Week 8 Notes for Intro to Modern Europe
Week 8 Notes for Intro to Modern Europe HIST 3480
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Holub on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3480 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Richard Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Europe in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Paige DeWitt-Holub **Classical Liberalism, 1820-70 Karl Marx (1818-83) Capital, 1867 F. Engels Labor Theory of Value 1875, 1879,1905 C. Darwin (1809-82) Evolution Origin of Species, 1859 “Natural Selection” Soul Social Darwinism Social Selection H. Spencer (1820-1903) Sumner -ideas that overthrow the traditional beliefs of classical liberalism -French property ideas and those pertaining to the rights of “Classical Liberalism” were small-minded, “peaceful evolution and the individualistic ethic was the right to make your own way in the world.” 1 -Karl Marx, German, middle class, Hegel’s student at the university of Berlin, represented an interest in Malthus and Smith, “utopian socialists” – basically think group that ended by 1848 -gets in trouble with the law, flees to Belgium, France, and finally London – where he resides for the rest of his life determining classist ideas -“historians, economists, philosophers, sociologists, etc.” -Marx and F. Engels offer up a large source of ideas about the above concerns^ -Capital, 1867 (co-authored) Marxist critique of present-times industrious capitalism – originally published in German-doesn’t translate perfectly, complicated -by 15 years after its publishing date, this is available almost anywhere in Europe -“Communist Manifesto”, 1848 -Marx’s critical analysis projects the future into a wealth accumulation which is so tyrant that only the wealthiest bankers hold any wealth beyond just ‘scraping by’ -95% of the people were projected to be outraged to the point of violent bloodshed ---- aligns with the timeline “Classical Liberalism” in a way that is unexpected 1 All quotes are quotes of Professor Smith -Marx wants to let people know how progression happens, economically – static beneficially -from slave labor to industrial frameworks - > where does the exchange of pay fit in? -Marx’s understanding of the “Labor Theory of Value” – “everything is made, developed, created, developed by labor, people- not by trade, not by exchange.” – conquest spirit of nature produces fruitful industry in his modern age -Marx believes the wage of the amount is typically only a fraction of the amount that you should have received, factors in the cost of the factory and still finds that “profit is unpaid labor” -commoners in uprising against this unbalanced exchange of goods, services... -1864 – “International Working Men’s Association” –men from Europe – “nationalist sentiments” divided this project into a country project – “The Age of Nationalism” -“socialist democratic” (Bismarck – 1875) (1879 – France) (1905 – Belgium, Russia) -the late nineteenth century provides an opportunity for a similar project in America is destroyed in the age of WWII – in addition, this was probably caused by a lack of care/support for WWI which provided more power to go against this -Clearly, Marx influenced the world on a large-scale -Chinese are essentially 21 century capitalism, but at one time was as well -Classical Liberalism is also tied into the ideas of Charles Darwin – “English Nationalist”, British, average student at Cambridge -Evolution, the “Theory of Evolution”, evolution dates back to 6 century Greece BCE Empedocles Philosopher -late 15 century, a geologist dug out humanoid/other fossils that brought speculations of evolutions – creationism was questioned -“The Principle of Geology”, by Charles Lyell -Darwin’s ideas suggest that evolution is supported slightly by this theory, rather than the creationist projection that the world is roughly 6,900 some years old Charles conference projection, mid-European century – his speculations provide the observations to confirm this finding (Marx’s understanding seemed to be that he had found a scientifically- proven method of finding the understanding of the natural functioning flow of society) -“Natural Selection” also goes against the ideas of classical liberalism, the idea that species are not a constant is an undermining idea -the test subjects, that represent the population, are filtered through the best evolved characteristics in one’s environment -change is in geological terms -ultimately, Darwin abandons his ideals for his scientific findings and the scientific method -Scopes Trial in 1925 makes this educational mandate stick to a degree in America -primarily the educated people believe this is foolishness -the notion of the soul was a contrast, the assumptions of Classical Liberalism are an experience of orderly consensus (Newton, the universe