Advocacy and Argument
Advocacy and Argument COM 204
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Sample Outline Using ProblemCauseSolution Format Proposition of Policy Through individual action and laws we must eliminate illiteracy in the United States Organizational Design ProblemCause Solution This follows our Com 204 format pretty well problemcausesolution but isn t a particularly controversial issue and so doesn t have as many opposing issues also it focuses more on what individuals can do so there is little in the way of enforcement or cost issues it s an example for you but please note the shortcomings as opposed to the kinds of topics and arguments we have focused on Introduction I Tammie Marie Delong is a loving mother A She wants more than anything to be able to provide for her children in every aspect imaginable Learning 1 Tammie however is unable to follow recipes drive her children places read them stories or help them with their homework 2 Why Tammie does not know how to read B Tammie suffers from a learning disability known as illiteracy Learning 1 As a child this disability went unnoticed or in several cases ignored 2 Tammie struggled through school and barely graduated from high school 1T All of us at one point or another have experienced academic frustration A Perhaps we were overwhelmed with the amount of homework we had upset that we had failed a test or confused about an assignment B Try to imagine what it would be like if you could not read your assignments or tests C All of you know how important reading is you made that quite clear in the questionnaire when you explained how important reading is to your everyday life HI This scenario is a reality for Tammie the 923 million other Americans who suffer from illiteracy and the 40 million Americans over the age of 16 who have only rudimentary reading and writing skills which means they read and write below a fifth grade level Castle A Illiteracy is the inability to read or write or being uneducated in a certain field of knowledge Random 658 B Reading is a fundamental skill that many of us take for granted C When someone is having difficulty reading at an early age and this problem is not addressed it can lead to a lifelong disability Castle D When illiteracy does become a lifelong disability several problems can occur TV Today let s discuss the problems associated with illiteracy the causes of illiteracy and some of the solutions that are available to eradicate illiteracy Body I The three main problems associated with illiteracy are an increased likelihood of criminal behavior difficulties in the workplace and medical complications A The first problem associated with illiteracy is its relationship to criminal acts Cassidy 1 According to literacy experts children with poor reading skills are more likely to become criminals because it is difficult for them to succeed in school Cassidy a This frustration leads students to turn to crime as a method of handling their frustration Cassidy b Students drop out of school are unable to find jobs and therefore turn to crime as a means of making money Cassidy 2 Of the ten to fifteen percent of students who drop out of high school over seventyfive percent report difficulty in reading Castle a Studies show that fifty percent of all prison inmates and individuals with criminal records are illiterate or functionally illiterate Cassidy b Seven out of ten prisoners do not possess basic reading and writing skills Consortium B The second problem associated with illiteracy is its negative impact on the workforce The economy today demands high levels of literacy and technical skills MD l Many adults do not have the skills necessary to find or keep jobs support their families or participate actively in civic life because of their learning disability Castle Employers are hesitant to hire workers who can neither read nor writeand E with good reason Dilworth a llliteracy hampers the ability to perform tasks CDilworth b Illiterate employees cost employers thousands of dollars as a result of mistakes and miscalculations Reading gt Currently 15 million adults holding jobs are functionally illiterate Reading a Forty percent of US workers do not have the basic literary skills to perform jobs efficiently Consortium b Fifty percent of all high school graduates do not have the basic literary skills to perform their jobs efficiently Consortium C Health illiteracy is another problem associated with illiteracy 1 Health illiteracy occurs when patients can not read their prescriptions correctly fill out medical forms or comprehend medical instructions Doctors a The AMA estimates that about 90 million Americans have difficulty comprehending medical information