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by: Rosario Mosciski

PsychologyofPersonality PSY403

Rosario Mosciski
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.81


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This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rosario Mosciski on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY403 at California State Polytechnic University taught by BrianJohnson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/218343/psy403-california-state-polytechnic-university in Psychlogy at California State Polytechnic University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
MIDTERM 1 sorry I did not type these notes MIDTERM 2 Pg 75 CARL JUNG 18751961 Analytic Psychology Jung s Life Freud s Interpretation of Dreams Libido go Defined Jung s unique brand of psychology Which emphasizes the complex interplay between oppositional forces within the psyche and the ways in which these internal conflicts affect personality development As far as we can discern the sole purpose of human existence is to kindle a light in the darkness of mere being It may even be assumed that just as the unconscious affects us so the increase in our Consciousness affects the unconscious CG Jung Scienti c approach but took spirituality into account He was Swiss He had a scholarly family Father was a minister He wanted to be an archeologist no money so he settled for psychologist medical school Freud and Jung believed that our unconscious determined our behavior Both used psychoanalysis Freud admired Jung Freud could not come to terms with people who had different ideas as him so their relationship eventually broke gt They broke up over the topic of sex gt Jung could believe in unseen things Window to the unconscious This book put Freud on the map and attracted Jung Jung already concluded that peoples unconscious in uenced their behavior personality Freud suggested censorship in dreams Libido sex drive only one part Sex is only one of the ways that energy can be released Energy coming out in terms of academic acquirement 1 Psyche Consciousness 2 Personal unconscious 3 Collective unconscious Archetypes Jung did not accept Freud39s rst 5 stages of Psychosexual Development gt Rejected Oedipus Conflict There are Metaphysical things that are operating that are influencing us The mind that has 3 topographical categories 1 Consciousness ego 2 Personal unconscious 3 Collective unconscious Contact with the world Able to adapt to the environment around you Personal experiences that influence your behavior This part is universal modes of behavior that are identical in all people Ex not hurting another human being Never recall or regain memory from the collective unconscious Through generations of experiences this has had an in uence on our psyche It is the storehouse of the collective unconscious experiences ofyour ancestors AKAtranspersonal unconscious The collective unconscious is the psychic residue of man s evolutionary development a residue that accumulates as a consequence of repeated experiences over many generations Hall and Lindzey 1970 From the unconscious there emanate determining in uences which independently of tradition guarantee in every single individual a similarity and even a sameness of experience and also of the way it is represented imaginatively Jung 1936 The content ofthe collective unconscious are called Archetypes are predispositions which set us to reach the world in a selective fashion Has a lot of things that stimulate us Archetypes cont Pg83 Mandala Magic Circle Attitudes and Functions For example Jung believed that man is predisposed to be afraid of the dark or of snakes because it may be assumed primitive man encountered many dangers in the dark and was the victim of poisonous snakes These latent fears may never develop in modern man unless they are strengthened by specific experiences but nonetheless the tendency is there and makes one more susceptible to such experiences Hall and Lindzey 1970 The power ofthe archetype is not controlled by us we ourselves are at its mercy to an unsuspected degree Jung 1909 4 important archetypes that organize the psyche 1 Persona what we want others to see or perceive about us A mask may not reflect real personality 2 Anima female characteristics in males 3 Animus male characteristics in females 4 The Shadow reflects the darker self inferior animal like part of personality Objectionable behavior attitudes Urges us to do things we normally wouldn t do while still promoting survival Self realization Jung believed that we look to the future to reach our goals V To understand how our personality forms and how we develop depends on our personal experience Jung s view Mandalacan be any number ofdifferent symbols and to Jung each thing represents a part of personality Highly subjective interpretations Magic circle Self realization focusing on realizing our potential Humans by nature are made to see things on a deeper level Personality can be defined in terms of attitudes and functions When we are born we have the potential to go a lot of ways but our experience forms our personality 5 Introverted and Ex ovenedtypes Rational Functions Irrational Functions Introverted think Extroverted do Thinking FeeHng They provide order Intuiting easy feeling Sensing Where we have experienced the world in a way that we react to different things differently Defined Involve passively recording experiences without evaluating or interpreting 7 ALFRED ADLER 18701937 Individual Psychology Inferiority Complex Organ Inferiority Feelings of Inferiority Compensation Individual Psychology Fictional Finalism Unconscious Conscious Defined theory advanced by Adler that seeks to understand the behavior of each person as a complex organized entity We have innate striving to want to better ourselves The source of the striving is due to organ inferiority Our looks We see something physically unappealing big feet Focus on strengths not weaknesses Adler39s model focus on howthe individual strives to overcome feelings of inferiority and to strive for perfection Something that is an idea not happenedyet Strive for perfectionism in the future To understand personality you must appreciate that people have set goals to become someone In the future end goal not there yet People are future oriented Adler rejected the importance of the unconscious most of us are aware of our motivesquot Striving for Superiority or perfection Striving for Superiority runs parallel to physical growth All our functions follow its direction Whatever premises all our philosophers and psychologists dream of self preservation pleasure principle equalization all these are but vague representations attempts to express the great upward drive a fundamental category of thought the structure of our reason the fundamental fact of our life Adler 1930 Source of energy for striving is the feeling of inferiority 7 Adler s Background Motivation 0 0 Couldn t live up to older brother Saw him as mom s favorite