as understood through the eyes of the past) -Darwin sees natural selection/evolution as an unfair concept of conquest -“God” with only meaningful gestures until the afterlife or what have you – change is inevitable -Social Darwinists in the late 19 century began to apply this idea to the idea of societal success -Herbert Spencer – a British philosopher in the 19 century, called it “social competition” -certain fractions of society/elements inevitably are proven to deserve to die out against government housing, poor laws, factory restrictions, education for the masses – considers these people as they are going to die out – Malthus -William Graham Sumner – Professor at Yale – theorist -international perspective of those with the time to remain pensive considered Western society to be the pinnacle of historical prominence -brought about the superiority that brought disparity, violence, bigotry for all -war a justifiable modern deed of natural selection -“Classical Liberalism” middle class vs. the larger production -The set of ideas outlined by Social Darwinism – eventually turn into “Eugenics” -some national groups are superior to others -much of this superiority that some are born to succeed and others are not is still reflected in this world -people in Africa/Arabian Peninsula did in fact reject these ideas “Classical Liberalism, 1820 – 70 Gustav Lebon (1841-193) The Crowd, 1895 1896 “Little adapted to reasoning” Pr. A Social History of Spin Stuart Ewen Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalysis Suffragettes Feminism “Angel of the House” Public Sphere Private Sphere Reform Bill, 1867 J.S. Mill Harriet Reform Bill of 1884 E. Pankhurst (1858-1928) 1909 Conciliation Bill, 1910 Derby Day May 31, 1913 Emily Wilding Division Anmer” -Classical Liberalism = pull yourself up by your bootstraps, do what you can to be successful Gustav Lebon is concerned about mass democracy, after 1884, almost a few do not have the right to vote -threats do not have the right to respond and are considered threats to order -Lebon considers these people “Little adapted to reasoning” -Lebon meets Roosevelt in 1914, meets Mussolini -Public Relations industry is founded in the early 1920’s and 30’s after WWI – Lebon ended up in the U.S. in the 1920’s and 1930’s -Lebon doesn’t consider these people to be conscious participants in society -modern-day presentations of choice – in this case this is a choice of human public, sociological capability -Freud is the founder of the study of psychoanalysis, of which the studies show that the human mind is consistent of actions and the subconscious – sexual, infantile, etc. -most of what the daily interactions include is that of the subconscious mind – this is the predominant theory and methodic way of therapeutic interventions until the 1950’s and 1960’s -Middle class could more identify with Freud with more empathetic terms --thus, the middle class is based in happenstance 19 century feminism! -many ideas return to ideas of Enlightenment ideas, Philosophes had much to say about being rational in society but typically ignored women -this movement is kept alive by outside factions that were not necessarily in London, church groups, labor unions -Robert Owen – Utopian Socialists – organized labor unions, sometimes included women – Christian Evangelicals wanted to instill slight reform against prostitutes, abolition of drinking -by the end of the nineteenth century, the suffragette movement appears -some Socialists include women to build their argument presumably -biological understanding of women versus men, but more importantly socially, other predominant aspects of life were entirely different -did not consider women to be objects of personal pleasure, women were not supposed to have “passionate arousal”, asexual? -natural female state was not designed to the demanding public sphere and thus was resigned to stay at home in the private sphere -“Angel of the House” – poem about Middle Class wife’s place in the home- to be a muse and mother, internal home chores, hostess for the husband, women are more moral and constructed as more pure, definitely a positive influence but motionless and without ambition or desires///// men are more accurate to fit demanding and public spheres – home director, escape from the trying public life that he is to make a living of, properly prostitutes were available, divorce and all belongings do not negatively impact the husband except perhaps socially -prostitution is supposed to be protected, male chastity was expected, -organized 1856 women’s rights movement -> voting, to attend Cambridge or Oxford (1980’s-90’s) -in Britain, the Reform Bill of 1867, definitely about half of the British now have the right to vote -J.S. Mill, proposed to have better rights even still, by his wife Harriet – continue to keep the issue alive by talking