problems and implement solutions in partnership Business anthropologycomplex organizations employees markets consumers etcCross cultural perspectives and cultural diversity Urban anthropology Development anthropologySocial issues and cultural dimension of economic development Cultural resource U Equity Hquot 39 39 39 D 39 39 U39 survey land before constructing on it Overinnovationmaking more than needed ex Chinas cities kangbashi UnderdifferentiationThe lessdeveloped countries are more alike than they arequotgnorance of cultural diversity Ethics and methods r 39 r39 c amine various y societies and cultures throughout the worldcomparing cultures in a systematic manner Written description of a culture with a society Participant observation Fieldwork method used by the ethnographer who learns the culture of the group being studied by participating in the groups daily activities don t change or offend the certain culture o Informed consent From AAA code of ethics we have to ask permission to do studies to publish goal is to protect people we work with Etic and emic Interview views of a culture that are accepted by a group of scientists as a valid description for the culture Views of the world that members of a culture accept as real meaningful or appropriate Genealogical method a family tree or web of kinship relationships traced through parents and children Key informant Cultural historya few individuals selected on the basis of criteria such as knowledge compatibility age experience or reputation who provide information about their culture Naciremastudy of American culture Culture Vs Nature hm c I mhlre Tylorcomplexwholeacquiredbymanas a member of society It includes knowledge beliefarts morals lawcustom and any other capabilities and habitsculture 24 Ethnocentrism Cultural relativismThe tendency to view one s own culture as superior and the tendency to use one s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other societies Symbol arbitrary meaningful units or models we use to represent reality Cultural rights Clifford Geertz pointed out that the conservative critics of cultural relativism did not really understand and were not really responding to the ideas of Benedict Herskovits Kroeber and Kluckhohn Language and communication Call systems Sign Kinesics Phonology study of gesturesstudy of sounds made in speech I 39 U study of mu p39 quot units of language that convey meaning 30 Phoneme basic unit of sound that distinguishes meanings ina language 31 The SapirWhorf Hypothesis Semantics The grammatical categories lead speakers to think about things in certain ways How closely related is language to culture NN mm NN 00V 32 Sociolinguistics study of the relationship between language and social factors such as class ethnicity age and sex 33 Symbolic dominationSpeaking quotproperquot language can provide access to desired positions and resources 34 Religionideas and practices that postulate reality beyond that which is immediately available to the sense 35 Polytheism believing multiple entities 36 Folk Tale fiction not sacred meant to entertain 37 Legend based on real events and people considered factual 38 Mythregarded as fact accepted on faith include many supernatural and are sacred 39 RitualA patterned recurring sequence of behaviors 40 PrescriptiveA ritual that a deity or religious authority requires to be performed 41 CrisisSituationalfamily comes together confrontationA ritual that arises as needed frequently in times of crisis 42 CalendricA ritual that is performed on a regular basis as part of a religious calendar 43 Technological Rituals A ritual that attempts to influence or control nature especially in those situations that affect human activities and wellbeing 44 Rites of Intensification a ritual or ceremony performed by a community in a time of crisis that affects all members as a rain dance during a drought 45 Social Rites of Intensification ritual used to reinforce values and morals in the community 46 Therapeutic RitualsA ritual that attempts to influence or control nature especially in those situations that affect human activities and wellbeing 47 AntiTherapy Rituals Curses 48 Rites of passage A ritual that occurs when an individual changes status serving to legitimize the new status and to imprint it on the community39s collective memory 49 Separation Liminality Reincorporation 50 Film Rites of Passage a Khosa Apache Puberty Rites 51 Foraging Horticultural Agricultural Pastoralismpastures and stuff r Gifts quot 39 39r 39 Balanced Reciprocity Negative Reciprocity 55 RedistributionCentralization of resourcesCompetitive feasts Generosity 56 Market Exchangesimpersonal 57 Rotating Credit Organizationstandasususwichingye based on trust 58 Film Ongka s Big Mokaguy gives pigs to other tribe they respond by killing his gifts or wanted to fight idk ANT 102 Midterm 1 Anthropology systematic study of humankind 4 subfields of anthropology 0 Physical anthropology branch of anthropology concerned with humans as a biological species I Evolutionhumanvariationforensicsprimateologists o Linguistic anthropology study of language and how it relates to culture and how the human brain acquires and uses language 0 Archaeology branch ofanthropology that examine the material traces of past societies 0 Cultural anthropologyethnology