Inferiorto brother Younger children perceive themselves as inferior to older siblings Adler was ill He couldn t walk until age 4 gt Almost died at age 4 Saw himself as ugly EVERYONE liked him Very social Decided to become a physician gt Puke at sight of bloodpsychiatrist Leading member ofthe psych group w Freud Broke from Freud Put emphasis on society to define personality Emphasis on the future goals than past Teleology moving towards the future to meet goals Motivated to be perfect Striving to reach perfection in future Style of Life Activeconstructive PassiveConstructive ActiveDestructive PassiveDestructive Everyone is different unique gt Criticized for not de ning personality as something everyone strive for the same thing 4 basic styles of life NOT biology lt s SOCIAL 1 Activeconstructive 2 Passive constructive 3 Active destructive 4 Passive destructive Parents establish an atmosphere that promotes kids to overcome inferiorities or not Children copy parents and develops their style of life Each child s experience is different within a family How we perceive Those that are actively constructive are known as socially useful gt This is the healthy person one who has both social interest and energy Note that without energy you can39t really have social interest since you wouldn39t be able to actually do anything for anyone These people believe in doing good for the sake of society They also believe they have control over their lives Passive constructive is known as the w gt They are sensitive people who have developed a shell around themselves which protects them but they must rely on others to carrythem through life39s dif culties They have low energy levels and so become dependent When overwhelmed they develop what we typicallythink of as neurotic symptoms phobias obsessions and compulsions general anxiety hysteria amnesias and so on depending on individual details oftheir lifestyle Active destructive are known as the w gt They are from childhood on characterized by a tendencyto be rather aggressive and dominant over others Their energy the strength of their striving a er personal power is so great that they tend to push over anything or anybody who gets in their way The most energetic ofthem are bullies and sadists less energetic ones hurt others by hurting themselves eg depressives alcoholics drug addicts and suicidal patients Passive destructive and known as the passive aggressive type Feel weak powerless but actually have a lot of influence gt These have the lowest levels of energy and only survive by essentially avoiding life especially other people When pushed to the limits they tend to become psychotic retreating nally into their own personal worlds The Creative Self Order of Birth An idea that Adler considers his most important creation Heredity and environment are only the bricks which a person uses in his own creative way in building up his attitude toward life Adler 1935 Represents the active principle of human existence Each of us are consciously active forces in shaping our personality and destiny First born dethroned gt Has the hardest time gt Has family all to selfand then is dethrones when sibling is born has to share gt Pace setter for all the kids after him gt Goes through crisis when sibling is born but doesn t mean they will have psychological problems Middle Child Youngest Child Object Relations Theory Object Relations Theory Melanie Klein o Pg217 Defined The theory that the course of human development depends on the quality of the relationships established between individuals particularly between parents and their children Personality is a function of early social experiences Freud proposed Instincts have four basic characteristics 1 a source in some bodily deficit sexual deprivation 2 an aim gratification ofthe need ie release of sexual energy an impetus that propels the person to act 4 an object through which the instinct achieves its am 9quot An object is a person Emphasized the interpersonal relationships between people Psychic structure was create through the relationship with mom Object means another person can mean other things too but let s not get into that Mental representation is the internal mental representation of an object External Object an actual person in the world that a person has invested with emotional energy Internal Object a person s representation of another such as a re ection of a child s way of relating to the mother Self An internal image Conscious and unconscious mental representations of oneself Self representation A person39s inner representation of himself or herself as experienced in relation to signi cant others The relationship between objects and the self and how you react in those relationships is residue from past relationships There are different points of view amongst object relations theorists regarding 1 How these mental representations develop 2 How these representations impacts a person 3 Its implications for personality development WRD Fairbairn Splitting Pg 246 Concerned with the relationships between people than with the drives within them Early relationships with parents shapes the emotional life ofthe child and determines the emotional experiences that the child will have later in life because the early libidinal objects become the prototypes for all later experience of connection with others We need relationships to survive unlike many other animals lntroject ie mentally take in Splitting de ned a defense in which individuals disavow split off feelings ofemptiness depression and deprivation in one sector of personality by acting out various grandiose ideas or by engaging in perverse but exciting activities under the control of another sector of the personality Ideal Mother ob39ect from the Rejected object Re39ected ob39ect further split into gt Need exciting what the infant wants but cant have gt Need rejecting aspect of mom that is not pleasant v Infant is creating a self representation ofthe object mom in their mind so Love mom because you have not yet noticed the frustrating parts of mom Central self attached to the idealized internal object Re39ecting self angrily attached to the need rejecting object Craving Self longingly but unsatisfyingly attached to the need exciting object 39239 Based on the nurture part ofa child39s life Otto Kernberg and Margaret Mahler Borderline Personalities Primitive Ego Defense Mechanisms Object relationship is associated to a range of clinical psychopathological phenomena on what Anna Freud has called developmental disturbances which the developmental ux of energy may even out during later development or which in certain instances may be precursors of infantile neurosis or middle range pathology In rare cases in which the subphase development was severely disordered or unsuccessful we found as did others such as Frijling Schreuder Kernberg and Gand R Blanck that borderline phenomena or borderlines states and even psychosis may result Mahler 1975 v Parallel to ego development amp creation ofthe superego is