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Health Psychology

by: Rosario Mosciski

Health Psychology PSY 326

Rosario Mosciski
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.81

Jennifer Yaffee

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About this Document

Jennifer Yaffee
Class Notes
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rosario Mosciski on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 326 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Jennifer Yaffee in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/218342/psy-326-california-state-polytechnic-university in Psychlogy at California State Polytechnic University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 6 Stress What is Stress Stress A negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical physiological cognitive and behavioral changes directed either toward altering the stressful event or accommodating to its effects Stressor A stressful event such as noise or the commute to work Personenvironment t Personal resources sufficient to meet the demands of the environment Theoretical Contributions to the Study of Stress Fight or Flight Walter Cannon 1932 Physiological response mobilizes the organism to attack the threat or to ee Selye s General Adaptation Syndrome Alarm Resistance Exhaustion Theoretical Contributions to the Study of Stress cont TendandBefriend Taylor and colleagues In addition to ghtor ight humans respond to stress with social af liation and nurturant behavior May depend on underlying biological mechanisms Theory supported by women who respond to stress by turning to others Theoretical Contributions to the Study of Stress cont Psychological appraisal and the experience of stress Primary appraisal processes Events may be perceived as positive neutral or negative in their consequences Negative events further appraised for possible harm threat or challenge Theoretical Contributions to the Study of Stress cont Psychological appraisal and the experience of stress cont Secondary appraisal processes Assessment of one s coping abilities and Whether they are suf cient to meet the harm threat and challenge of an event Theoretical Contributions to the Study of Stress cont Individual differences in stress reactivity People differ in reactivity Reactivity degree of change in Autonomic Neuroendocrine Immune responses Reactivity to stress can affect vulnerability to illness Theoretical Contributions to the Study of Stress cont Physiological recovery processes Cortisol levels take longer to return to normal under stress Allostatic load Physiological systems Within the body uctuate to meet demands of stress What Makes Events Stressful Assessing stress Indicators of stress Selfreports Behavioral measures Physiological measures Biochemical markers What Makes Events Stressful cont Dimensions of stressful events Negative events More stressful than positive events One exception people who hold negative views of themselves Uneontrollable events More stressful than predictable events What Makes Events Stressful cont Dimensions of stressful events cont Ambiguous events More stressful because person has no opportunity to take action Overload Overloaded people are more stressed than people With fewer tasks to perform What Makes Events Stressful cont Can people adapt to stress Psychological adaptation Most people can adapt to moderate stress but children elderly and the poor are more adversely affected by chronic stressors Physiological adaptation Lowlevel stress produces habituation in most people Whereas chronic stress can accumulate across multiple organ systems What Makes Events Stressful cont Must a stressor be ongoing to be stressful Anticipating stress Can be at least as stressful as its actual occurrence How Stress has been Studied In the laboratory Acute Stress Paradigm Shortterm stressful events impact physiological neuroendocrine and psychological responses Has shown how individual differences contribute to stress and What factors ameliorate the experience of stress How Stress has been Studied cont Inducing disease Psychological stress leads to a greater evidence of illness in response to a viral challenge than people exposed to the virus Whose lives were less stressful Stressful Life Events SLE Substantial adjustment to the environment leads to high stress SLE predicts illness How Stress has been Studied cont Daily stress Minor stressful events daily hassles such as being stuck in a traf c jam or making small decisions produce psychological distress reports of physical symptoms and enhanced use of health care services Minor hassles produce stress and aggravate physical and psychological health Sources of Chronic Stress PostTraumatic Stress Disorder Severely traumatic or stressful events may produce chronic mental health and physical health effects Longterm effects of early stressful life experiences Chronic physical or sexual abuse in childhood or adulthood increases health risks Stress early in life causes developing stress systems to become dysregulated Sources of Chronic Stress cont Chronic stressful conditions Chronic stress such as living in poverty being a bad relationship or remaining in a highstress job contribute to psychological stress and physical illness Chronic stress and health Chronic stress is related to illness Low SES produces more stressrelated outcomes than higher SES Sources of Chronic Stress cont Stress in the workplace Studies of occupational stress Help identify common everyday stressors Provide evidence for stressillness relationship Provide possibilities for intervention Show that stressrelated physical and mental health disorders account for a growing percentage of disability and social security payments to workers Sources of Chronic Stress cont Stress in the workplace cont Work and sedentary lifestyle Changes in the nature of work create vulnerability to illness Overload Chief cause of occupational stress Perception of work overload produces physical health complaints and psychological distress Sources of Chronic Stress cont Stress in the workplace cont Causes of stress Ambiguity and role con ict Social relationships Controllack of control Unemployment Some solutions to workplace stressors Workplace interventions can reduce stress Sources of Chronic Stress cont Combining work and family roles Women and multiple roles Home and work responsibilities may con ict With one another enhancing stress Sources of Chronic Stress cont Combining work and family roles cont Men and multiple roles Men more distressed by financial strain and work stress Satisfaction in the parent role is also important to men Stress in the workplace can cause fathers to withdraw from their children Children Social and academic failure at school increases aversive behavior at home Affected by parents work and family stressors


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