to Parliament and holding to the idea -about 97% Reform Bill, 1884 – only adult singles living at home with family or servants could not vote -at this point, some women want to vote now too – suffragette movement equally arising in America -the demand for women’s voting becomes more violent eventually -turn/end of the century, working class women utilized methods of civil disobedience, striking, picketing -> prison, hunger strikes eventually take place (force feeding through nasal tubes), police brutality -“Conciliation Bill of 1910” – 6 month of protests were promptly stopped -July of 1910 were passed after the second time – the Prime minister and his twin said absolutely not … so the protests got worse -vandalize golf courses, art galleries, electricity, lawns all over destroyed -19 century windows are very fragile and thus they are able to do a great deal of splintery violence one cold winter -Derby Day on May, 31, 1913 -The King and Queen’s horse are called Anmer -Emily Wilding Davidson jumps in front of the king’s horse and thus is killed -in August of 1914, WWI brings about nationalism “Laissez-Faire Industrialization, 1870-1914 Britain Germany U.S.A. Steel Bessemer, 1870 Electricity Chemicals Rubber Rayon Depression, 1873 Depression, 1893 Overproduction Underconsumption Supply Demand Deflation Cartels Trusts Big Labor Protective Tariffs Public Education” -The Industrial economy of the decades surrounding the turn of the 20 th century -the industrialization, especially the idea of Laissez Faire, is nearly what eradicates Classical Liberalism by WWI -economists state this 1870 to 1914 time as “Second Industrial Revolution”, rather than -Britain post-Civil War U.S., united Germany – (France industrializes, Italy maybe 1880 and Japan by 1890) -competition between U.S., Germany, and Britain by correlation is what initiates WWI -Technological Advances: Steel – Age of Iron, Henry Bessemer 1870, figures out a way to deoxygenate the steel, make it less fragile, malleable purposes rather than being “brittle” like iron 1890’s skyscrapers -Steel tracks for railroads replace the old iron (Age of Iron ca. 1850, British have about ½ of the world’s supply production of this time, Germany has out-produced the British by 1890 at about 2:1, by 1913, America is over the German production by about 2:1 (1913), artillery steel productions) -steel corporations, “big business” Railroads in 1840 -Electricity is available by 1900, hydropower, 1800’s might have had this but not to the extend -transformation of the urban areas to immensely begin to resemble that of 21 century amenities and transportation (trolleys, trains) -Thomas Edison’s light bulb, urban America might have been left in the dark until about 1940 in most places -inventors and philanthropists, German chemical factories (Rubber – tree, laborious but useful, Rayon late 1800’s) -synthetic chemicals – modern chemicals/modern chemistry -modern age, impact of being exposed to something for …. ?, studies, intersecting chemical use could arguably be more detrimental, plastics -Depression, 1873 – periods -Depression, 1893 – -overproduction (supply) not enough under-consumption (demand), price drop (deflation) -Cartels (oil) are the European name for Trusts (oil) -steel industry, oil industry, chemicals -this occurrence of businesses failing by successful triumph is protected by their monopoly business industry in India -1896 – 1901 General Electric, 1903 -Oligopoly “a few” -price leverage to remain on the top of the industry -the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in the 1890’s made trust formations more solidified (set the price as the supplying company) -1947 report of the trust conglomerates -Walmart -Big Labor – Germany, Britain’s Labor Party (1906), Labor Parties are essentially not legal until about 1935-37 -positive of Laissez Faire could arguably be the ability to barter, Bismark is not fascinated by Big Labor (these people want pensions, insurance, minimum wages, “western world idea of pensions is established to silence the uneasiness) -Industrial violent outbreaks of labor violence in this country -Protective Tariffs – tax on goods is a burden placed on the foreign country, more German steel industry -common school of thought is that countries are better when they do not have tariffs that do not establish the interests of production -Protective Tariffs initiated started in America by the 1860’s, post Civil War agriculture too productive …Germany 1879, France 1892, “open-door” policy until WWI in Britain -Public Education – technologically, scientifically focused industrial economy of engineers have to be engineered -laws are passed of education standards perhaps for an assurance of literacy, less crime, national loyalty pledge -History courses started out as “Civics”
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