the creation ofthe internal self as it relates to other people so Trying to make sense out of certain psychopathology v Freud s model does not explain why people have certain personality disorders 1A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships selfimage and affect 2 Marked impulsivity 3 Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment protectthe ego from con icts by means of dissociating or actively keeping apart contradictory experiences ofthe selfand of significant others Kernberg 1980 p 6 Mahler uses identity to refer to the earliest awareness of a sense of being of entity a feeling that includes in part we believe a cathexis ofthe body with libidinal energy It is not a sense of who I am but that I am Maher 1975 o A baby does not have a sense of self They are all id They need to develop a mental representation ofthe selfas an individual separate from others Infants are already prewired to interact and to identify faces and experience themselves as individuals The psychological birth of the human infant Object Constancy Object Relations Separation or Separateness The Normal Autistic Phase gt O to 3 Months gt Self undifferentiated Normal Symbiotic Phase gt 3 to 4 Months gt Symbiosis Differentiation Phase gt 4 to 6 Months gt Hatching from motherinfant symbiotic common orbit gt Splitting is a primitive defense mechanism whereby the positive and negative memories are kept separate Practicing Phase gt 5 to 16 Months Rapprochement Phase gt 15 to 22 Months and Beyond gt Toddler phase gt separation anxiety is quotthe capacity to recognize and tolerate loving and hostile feelings toward the same object the capacity to keep feelings centered on a speci c object and the capacity to value an object for attributes otherthan its function of satisfying needsT How we mentally represent the object and how we view ourselves with the object Pg215 PSYCHOLOGY OF THE SELF Heinz Kohut Heinz Kohut Self Psychology Issue of narcissistic tendencies Guilty Man vs Tragic Man Selfo bject Psychoanalyst Worked with adult children of other analysts gt Rather selfish self absorbed gt Issue of narcissism He was an only child Well off family Trained in neurology Immigrated to US in 1940 Downplays id ego superego Theory that the self and not the instincts is the center of psychological motivation organization and change in personality It also assumes that psychological damage to the self not frustration ofthe sexual and aggressive instincts produces psychopathology Fail to do things for themselves Freudian conflict emphasized guilt while Kohut said development can be thrown off by great tragedy gt Guilty man Freud gt Tragic Man Kohut Kohut proposes a self defined by early tension states which are empathically responded to by the human environment in order to maintain a psychobiological steady state gt Young children do not have the capacity to clean feed clothe etc themselves Selfobject provides relief from discomfort and soothing the infant has no self Nuclear self develops within the rst 23 years of life Modify their unrealistic beliefs about themselves and their caregivers Primary Narcissism Pg 219 Grandiose Self Need to be Mirrored Optimally Failing Empathy Transmuting Internalization Narcissistic Personality disorders In the state of self love that is perfect and blissful All needs are ful lled by mother View oneself as great Steady state A need to be admired and to have an impact on others Disappointment with the empathic selfobject leads to disintegration or a fragmentation ofthe self experience with resulting rage or bodily autoerotic preoccupation Mother handles the immature exhibitionistic needs of her child by adopting a calming soothing loving attitude as she makes clear the unrealistic nature ofthe child s striving The process whereby individuals learn more realistic and effective ways ofthinking feeling and behaving as a consequence of interactions with empathic parents Self disorders characterized by grandiose thinking hypersensitivity to slights and perceived failures inability to forgive lack of zest impaired personal relationships and fragile selfesteem BEHAVIORISM Background on Pavlov Founded classical conditioning gt Bell is a conditioned stimulus Thomas Nelson 839 the issue lntrospection is not a good way of seeing what s of introspection in a person s mind because there are other factors Wllllam James firstAmerican psychologist Early spokes person for functionalism Mental acts can be studied through introspection the use of instruments to record and measure Objective manifestations of mind through the study of its creations and products and through the study of anatomy and physiology study of consciousness gt He argued forcibly against the structuralist position that conscious can be broken into constituent parts Coining the phrase 39stream of consciousness39 James proposed that mental life is a unity that flows and changes Object level eX table Meta level What is in your head mental process as you are looking at the object table 00 00 John Watson study of behavior Founder of behaviorism based on the beliefthat behaviors can be measured trained and changed the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment StimulusResponse gt Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our behaviors 17 Radical Behaviorism Stimulus Response Robert Sears not in book ampskipped in lecture RADICAL BEHAVIORISM Attempted to demonstrate orderly relationships between behavior and environment Behavior oforganisms not with internal processing Radical Behaviorists amp Moderate Behaviorists 1 Vigorous application ofthe rules of science 2 Academically based in contrast to clinical 3 Focus of environmental variables as stimulus and measurable behavior as the response 4 Explaining behavior to terms ofthe learning mechanisms Stimulus Response arcs Classical and Operant conditioning paradigms SOR StimulusOrganic VariableResponse Srs R 8 External stimulus r Internal response s Internal stimulus R Measurable response so Respond differently to a stimulus because we are wired differentlySOR Positive Identi cation Theory So long as external variables go unnoticed or are ignored their function is assigned to an originating agent within the organism the best way to dispose of any explanatory ction is to examine the facts upon which it is based These usually prove to be or suggest variables which are acceptable from the point of view of scientific method In the present case it appears that personality is simply a device for representing a functionally unified system ofresponses Personality may be tied to a particular type of occasion when a system of responses is organized around a given discriminative stimulus Types of behavior which are effective in achieving reinforcement upon occasion A are held together and distinguished from those effective upon occasion B Thus one s personality in the bosom ofone s family may be quite different from that in the presence of intimate friends Skinner 1953 pp 283285 BFSkinner Operant Conditioning