examines various contemporary societies and cultures throughout the world Ethnology subfield ofanthropology that examines various contemporary societies and cultures throughout the worldcomparing cultures in a systematic manner Ethnography written description of a culture within a society Participant observation method used by the ethnographer who learns the culture of the group being studied by participating in the group s daily activitiesdon t change or offend the certain culture Holistic approach broad comprehensive approach to the study of humankind drawing on the four subfields ofanthropology and integrating both biological and cultural phenomenalooking at humanity as a whole Applied anthropology use of data gathered from the other subfields ofanthropology to find practical solutions to problems in a society Ethnocentrism the practice ofjudging another society by the values and standards of one s own Cultural relativism view that cultural traditions must be understood within the context ofa particular society s responses to problems cultural practices and valuesobjective non judgmental view Scientific method method used to investigate the natural and social world involving critical thinking logical reasoning and skeptical thought Theory tested statement that has proven validity Hypothesis preliminary explanatory statement Deductive vs inductive reasoning o Inductive based on observation 0 Deductive testing a hypothesis or theory if then statement Humanisticinterpretive approach study of feeling emotion art symbolism religion etc Evolution process of change in a species over time Darwin39s Theory of Natural Selection Hominid family of primates that includes modern humans and their direct ancestors who share distinctive types of teeth and jaws as well as bipedalism Australopithecines 4 15 million years ago 0 Africa no culture many varieties small brains bipedal quotLucyquot Homo erectus Z million years ago 0 Migrated out of Africa larger brains Acheulean tradition handaxes controlled fire coped w cold climate Archaic Homo sapiens 300 250000 years ago 0 Middle Paleolithic period Africa Europe and Asia included Neanderthals Neanderthals 12500 300000 years ago 0 Mousterian condition larger brains made and controlled fire buried dead Modern Homo sapiens a bout 12000 years old 0 Replacement or multiregional theory Oldowan tools chopper or hammer stones associated w Homo and australopithecines o Broke bones to get marrow scavenging o Percussion flaking Percussion vs pressure flaking o Percussion hitting core w hammer stones not precise 0 Pressure flaking more precise method of tool making Acheulean tools Homo erectus o Handaxes 1 5 million years ago 0 Clearly shaped and uniform across regions Africa Europe and Asia Pleistocene ice ages Replacement theory more popular theory that modern Homo sapiens just replaced the Neanderthals w NO interbreeding Multiregional theory older theory that states that Neanderthals and modern Homo sapiens interbred and blended together Upper Paleolithic culture better tools pressure flaking blade core technology and uniform style explosion oftechnology and culture 40000 10000 years ago Las Caux French caves where 1St cave paintings were created Origin of skin color differences in our species closer to the equator there is greater UV exposure and therefore need for darker pigmented skin Edward Tylor 1St anthropologist o Functioning social system in a group including tools technology and material objects 0 quotculture is that complex whole which includes knowledge belief arts morals law customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society Culture shared way of life that includes the material products and nonmaterial productsbeliefs values and norms that are transmitted within a particular society from generation to generation Society group of people dependent on one another Sociocultural combination of the terms society and culture used to describe the way anthropologists analyze ethnographic research Enculturation process of social interaction through which people learn their culture Symbols arbitrary meaningful units or models we use to represent reality Signs directly associated w concrete physical items or activities Harris vs Douglas on food taboos o Douglas symbolic viewpoint I Animals that don t fall into definite categories are unkosher shellfish o Harris practicaleconomic viewpoint I Pig taboo came about bc pigs were impractical in hot climate Ethnicity perceived differences in ancestry origins or heritage Ethnic group group of people with a shared common heritage history culture or ancestry Cultural universals essential behavioral characteristics of humans found in all societies 0 Murdock s List music language laws clothing Psychological anthropology anthropology that studies enculturation or how we learn our culture Interactionist perspective Drives basic inborn biological urges that motivate human behavior sex thirst hunger Biograms genetic program that directs actions humans have open biogram snails have a closed biogram don t differ much from one another Culture and personality school theory that states that a person s personality is mainly a result of their culture not their race Franz Boas father of American anthropology o Started anthro program at Columbia Margaret Mead Boas