and acting on it Doctors b This includes not being able to read notices from school or office health offices 2 Health illiteracy can be devastating resulting in visits to the emergency room medical complications and even death Doctors 3 Health illiteracy costs the health care industry 73 billion per year in unnecessary doctor visits and hospitalizations Doctors Now that we understand some of the main problems associated with illiteracy let s describe its causes inherency these seem to be both structural and attitudinal H llliteracy may be caused or linked to families learning disabilities or the media A Parents are often the first cause of illiteracy in children Glover i Language and literacy skills of parents are critical to the development and school performance of children Glover 2 The readingreadiness skills of a child in the first grade are provided by parents during the first five years of life 3 Children cannot learn to read from illiterate parents and subsequently start school behind their peers a I look at my seventeen yearold son and my twelve yearold daughter and I want to help them with their homework butl can t said one illiterate woman Glover ST My son was supposed to repeat the ninth grade for the third time this year He finally said he wanted to drop out 1 see my handicap being passed on to my son and this is scary Glover B Learning disabilities play a major role in the causes of illiteracy Learning 1 Often these disabilities go unnoticed or ignored and therefore the children fall behind in school and are never able to catch up 19 Fifty to eighty percent of all adults affected by learning disorders received little or no help growing up Learning C According to researchers the impact of the media especially television is generally believed to be a significant factor in causing illiteracy Glover l The majority of television programming is designed for people at the mental age of twelve Glover Therefore although the television might expand the horizons of younger 19 children the programs might actually stunt the intellectual growth of older children and adolescents Glover Now that we understand the problems and causes associated with illiteracy let s explore the solutions that are available to help stop this devastating problem HI llliteracy is a problem that affects everyone and must be stopped A There are several ways that you andl can help solve this problem 1 Recognize the importance of literacy by encouraging individuals who are illiterate to contact their local literacy foundation Learning 2 Become a tutor and volunteer your time to help struggling children become better readers Learning 3 Become involved in a local literacy foundation or literacy program a An example of a program which promotes literacy is the Magic Carpet Time Tour Roker i This is a program that tours the country visiting schools to promote the concept of literacy ii The program s theme is A Journey Through the World of Books iii The children read stories that relate to different countries Roker a Each child gets to visit a different country on a magic carpet b Each story gets children excited about reading and also teaches them morals Roker c At the end of every program each child is presented the Very Special Reader badge Roker b Another example is the Black StallionLiteracy Program Black i This program uses horses to get children interested in reading Black ii The children are required to read the classic Black Stallion books and are then taken to local horse farms and introduced to the animals about which they have been reading Black iii This program has been installed in 350 schools for first through fourth graders and has had a positive effect on 36000 children Black B On a larger scale state and local governments should be encouraged to continue recognizing the problem and implementing changes Castle 1 Recently the No Child Left Behind Education Reform Law was enacted a This law includes a new early Reading First program that will enhance reading readiness for children ages three to five Castle b This program will also help to ensure that every child knows how to read by the end of third grade Castle 2 Former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani directed the donation of 315 million to the state of New York to establish 21000 school libraries Goodnough Also each state has several literacy programs which provide tutoring and 9 classes to adults and children suffering from illiteracy Learning Conclusion 1 Through my speech today you are now aware of the problems associated with illiteracy the causes of illiteracy and ways that you and I can help solve the problems A Tammie frustrated with not being able to read decided to enroll