Edward Lee Thorndike s Law of Effect Intermittent Reinforcement Personality is just behaviors that have been reinforced Personality is fiction Personality is a learned pattern of behaviorthat is situational Operate Conditioning Defined establishment ofthe linkage or association between a behavior and its consequences stated that any behaviorthat is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated and any behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped The word operant will be used because the behavior operates upon the environment to generate consequences In operant conditioning we strengthen an operant in the sense of making a response more probable or in actual fact more frequent Schedule of reinforcement in which responses produce reinforcers only occasionally or intermittently SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Core Tendency of Personality Peripheral Considerations Developmental Considerations Cognitive Capabilities All people have an inherent tendency to construe the events oftheir experience and thereby give them meaning In a general sense the characteristics that distinguish people develop out of the interaction between people and their environment The major mechanism of personality developed is observational learning Behavior Modification gt Series of procedures that seek to change behaviorthrough reliance on reinforcement principles or less often by reliance on punishment principles Systematic Desensitization gt is a type of behavioral therapy based on the principle of classical conditioning gt Thistherapy aims to remove the fear response of a phobia and substitute a relaxation response to the conditional stimulus gradually using counter conditioning gt This is done by forming a hierarchy of fear involving the conditioned stimulus eg a spider that are ranked from least fearful to most fearful The patient works their way up starting at the least unpleasant and practicing their relaxation technique as they go When they feel comfortable with this they are no longer afraid they move on to the next stage in the hierarchy Situational Determinants gt These are the conditions in the environment existing before and after an organism39s response and influence It is one ofthe 4 variables in behavioral analysis Cognitive Capabilities sef reinforcement cont gt a process whereby individuals control their own behavior by rewarding themselves when a certain standard of performance has been attained or surpassed Delayed Gratification gt is the ability to resist the temptation for an immediate reward and wait for a later reward gt associated with resisting a smaller but more immediate reward in order to receive a larger or more enduring reward later Albert Bandura Bobo doll experiment Observational learning or Vicarious Learning Effect gt De ned Willingness to imitate the behavior ofthe model after observing that the model was reinforced forthe behavior Situational Determinants versus Traits Is it personality determined by certain life situations or biological traits Internal Factors Walter Mischel A human actively evaluates judges and regulates his own performance and in addition to being rewarded and punished by the external environment the individual learns to monitor and evaluate one s own behavior and to reward and punish oneself thus modifying one s behavior and influencing the environment Mischel 1971 Ix Julian Rotter Julian Rotter adds another twist by focusing on Behavior Potential v Rotter has four main components to his social learning theory model predicting behavior These are behavior potential expectancy reinforcement value and the psychological situation 39239 Subjective ratherthan Objective basis for predicting behavior Psychological situation how we view the worldetc is due to the psychological situation gt Rotter believes it is always important to keep in mind that different people interpret the same situation differently Again it is people39s subjective interpretation ofthe environment rather than an objective array of stimuli that is meaningful to them and that determines how they behave Social Learning Theory People learn through observing others Influenced by reward and punishment for actions I l3 FINAL Humanistic Psychology The Third Force The Fulfillment Model Rejects Gestalt Psychology to understand humans we must respect that humans are born with the potential to realize something greater Humans have tremendous capacity to grow and become all that they can SelfActualization Experiencing fully vividly selflessly with full concentration and tota absorption the moment Maslow 1972 Although Maslow and other Third Force psychologists disagree with the theories of the Behaviorists and Freudians they find that the techniques of scientific psychology and of Freud can be useful Goble 1970 Pessimism of the Freudian impersonalism of behaviorism and reductionism Gestalt psychology influences humanistic psychologists Gestalt basically means whole whole is greater than the sum of its parts gt lt Gestalt liked working with people with abnormalities to explain human process same length Studying the very bes human beings Not the abnormal What is happening now is a change in the image of man In the case of the humanistic and Third Force image which shows so clearly that we have been selling human nature short throughout the Anole of recorded history this is certainly a revolution in terms of its consequences It can and will change the world and everything in it feel so privileged to be at a turning point in history and to be helping with it Maslow personal letter to Goble1968 24 Abraham Maslow 39 30m in Brooklyn NY 19084 970 Jewish not practiced Not a clinician but an academian Maslow s core tendency of Personality Self actualization Experiencing fully vividly selflessly with full concentration and total absorption the moment Maslow 1972 Hierarchy of Needs Selfeaclualizalion acceptance ul facts svtlresteem Confidence Bizmavenan respect ml othersi V h K iikmhlmi iamilv sexual mi i v ecurilv m burly empinymenn resumes mnralilvi Ihafamilvi nesim nrnpany Honst39c39dynam39c theory Realized potential not born this way The Basic Needs Safety Needs The Belongingness and Love Needs Esteem Needs The Need for Self Actualization Needs to be self actualized gt Physical Needs gt Homeostasis automatic effort so that we do have what we need to survive physical needs A person who is lacking food safety love and esteem would most probably hunger for food more strongly than for anything else Maslow 1954 1970 rev lfthe physiological needs are relatively well gratified there then emerges a new set of needs we may categorize roughly as the safety needs security stability dependency protection freedom from fear from anxiety and chaos need for structure order law limits strength in the protector and so on Maslow 1954 1970 rev If both the physical and safety needs are fairly well gratified there will emerge the love and affection and belongingness needs The person will feel keenly as never before the