student who studied adolescence Coming onge in Samoa Margaret Mead o Adolescence in Samoa was harmonious and the whole village raised a child 0 Not full of conflict like American adolescence o Characterized a culture with personality and ignored biology completely Derek Freeman criticized Mead s work for ignoring biology Hendry s Study studied how Japanese children learn the concepts of their culture and how they adjust o Uchi inside and soto outside Freud founder of psychoanalyses id superego and ego o Influenced Mead and many other anthropologists studying enculturation 4 Theories Explaining the Incest Taboo 0 Biological theory scientific basis I Accumulation of genetic mutations increases through inbreeding leading to less desirable traits 0 Marital alliance theory social argument I Human groups must make external alliances to be successful 0 Childhood familiarity theory Israel study I More attracted to the newunknown o Interactionist theory I Tight bonds formed in families prevent incest Gender cultural role Biological sex the actual sex one is born w determined by chromosomes Berdache 3rd gender man with woman s clothing and duties Cognition thinking processes Structuralism Levi Strauss o The structure of the human mind is universal o Binary opposition we view the world through opposites badgood rightwrong updown blackwhite Piaget s 4 stages ofdevelopment human mind goes through stages 0 Sensorimotor stage children experience world through senses and motor capabilities o Preoperational stage stage in which symbols and language are first used 0 Concrete Operational stage ages 7 11 begin to use logic manipulate symbols and look from another s point of view 0 Formal operational stage highly abstract concepts and formal reasoning processes age 12 Cognitive anthropology study of human psychological thought processes based on computer modeling Evolutionary psychology study of the evolution of the human mind Language system of symbols with standard meaning through which members of a society communicate w one another Communication act of transferring information can be non verbal motions signs language grunts cries etc Washoe chimps that learned 150 signs of ASL 0 Combined water and bird signs to represent duck o Told her they were going to bring her a baby and she got excited could recognize distant object through signs Criticisms of the ape and language studies apes could have just been reading cues from trainers and working just for reward never do anything similar in the wild Primatology study of primates Jane Goodall primatologist that studied the Gombe Chimps 0 Observed chimp cries in the wild o Mothers taught infants various cries and yells 4 Unique traits of human language 0 Productivity create new words meanings and symbols 0 Displacement can describe what s not at present hand past future a distant location etc o Arbitrariness random sounds assigned to represent certain things symbols 0 Phonemes combination of soundsph th ch etc Phonemes basic unit of sound that distinguishes meanings in a language Brocca s Area area of the brain responsible for sound Wernike s Area area of the brain associated with word meanings and the association of sound with certain meanings Phonology study ofthe sounds made in speech Morphology study of morphemessmallest units of language that convey meaning Syntax rules for phrase and sentence construction in a language Semantics meanings of words phrases and sentences Morphemes smallest units of language that convey meaningcombo of phonemes Noam Chomsky s universal grammar theory humans are conditionedpre wired to understand language 0 We all acquire language the same way 0 Must be taught language by puberty o Creole languages and the Nicaraguan deaf school supported his theory Creole languages hybrid languagepidgin language syntax similar to other languages Nicaraguan deaf schools students developed their own sign languagehad syntax similar to other languages SapirWhorf Hypothesis close relationship bw a specific language and its related culture 0 Language influences how we perceive the world 0 Hopi verb tenses prove they think about time differently than English speakers Protolanguages root languages that are extinct that served as the basis for modern languages Glottochronology study of the changes in language over time IndoEuropean family languages English Dutch Swedish Dialects linguistic pattern involving differences in pronunciation vocabulary or syntax that occurs win a common language family Honorifics study of how people use different terms or tenses to show respect to othersforma vs informal in Spanish Greetings how people greet each otherhola how are you etc Kinesics study of gestures Proxemics study of the use of space how close we stand while talking etc The Enlightenment 19th century 0 Resurrection of culture art science and sociological thinking 0 Age of reason and science Unilineal Evolution Edward TylorBritish and Lewis Henry MorganAmerican o Described social evolution in a linear fashion going from savagery barbarism to civilized o Savagery hunter gatherers Barbarism agriculture Civilized technology 0 Morgan was an armchair anthropologist had informantsdidn t go in the field himself 0 Problems ethnocentric simplistic view racist weak theory Diffusionism cultures borrow