in a literacy program 1 She and her tutor focused on learning to read sources that would help her parenting skills Learning 2 Tammie studied the basics she learned pronunciation and reading and writing techniques 3 Tammie is now able to read at a fifth grade level and is able to read bedtime stories to her children Learning 4 With the help of her tutor Tammie was also able to pass her driver s exam once she was able to read the driver s manual Learning B Though Tammie overcame her difficulty she is just one of 90 million Americans suffering from illiteracy Learning 1 Ninety million Americans can tread a story to a child pass a driver s test or read instructions to bake a cake 2 Ninety million Americans suffer from illiteracy C Become a tutor or join a literacy program and strive for solutions to this debilitating problem Works Cited Black StallionLiteracy Project Uses Horses to Interest Children in Reading Narr Peter Jennings World News Tonight ABC 29 Mar 2002 LexisNexis Dawes Memorial Lib Marietta OH 18 Oct 2002 lthttpweblexisnexiscomgt Cassidy Sarah Poor Reading Skills Make Life of Crime More Likely The Independent May 2002LexisNexis Dawes Memorial Lib Marietta OH 18 Oct 2002 lthttpweblexisnexiscomgt Castle Michael Literacy Partnership that Works Capitol Hill 8 Oct 2002 LexisNexis Dawes Memorial Lib Marietta OH 18 Oct 2002 lthttpweblexisnexiscomgt Consortium Targets Get Ready For Life Campaign to Fight Low Literacy DatelineWashington 7 Sept 2002LexisNexis Dawes MemorialLib Marietta OH 18 Oct 2002 lthttpweblexis nexiscomgt Dilworth Thomas Employment Policies Institute Investor s Business Daily 13 Jan 2002 ll Oct 2002 lthttpncpaorgissantgt Doctors Stress Literacy as a Prescription for Good Health Dateline Washington 3 Mar 2001 LexisNexis Dawes Memorial Lib Marietta OH 18 Oct 2002 lthttpweblexis nexiscomgt Glover Rebecca Promoting Family Literacy An Alternative Intervention Journal of Instructional Psychology Sept 2000 EPSCOHOST Dawes Memorial Lib Marietta OH 18 Oct 2002 lthttpsearchepnetcomgt Goodnough Abby How to Make 2l000 Classroom Libraries The New York Times May 2001 B9 LexisNexis Dawes Memorial Lib Marietta OH 18 Oct 2002 lthttpweblexis nexiscomgt Honors 202 Questionnaire Marietta College 4 Oct 2002 Marietta OH Learning to Read Late in Life North County Public Radio Online 16 Jan 2002 20 Oct 2002 lthttpwwwnorthcountypublicradioorggt Random House Webster s College DictionarV 2nd ed 2000 Reading a Family Affair The Denver Post 1 Mar 2002 B6 LexisNexis Dawes Memorial Lib Marietta OH 18 Oct 2002 lthttpweblexisnexiscomuniversegt Roker Al Interview with Florence Henderson Today NBC 12 June 2002 LexisNexis Dawes Memorial Lib Marietta OH 18 Oct 2002 lthttpweblexisnexiscomuniversegt Chapter 11Opposing Propositions of Policy Develop a strategy Which stock issues will you challenge Will you challenge de nitions Problem claims solution claims or both Begin with a review of the advocate s position and if you have time a brief review of major claims Then state where your disagreement is or what refutation will focus on k If contesting on the first stock issue you may deny that a disparity or problem exists or that it isn t as bad as advocate suggests Refuter may contest inherency arguing that what exists presently current structure isn t causing the problem In other words current policies practices institutions or fields aren t causing the problems outlined by the advocate Or that minor repairs could correct the problem instead of the advocate s solution Requirements of the minor repairs argument repairs must be attainable in the near future and could result from that which already exists These repairs must be shown to be able to fix the problem and be efficient amp effective Refuting the 2nd and 3rd stock issues show that the solution won t x problems that there are too many barriers to overcome and the solution isn t workable likely to be passed can t be enforced or is too costly Remember that for each of your major claims you must provide research and outside sources At least two per claim you have to support your refutation us much as you supported your problem to solution speech You probably have time for about 34 major claims whether they cover problem solution or both At the end of your presentation the advocate may respond and questions from the audience may be asked Chapter 2 Where do I begin in Argumentation BE AWARE THAT IT IS GOVERNED BY RULES OR quotCONVENTIONSquot 1 It takes place in a social field that is affected by the audience new ideas new information It is always changing Examples of fields academic disciplines legal field scientific or medical fields student body political groups Each field has quotfield dependentquot and