absence of friends or a sweetheart or a wife or children He will hunger for affectionate relations with people in general namely for a place in his group or family and he will strive with great intensity to achieve this goal Maslow 1954 1970rev p 43 Selfesteem leads to feelings of selfcon dence worth strength capability and adequacy of being useful and necessary in the world Maslow 3 Even if all these needs are satis ed we may still often if not always expect that a new discontent and restless will soon develop unless the individual is doing what he individual is fitted for A musician must make music an artist must paint a poet must write if he is to be ultimately at peace with himself What a man can be he must be Characteristics Self Actualization BeingValues or B Values 1 JON A 0 Self actualization means experiencing fully vividly selflessly with full concentration and total absorption Selfactualization is an ongoing process Selfactualization implies that there is a self to be actualized When in doubt he or she is honest ratherthan not He daresto listen to himself his own self at each moment in life and to say calmly No I don t like such and such A person comes to know what his destiny is and what his mission in life will be Self actualization is not only an end state but also the process of actualizing one s potentialities at any time in any amount Peak experiences are transient moments of self actualization Finding out who one is what he is what he likes what he doesn t like what is good for him and what bad where he is going and what his mission is Selfactualizing people are without one single exception involved in a cause outside their own skin in something outside of themelves They are devoted working at something something which is very precious to them some calling or vocatoin in the old sense All in one way or another devote their lives to the search for what I have called the being values the ultimate values which are intrinsic which cannot be reduced to anything more ultimate Maslow 1971 Outside themselves Truth Goodness Beauty Wholeness Aliveness Uniqueness Perfection Justice Order Effortlessness Playfulness 27 CARL ROGERS 19021987 Background on Carl Rogers Unconditional Positive Regard vs Conditional Regard Core Assumptions 0 o go 4 6 siblings Warm family relationships Strict religious principles He was shy sensitive and unsocial Important personalogist in 40s70s Powerful impact on our responsibility for people and our betterment People are to be valued and respected Feeling that another to be a person of unconditional selfworth of value no matter what his condition his behavior or his feelings Rogers p 185 1951 Unconditioned positive worth that is not conditioned upon age gender history etc Conditioned regard if a person has certain qualities they are not worth anything to me gt I will not respect you as a person of any value ifyou are annoying stupid etc Unconditional Positive Regard De ned a total caring of prizing ofthe person for what he or she is without any reservations or conditions of worth in therapy the therapist s complete acceptance ofthe client s expression of negative as well as positive feelings Does not mean you have to like what the person is doing Man is qualitatively different from other species Man is intentional A person is always in the process of becoming Human nature is positive When psychologically free a person strives to become a fully functioning person On Becoming A Person 1961 Man is aware It appears that the person who is psychologically free moves in the direction of becoming a more fully functioning person my italics He is more able to live fully in and with each and all of his feelings and reactions He makes increasing use ofall his organic equipment to sense as accurately as possible the existential situation within and without He makes use of all ofthe information his nervous system can thus supply using it in awareness but recognizing that his total organism may be and often is wiser than his awareness He is more able to permit his total organism to function freely in all its complexity in selecting from the multitude of possibilities that behavior which in this moment oftime will be most generally and genuinely satisfying He is able to put more trust in his organism in this functioning not because it is infallible but because he can fully open to the consequences of each of his actions and correct them ifthey prove to be less than satisfying Rogers 1961 Rogers has such a strong beliefthat there are only people who are good in nature no bad Being aware man knows his choices make a difference The person behaves as he perceives himselfto be As a result of interaction with the environment and particularly as a result of evaluational my italics interactions with others ie people the structure of self is formed together with values attached to the concept of self Rogers 1951 Self concept vs Self Expe ence Defenses Denial and Distortion Positive Self Regard 0 Rogers is a phenomenologist Phenomenology is the view that a persons experience is private Communication is problematic Experience yourself as separate from others and separate from the environment As experiences occur in the life ofthe individual they are either a symbolized perceived and organized into some relationship to the self b ignored because there is no perceived relationships to the selfstructure c denied symbolization or given a distorted symbolization because the experience is inconsistent with the structure ofthe self Rogers 1951 Your interactions with people will form your view ofyourself We learn who we are through our experiences with others and how they react to us in different ways your badstupid etc these are There is going to be a distortion between who you are and who you think you are gt This is about the self The self in uences behavior Variance between self concept and one s actual self is called incongruency The more incongruent a person s self concept from their true nature the less fully functioning the person How are you going to have healthy relationships ifyou see yourself as a burden to others I find lam more effective when I can listen acceptineg to myself and can be myself Carl Rogers The type of behavior a child experiences has a powerful impact on their sense of self Accept yoursself Congruency between selfand who one believes they are 30 Positive Self Regard Cont Rogers does not categorize by personality types because everyone is unique Rogers says there is no such thing as too much unconditional positive regard LL RAYMOND CATTELL 1905 1998 Cattell s Background Structu reBased Systems Theory Factor Analysis TRAITS 1 Surface Traits 2 Clusters Cattell had a degree in chemistry and statistics British Established a model for personality Clinical thought and experimental work using statistical tools His theory re ects experimental findings and personal experience Defined theory that seeks to explain the complicated dynamic interactions between goal oriented people and their environments