ideascharacteristics from one another 0 Early 20th century borrowing gone wild 0 Weak theory because many things were invented multiple times in different locations Historical Particularism theory that states that each culture should be studied in relation to its own unique history 0 Franz Boas cultural relativism 0 Field work 0 Challenged racist assumptions Functionalism anthropological perspective based on the assumption that society consists of institutions that serve vital purposes for people 0 Problems doesn t explain overall patterns doesn t show change over time Neoevolutionism new evolutionism after WWII less racism 0 Cultural ecology how the environment affects culture and technology I Environment can limit agriculture etc o Problems hard to tie ideology and religion to the environment 0 Cultural Materialism research strategy that focuses on technology environment and economic factors as key determinants in sociocultural evolution 0 Problems doesn t address emotions religion cosmology etc o Marxist Anthropology conflict drives society 0 Marx thought lower class would over throw upper class and things would go back to hunter gatherersincorrect 0 Problems ethnocentric bad theory conflict isn t always a given 0 Symbolic Anthropology study ofa culture through the study of their symbols values and beliefs 0 Problems not concretevery abstractdoesn t describe cultural change 0 Feminist Anthropology equal rights movement for women in the 60s and 70s 0 Questions assumptions of gender roles biological differences and the role of women in human evolution 0 Problems there are differences bw males and females could become reverse discrimination if extreme o Postmodernism o Viewpoint that is critical of modern scientific and philosophical perspectives 0 Questions assumptions of neutral observer 0 Emphasizes reflection and dialogue 0 Problems if extreme then there would be no answers to anything Questions 1 What is unique about the field of anthropology compared to other disciplines in the social sciences or humanities 0 Holistic approach looks at every aspect of the human experience 0 History just looks at facts ofthe past psychology just studies the mind and emotions etc 0 Four subfields physical linguistic archaeology and cultural 0 Very scientific but also more abstract w the study of thoughts and culture 0 Unique in that it incorporates every subject that can be studied about humankind 2 What are the two models of evolutionary development of modern Homo sapiens 0 Replacement model modern Homo sapiens just replaced the Neanderthals over time conflict diseases 0 More popular model 9 0 Multiregional model modern Homo sapiens interbred with the Neanderthals DNA evidence of H sapiens genes found in Neanderthal 0 Older model What are the basic characteristics of the term CULTURE as discussed by anthropologists 0 Material and nonmaterial components 0 Material 0 Tools food clothing shelter jewelry ceremonial objects etc o Non material o Values concepts held important like freedom liberty patriotism and independence 0 Beliefs specific ideas of how things work time is money everyone is equal etc o Ideology system of beliefs values and concepts about life shared by some in a society Cultural hegemony dominance of one ideology win a culture Norms accepted ways ofthinking and acting dress or behavior Folkways everyday rituals of life 0000 Mores codes of living that are not brokenbad if you break them quot 39 D39 studied 39 How have I formation sexual behavior and cognition and its relationship to personality 0 Personality fairly stable patterns of thought feeling and action associated with a specific person 0 Person acquires personality through the interaction of enculturation with biologically based predispositions 0 Margaret Mead studied Samoan adolescents to see how their culture affected personality 0 Sexual behavior one s society and culture affects their sexual behavior 0 Incest taboo almost every culture has an incest taboo I Biological theory accumulation of genetic mutations I Marital alliance theory alliances must be made outside group to attain resources I Childhood familiarity theory more attracted to the unknown I Interactionist theory tight bonds prevent sexual attractions 0 Homosexuality is accepted in some societies while it is frowned upon in others berdache 3rd gender male homosexuality in Papau New Guinea initiation rituals o Cognition thinking processes and how they relate to culture O O Structuralism Levi Strauss I Our unconscious thought processes and reasoning are universal I Logical form in human thought and cognition around the world I We view the world in binary opposition Cognitive anthropology study of cognition and cultural meanings through specific methodologies to uncover the schemas that structure human thinking I Even though culture varies the basic process of thinking is the same I The way we classify color blackwhite blackwhitered 5 What is it that makes human languages unique in comparison with nonhuman animal communications Productivity ability to create new words meanings and symbols Displacement ability to describe past and future events and objects that aren t immediate Arbitrariness random sounds assigned to certain meanings Combining soundsphonemes combining phonemessmallest units of sound to create words