quotfield invariantquot elements or rules 2 There are designated roles for arguers Advocate offense Has quotburden of proof Must try to present a quotprima facie case Case should be quottopicalquot and address quotinherencyquot lnherency may be quotstructural or attitudinalquot Opponent quotdefensequot Has quotpresumptionquot Presumption may be quotartificial or natural Gay Marriage Proposition of Policy California should legalize Gay Marriage ByAdelina Lang Com204 Rebecca Franko Advocacy and Opposition ISAH39UMAN RIGHT A HETEROSEXUAL PRIVI LEGE Background I970 999 SameSex marriage was allowed and acknowledged and benefits and protections were given 0 20002003 0 Some states begin to ban gay marriage others are legalizing it 0 US President Bush announces he wants marriage reserved for heterosexuals 20042008 0 fewer states begin to marry samesex couples US states pass initiative to ban samesex marriages Governor vetoes bill to legalize gay marriage 0 States begin to approve the constitutional ban on gay marriage 0 2009Present 0 US DistrictJudge rules CA Proposition 8 unconstitutional The stay means that samesex couples are still prohibited from marrying 5 states and District of Columbia allowed gay marriage MA CT lAVT NH httpgaymarriageproconorgviewresourcephplresourcelD00389 l Unites States I Marrlaga Nel ler Relatmnsh up Recogn than not Gons mtional Amendment Broad Domestic Pameuhiu 139 Civil Union 3 may Consi u nnal mnndmant Figure 2 US gay marriage laws state by state Source Freedom to Marry States wwwfreedomtomarryorg Apr I 6 20 0 Some RMnns forSmSan Couples Statistics 0 Marriage rates have been dropping world wide since I990 In America the marriage rate dropped from 232900 in 2000 to 2 7800 in 2004 0 Demographic information also showed most of the couples were older and better educated than average newlywed couples with more than 74 over 35 years old and 69 holding a college degree 0 44 opposed of Gay Marriage 0 52 in favor Gay Marriage SAMESEX MARRIAGE A majority of Californians support allowing gay and lesbian couples to marry 7 No Opinan 3 Support 7 42 w impose some FIELD PULL 7 quot THE PRESSENTERPRISE Religious Factors Support or Dppase Law Allowing Samesen Couples to Marry lm any regrsirersns39 W 575 Those who oppose gay marriage 39say that God created Adam and Eve NOT Adam and Steve which is true but L OVE shouldn t be determined by religious I Suppmt Dppuie l m 51 Nanenal39 39 VleWS New Turin Btate 3quot 55 52 Jewish 51 e 63 39 Emmi 52 395 30 K 51 qquot 06 A 0 H t t l m 35 m e an as 40 9 Ci an an uinr alga an 2011 Publit Religion Fluxeun39l l lbl39 hlil Nov 2011 We love because he first loved us If anyone Wm a quot 39quot we39llWbl39iy 3939r39u39uj fsrenl says quotI love Godquot yet hates his brother he is a liar For anyone who does not love his brother whom he has seen cannot love God whom he has not seen l olm 4 l 55163 39Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people but love your neighbor as yourself I am the LORD 2yiuws l ou KWWW39e Christians By ur 1v m i M Q xxx l 7 WW V 39 Ell 2a n l 39239 Favor vs Oppose Figure 4 US gay marriage polls I988 20 l 0 Source Nate Silver quotOpinion on Same Sex Marriage Appears to Shift at Accelerated Pace www vethirtyeightcom Aug I2 20 I 0 a a I g If I 1 1 L713 2 u aunr GnuElsa Famri imadl DgpuseTrena Aug 25Sept 6 20 I 0 N3509 adults nationwide quotDo you strongly favor favor oppose or strongly oppose allowing gays and lesbians to marry legallyquot 508 608 amp 809 quotDo you strongly favor favor oppose or strongly oppose allowing gay and lesbian couples to I marry legallyquot Oppose Strongly Strongly favor Favor oppose Unsure 825 96l0 43 47 IO 72I85l0 4 48 IO 8 709 39 53 8 409 35 54 808 39 52 9 6 82908 40 52 8 52 2508 38 49 3 Politicians in Favor of Gay Marriage 0 United States political leaders stood out and publicly announced their support of the legalization of samesex marriage 39 Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick 39 FormerAIaska Senator Mike Gravel 39 NewYork Governor Eliot Spitzer 39 Ohio Congressman Dennis Kucinich 39 FormerVice President Al Gore 39 Massachusetts SenatorTed Kennedy Supporters o Samesex supporters continue outreach efforts to sway public opinion their way 0 Example of other supporters 0 Celebrities 39 Ellen DeGeneres Gay 39 Brad Pitt 39 Barbara Bush 39 Melissa Etheridge Gay 39 Steven Spielberg 1 39 Mary Blige 39 l 39 MRRlEDl 39 Eminem u I a i i 439 AE r A V V A r 39 H 2 Problem l l Unfair V 0 The ban is discriminatory I Unconstitutional 39 ll C Y39A ST I PT 0 Violates 39 Fourteenth Amendment Amendment XIV Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life liberty or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness 39 Equal