Statistical technique designed to simplify a complex set of data by accounting for them in terms of underlying factors usually fewer in numberthan the original number ofvariables in the original data set When you see 4500 traits you nd that there are clusters within it Personality Traits take a bipolar form gt Example Talkative Quiet 18000 Trait words Allport and Odbert1936 35 identified by Cattell gt Example Crude SocialAssertion Exhibitionist Argumentative Talkative Boastful Arrogant Lu lJ 3 Source Traits The Sixteen Personality Factor 16PF Questionnaire Peeling the Onion The real structural influences underlying personality The 16 Major Source Traits A ReservedOutgoing B Less intelligentJMore intelligent C Emotional Stable E HumbleAssertive F SoberHappygoIucky G ExpedientJConscientious H ShyVenturesome ToughmindedTenderminded LTrustingSuspicious M PracticalImaginative N ForthrightJShrewcl O PIacidApprehensive Q1 ConservativeExperimenting Q2 GrouptiedSeIfsufficiency Q3 CasualControlled Q4 RelaxedTense Cattell narrowed 4500 source traits to 16 major traits Giving people a way to measure their personality Surface Traits Outer skin of the Union gusty weird crazy aky crazy silly nuuy zany wacky Cluslels Just under lhe surface on lhe anion Eccelznlric Source Trails ne meal of the onion ReservedDumping Humble Assertive ShyVenturesome Dynamic Traits The core of the onion and source oi personal motivation gt Maling Pimnaril l 4 Dynamic Traits Erg Cattell is finding an objective way to define personality Erg and metaerg drive source traits Why does our personality look the way is does What explains the difference and what motivates us Each of us have different personality and we need to understand these differences through dynamic traits Those that are Environmentalmold traits and those that reflect hereditary factors Constitutional traits gt Constitutional Traits body Dynamic traits spring fromquot either heredity or environment but not both Cattell pioneered an objective way for defining personality Ergs are inborn tendencies An erg may be defined as an innate psychophysical disposition which permits its possessorto acquire reactivity to attend to certain classes of objects more readily than others to experience a specific emotion therefrom and to enter on activity which ceases more completely at the attainment of one specific goal than at other goals The goals satisfactions may be defined either externally by the particular relation between the organism and an environmental situation or internally by some physiological condition Cattell 1941 General Psychology Physical Hardwired to respond to food ergs Tendenciesto react in certain situations or stimuli Only appear when we are exposed to certain stimuli in the environment The term quotergquot is used instead of drives because the latter term involves several assumptions about quotinstinctsquot etc whereas the ergic patterns are experimentally demonstrable However in popular terms an erg is a drive or source of reactive energy K Barton T E Dielman and R B Cattell 1972 Erga unit of energy Ergon quotworkquot He originally identified 10 ergs Food seeking Hunger Mating Sex Gregariousness Parental Protectiveness Protection Exploration Curiosity Escape to security Security Selfassertion Narcissistic sex Sex Pugnacity Anger QWNOFnerNT A Strength of an Erg Metaergs He later modified these changed their description and added 1 Appeal 2 Disgust 3 Selfsubmission All are born with these ergs but how naturally strong each ofthese ergs are differ from person to person Constitutional and hereditary effects C Personal History H Stimulus 8 Physiological condition component P Degree ofgratification G Basically the strength ofan erg can be expressed in the formula ESCHPG Metaerg is a result of life experiences Developed after you are born A metaerg is an environmentallymolded dynamic trait The most important metaergs Sentiments gt An acguired dynamic trait structure which causes its possessor to pay attention to certain objects or classes of objects and to feel and react in a certain way with regard to these objects Cattell 1950 A sentiment structure is deeper more widely ramifying in the personality usually established earlier and accompanied in its function by more emotion Cattell 1946 An attitude is more transient and emotionally more super cial lt arises from the impact of sentiment upon a particular situation Cattell 1946 To understand personality you look at both environmental and born tendencies Dynamic Lattice Annuda level Senlimenl level c Culioiiiy 39l n 2 a f pholoa 5x mph lt VI gnu 3 7 f f 39lt mumquot Ergic level Bank 9 w S V we PW Hunuor I 51 Am V Dar39y App I f5 I Figure 1 Portion of a dynmm39c lattice iuusuau ng subsidiation Reproduced from Cattell 1950 p 156 SUbs39d39atlon Chams Subsidiation means that within the personality some elements subsidiate or are subordinate to other elements Attitudes are subsidiary to sentiments sentiments are subsidiary to ergs These relationships are expressed by Cattell in What he called the dynamic lattice Schutz and Schultz 2005 The salf39 Allows for stability in personality The satisfaction of any desire becomes subsidiated in part to a sentiment for the welfare of the Whole self This sentiment becomes by such contributions the most powerful sentiment in the lattice controlling all others to some degree Catte 1950 39239 You develop a view of yourself that is negative or positive w o FIVE FACTOR PERSONALITY MODEL Robert McCrae amp Paul Costa Robert McCrae 8 Paul Costa The three questions of investigation go o o o o go o o 2 A The gist of our argument is easily stated Personality traits like temperaments are endogenous dispositions that follow intrinsic paths of development essentially independent of environmental in uences McCrea amp Costa 2000 Developed to define the dimensions and traits of people that explain personality These dimensions to personality are hardwired genes They do not deny the role ofthe environment Concerned with wherther personality is consistent over life or does it change over time Personality traits accounted for only 5 of the persons individual behavior 95 was in uenced by environment Is there really such a thing as personality ls personality stable over time What are the primary dimensions or traits Traits versus passing moodstransients states of mind How can we specify what characteristics do and do not change over a life time unless we know the full range of characteristics to look at lfan individual is anxious and hostile today but calm and goodnatured tomorrow we attribute these emotions to the situationperhaps pressures at work or a quarrel with a spouse Only when emotion attitude or style persists despite changes in circumstances do we infer the operation ofa trait McCrae amp Costa Personality traits are only dispositions not absolute determinants of behavior and emotional statequot Methods for investigating the stability of personality over time Cross Sectional studies Longitudinal studies Factor Analysis Five Factors of Personality UlhOGNA Cohort effects Age Practice effectkeep asking the same question and they remember answers Expensive Life does not lead to change or growth in personality but it allows a fascinating variety of situations in which personal dispositions for good or ill play a part McCrae and Costa 1990 The vefactor model of personality has brought order to the competing systems of personality structure by showing that most traits can be understood in terms ofthe five basic dimensions of personality McCrae amp Costa 1990 There is no contradiction at all in saying that personality remains stable whereas behavior changes Trying to nd underlying similarities between things Doing it in terms of how people are rating themselves in certain terms Offers a way to determine how to group together sets oftraits that are all related to each other and unrelated to other sets oftraits Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness The Five Factors of personality is a simple theory Jacob BlockPhD The atheoretical nature ofthe vefactors Cloudy measurement lnappropriateness for studying early childhood Use of factor analysis as the exclusive paradigm for conceptualizing personality Nonconsensual understandings ofthe ve factors Unrecognized aspects of personality not subsumed by the fivefactors One ofthe criticisms ofthe 5 factor is that it says it s stable over time Atheoretical nature ofthe 5 factor modelnot really explaining AARON BECK 1921 Cognitive Model Background Evidence Based Treatment EBT Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT o o go o go o o go o o A good theory to him would be comprehensive and explain each of us Minimalism strip things down to the most fundamental features Parsimonious the process by which you keep things simple Cognitive modelthoughts Beck was in uenced by Albert Ellis Uses the word schema as opposed to construct Interventions for which systematic empirical research has provided evidence of statistically signi cant effectiveness as treatments for specific problems Therapist trained in cognitive behavioral therapy Widely studied and evidence shows that this therapy is more helpful than none at all Personality is an expression ofa conglomerate of basic thoughtsschemas ie rules that govern information processing and behavior Ex you thing that depression is caused by unhealthy thinking so you want to help the person by getting them to understand diminish unhealthy thinking PTSD Anxiety disorders Etc People respond to situations based on how these situations are consciously and automatically evaluated in terms of relevant underlying beliefs What a person does is not caused by the unconscious but by an automatic process Consistency between out thoughts and what one does in different situations Faulty thinking patterns causes distortions THINKING DISTORTIONS 1 l h an N ALLORNOTHING THINKING You see things in blackandwhite categories If your performance falls short of perfect you see yourself as a total failure OVERGENERALIZATION You see a single negative event as a never ending pattern of defeat MENTAL FILTER You pick out a single negative detail and dwell on it exclusively so that your vision ofall reality becomes darkened like the drop of ink that discolors the entire beaker ofwater DISQUALIFYING THE POSITIVE You reject positive experiences by insisting they quotdon39t countquot for some reason or other In this way you can maintain a negative beliefthat is contradicted by your everyday experiences JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS You make a negative interpretation though there are no definite facts that convincingly support conclusion a Mind reading You arbitrarily conclude that someone is reacting negatively to you and you don39t botherto check this out b The Fortune Teller Error You anticipate that things will turn out badly and you feel convinced that your prediction is an already established fact MAGNIFICATION CATASTROPHIZING OR MINIMIZATION You exaggerate the importance of things such as your goofup or someone else39s achievement or you inappropriately shrink things until they appeartiny your own desirable qualities or the other fellow39s imperfections This is also called the binocular trick EMOTIONAL REASONING You assume that your negative emotions necessarily re ect the way things really are I feel it therefore it must be true SHOULD STATEMENTS You try to motivate yourselfwith shoulds and shouldn39ts as ifyou had to be whipped and punished before you could be expected to do anything Musts and oughts are also offenders The emotional consequence is guilt When you direct should statements toward others you feel anger frustration and resentment THINKING DISTORTIONS Cont 9 LABELING AND MISLABELING This is an extreme form of overgeneralization Instead of describing your error you attach a negative label to yourself I39m a loser When someone ese s behavior rubs you the wrong way you attach a negative label to him He39s a goddamn louse Mislabeling involves describing an event with language that is highly colored and emotionally loaded 10PERSONALIZATION You see yourself as the cause of some negative external event which in fact you were not primarily responsible for 11SELFWORTH You make an arbitrary decision that in order to accept yourself as worthy okay or to simply feel good about your self you have to perform in a certain way usually most or all the time Chris Morley Evaluation ofthe particular demands of a situation precedes and triggers an adaptive or maladaptive strategy behavioral traits or tendencies Cognitions verbal or pictorial events in a person s stream of consciousness are based on attitudes or assumptions schemas developed from previous experiences Beck Rush Shaw Emergy 1979 so You did not come across this type of thinking arbitrarily not born with o The psychological sequence progresses from evaluation to affective and motivational arousal and finally to selection and implementation ofa relevant strategy We regard the basic structures schemas upon which these cognitive affective and motivational processes are dependent as the fundamental units of personality Beck Freeman et al 1990 39239 Basic way you think about things in uences your thoughts feelings behavior etc Automatic thoughts Peripheral Statement StimuligtAutomatic thoughtgtAffectgt Behavior Situation gt Negative thought gt Negative Affect gt Response Ex mom says she wants to talk quot9 crap I m in trouble 9 annoyance quot9 response Introspection ie the examination of one s thinking processes can be learne gt How we learn to pay attention to one s thoughts Personality traits identified by adjective such as dependent withdrawn arrogant or extraverted may be conceptualized as the overt expression of underling belief or schematic structures By assigning meanings to events the cognitive structures start a chain reaction culminating in the kinds of overt behavior strategies that are attributed to personality traits You can see them in yourself Beck isn39t paying attention