Protection Clauserequires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction 39 Civil Liberties are rights and freedoms that provide an individual specific rights such as the right to life freedom from torture freedom from slavery and forced labour the right to liberty and security right to a fair trial the right to defend one39s self the right to privacy freedom of conscience freedom of expression freedom of assembly and association and the right to marry and have a family 39 FirstAmendment Amendment I Right to the pursuit of happiness Significance Harms o Chris Perry We are Americans too we too should be treated equally Our families are just as loving real and valid as everyone else s Gay s deny marriage rights because it restricts the definition of marriage 0 People s intolerance of others sexual preference 0 Discriminating Deprived samesex couples of their happiness and benefits 0 Hate Crimes Harassment HMONR GHWMINgN DIS am FoamKlaus 1139s me To 10 mm a or pppnsssmu w aqua Boy s Killing Labeled a Hate Crime Stuns aTown 0 Hundreds of mourners gathered at a church here on Friday to remember an eighthgrade boy who was shot to death inside a junior high school computer lab by a fellow student in what prosecutors are calling a hate crime 0 the victim Lawrence King l5 had said publicly that he was gay classmates said enduring harassment from a group of schoolmates including the l4yearold boy charged in his death It also drew a strong reaction from gay and civil rights groups Brandon Mclnerney is a victim of homophobia and hate stated by Masen Davis The law center is working with Equality California and the GayStraight Alliance Network to push for a legislative review of antibias policies and outreach efforts in California schools Prosecutors charged Brandon as an adult with murder as a premeditated hate crime and gun possession If convicted he faces a sentence of 52 years to life in prison httpwwwnytimescom20080223us23oxnardhtml Solutions 0 Hold another election to overturn the ban on gay marriage in California 0 Get Proposition back on ballot 0 Would give samesex couples their civil rights back 0 Would be fair 0 Gay marriage has worked in 5 other stat 0 Help economic funding E Civil Make citizens aware that everyone is equal under the law w Provide open discussion support groups for homophobic people to cope with samesex couples Edit the constitution stating that gay marriage is legal Benefits for SameSex Marriages o Bereavement leave 39 o Assumption of spouse39s pension 0 Immigration 0 Insurance benefits Partnerbased medical decisions 0 Sick leave in case of partner39s illness 0 Social Security survivor bene ts 0 Marriagerelated tax breaks 0 Veteran39s bene ts and discounts o Visitation rights if partner is in hospital Conjugal visits in prison httpgaymarriageJifetipscomcat65896gaymarriageintheusindexhtml Standing of Prop 8 0 Love Honor Cherish homosexual advocacy group fell short of collecting 694000 signatures required to place a state constitutional amendment on the ballot that would overturn Prop 8 0 Attempt to repeal is qualified for 20l2 East Clairemont Southern Eggggggmugh tried to help pass Prop 8 0 August 4th 20 0 A federal judge in San Francisco decided today that gays and lesbians have a constitutional right to marry striking down 139 the voter approved ballot measure that banned samesex unions o quotPlaintiffs challenge Proposition 8 under the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendmentquot the judge wrote quotEach challenge is independently meritorious as Proposition 8 both unconstitutionally burdens the exercise of the fundamental right to marry and creates an irrational classi cation on the basis of sexual orientationquot 0 Voters approved the ban by a 523 margin six months after the California Supreme Court ruled that samesex marriage was permitted under the state Constitution v Prop 8 was overturned because the judge realized it was unconstitutional but because people went to court to ght for the protection of marriage it was put on hold Same sex couples are still not allowed to marry but those who married before 2008 remain married in the eyes of the law but those who married after 2008 their marriage isn t valid httplatimesblogslatimescomlanow20 l008prop8gaymarriagehtml Help Support SameSex Marriages a So get used to it already Stlnk zrpantsmm 1 ik x t 1 1r 7 J 1 Chapter 6 How Do I Prove My Argument Know the types and tests of evidence 1 Direct observation Evidence of fact such as examples statistics artifacts premises Source quali ed Reported accurately Recent Representative and large enough sample Is the artifact genuine Is premise still valid Use examples to clarify and0r support use statistics