to how these develop He is interested in here and now what are you thinking now7 ITABLE 21 Basic Beliefs and Strategies Associated with Traditional Personality Disorders Personality Strategy Disorder Basic BeliefsAttitudes Overt Behavior Dependent I am helpless Attachment Avoidant I may get hurt Avoidance Passiveaggressive I could be stepped on Resistance Paranoid People are potential adversaries Wariness Narcissistic I am special Selfaggrandizement Hislrionic I need to impress Dramatics Obsessivecompulsive Antisocial Schizoid Errors are bad I must not err People are there to be taken l need plenty of space Perfectionism Attack Isolation BIOLOGICAL MODEL Nature over Nurture Typology Sir Francis Galton 18221911 David C Rowe 00 0 O 0 O 0 O 0 O 0 O 0 O 00 00 What influences variation in the biological model the most Vt Vg Ve Vm gt Vt Total observed variance of a trait gt Vg Variance due to genetic differences among people gt Ve Variance due to environmental or experiential factor gt Vm Variance due to measurement error and unsystematic temporal fluctuations Biological model says that it is nature over nurture Genes are primary in developing personality Personality traits are what is important in the biological model Different systems of personality traits English Zeitgeist re ected in his work Proposed that individual greatness follows family lines Inherited genius Created his own model of math called corelation Eugenics improving the genetic quality ofthe human population University ofArizona variations in genetics have been left unaccounted for Find two people that shave the same exact DNA monozygotic twins M Classical Twin Design Coefficient of determinate Coefficient of non determination Coefficient of the Residuals Two kinds of rearedtogether twins Identical TwinsMonozygotic Twins MT and Fraternal Twins Dizygotic Twins DT are compared It is true that an adoptive parent resembles only one kind of child in his or her family the biological child in contrasted to the adopted child The MMPI traits could not be predicted from the adoptive parents Yet the MMPI traits could be predicted from their birth mothers MMPI traits r 18 n 135 p lt 05 Thus we fully recover the fully expected of family resemblance once we have information on a biological parent even a biological parent whose contact with her child was limited to a few hours or days after birth The observations lead strongly to the inference that what creates parentchild resemblance in natural families is biology and that no process of imitation modeling or emotional identification is required to induce it Rowe 1994 p 70 r is a correlation coef cient a number between 10 and 10 which is a measure of how two variables covary In other words to what degree does the variance of one variable relate to another variable The direction and the strength ofthe correlation gt r18 from example above Tell you the percentage that is related to what the correlations share r32 968 not accounted for The environment accounts for the rest 1 l392xy Th39 td39 d39 I Lnlir igzse s 39scusse 39quot cass Rowe IndIVIduals who share genes are alike In personality regardless of how they are reared whereas rearing environments induce little or no personality resemblance Rice 1994 Extraversion and Degree of Genetic Relationship TABLE 31 Averaged Extraversion Correlations in Two TwinFamily Studies Mean No of Social 139 pairs r3 relation MZ twins 43 116 L00 Twins Siblings in twin families 23 177 50 Full siblings Twin parent to own child 22 413 50 Parent child Mn parent to brother39s or 21 192 50 Unclyaunt nephew sister39s child niece Cousins via MZ twins 16 138 25 Cousins Nola Correlations re cct wei hied average of two twinfamily studies Ori 39 3 sources Price Vandenbetg Iyer 6 Williams 982 and Loehlin 1986 Adapted from Loe in 6 Rowe 1992 Copyright 1992 by Harvester Wheatsheaf Adapted by permission r39 is the relatives39 genetic correlation Other possible variables to account for the variances between the two sets of M2 twins Test reliability Test validity Situational factors Environmental variables Including prenatal events Individual reasoning The abstracting mind brings the past effectively into the present and its power ofanticipation brings the future into the present as well Millon 1990 p 43 Minnesota Twin studies California Personality lib Inventory CU LTU RE AN D PERSONALITY o o go o o In a world in which ethnic and cultural pluralism is daily becoming more politically salient it is striking that North American professionals constructs of personality and psychopathology re mostly culture bound selectively re ecting the experiences of particular cohorts those who are White male AngloGermanic Protestant and formally educated and who share a middle and uppermiddleclass cultural orientation LewisFernandez Keinman 1994 Psychologists tend to ignore culture are our conclusions universal lf personality is based on culture then is there a personality theory that is actually universal There are fundamental differences among cross cultural psychologists with respect to the presumed relation between culture and psychology Some see psychology as a universal science of human nature in which culture is merely a system of environmental in uences no different in principle from such variables as social class or occupation Others see human beings as so intimately the product oftheir language and culture that a completely different psychology is needed for every society McCrea Yik Trapnel Bond Paulas 1998 The gist of our argument is easily stated Personality traits like temperaments are endogenous dispositions that follow intrinsic paths of development essentially independent of environmental in uences McCrea amp Costa 2000 In some cultures the self is considered an illusion 1 lsthe Five Factor model universal v Defined personality as inborn tendencies so we would see it in other parts ofthe world so There are traits that are from all parts ofthe world 2 And ifwe find that the model is valid in other parts ofthe world like Korea and China does it mean that there are five universal traits under which all behavior and attitudes and be subsumed 3 And do the names for these five factor clusters really have application outside the western world Extraversion 2 Openness to Experience 3 Neuroticism 4 Agreeableness 5 Conscientiousness behavior systems A v 4 Are the ve factors an artifact of the statistics used to identify the factors As Harvard biologist Stephen Jay Gould noted in 1981 factor analysis can group together indicators that have no underlying source ofcausality Just because these tendencies like emotionality are clustered together are they really related v Could have been concluded that culture does have an influence on personality because it was analyzed in a westernized way so In China researchers found 5 factors of personality but they were different ones than the American 5 factors v Personality in China will look different than personality in the US


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