sparingly and with Visuals when possible round off 2 Evidence of Opinion Experts Are they quali ed Unbiased Cited You can quote directly or paraphrase an expert better when brief Chapter 5 The Toulmin Model How is a Unit of Argument Created quotYour position as an advocate or opponent emerges through a series of claims supported by grounds and warrant Know the five parts of the model 1 Claims Argumentation begins when an advocate makes one or more claims Types of claims Policy Fact Value and Definition 2 Grounds Because a claim is insufficient to change belief or behavior you must provide grounds or evidence expert opinions stats observations examples outside facts 3 Warrant the reasoning step On what kind of reasoning is this argument based generalization analogy sign etc from chapter 7 4 Backing The audience may require more information to support the warrant more grounds such as expert opinions or statistics 5 Qualifiers Advocate may want to limit the strength of the claim by using quotqualifiersquot Terms such as quotsometimes perhaps in certain cases are examples of these 6 Rebuttals A rebuttal is added to claim statements to indicate circumstances under which the claim may not be valid These rebuttals are usually longer phrases than the qualifiers Chapters 4 amp 11 How do Analyze Propositions Analyzing your proposition is called Case Development 0 A fourstep process 0 1 Discuss causes of concern or problems in topic Inherency 0 2 Discuss history of topic short term possibly long term 0 3 De ning important terms and determining inference 0 4 Determining the issues you will argue eld invariant stock issues How do you know which issues to argue For Policy Propositions look at stock issues or standard questions to ask in policy argumentation 1 Is there a reason for change Here you are looking at need for change You will argue there is a need for change by using fact and value subpropositions You will argue that the current way of doing things status quo is flawed and there is a need for change The first stock issue is addressed in the problem section of your speech 2 Does the proposed policy resolve or satisfy the need for change This second stock issue looks at your solution your remedy and is addressed in the solution section of the speech here you outline what the solution is who would make it enforce it basic details of it 3What are the consequences of the proposed policy change What are the bene ts of your solution You Will also look at any cost savings workability issues maybe how the policy has worked in other countries or other states These points are also addressed in your solution section How are Propositions of Policy Argued Chapter 11 Use the traditional pattern of Need Plan and Practicality which corresponds to the three stock issues of policy argumentation The First Stock Issue 39Advocate a reason for change show there is an existing problem that will continue unless your proposed policy is adopted How do you show reason or need for change Through development of fact and value points Example The lack of parking at Cal Poly is harming students Example The Three Strikes law is leading to overcrowded prisons Summary of the rst stock issuezYou are describing a dissatisfactory situation a disparity how extensive or signi cant it is who or what is harmed and what s to blame inherency The Second Stock Issue Provide the solution what would change how would it change and what might it cost And be enforced Example Solution would be to provide more Cal Poly Parking offer more incentives for rideshare what would this cost and who would be pay for it make the change and pay for it The Third Stock issue Consequences of the proposed policy it s advantages over its disadvantages and how it addresses problem issues Issues of workability and practicality Students would be able to park more easily would ride share more environmental benefits traffic jams in lots might be lessened More chapter 1 1 Opposing Propositions of Policy Which stock issues Will you challenge Need for change solution bene ts de nitions If challenging the rst stock issue concerning the problem you may deny that a disparity or that problems exist or that they aren t as serious as the advocate suggests You may also challenge inherency suggesting that the current structure isn t causing the problems You could also argue that minor repairs could correct the problem or problems If challenging 2nd or 3 stock issues solution and bene ts you show that the solution won t x the problems there are too many barriers to overcome that the solution isn t workable and may cost too much You may offer a counter proposalashoul l be competitive and than you assume lme burden ofpmoffor proving it 0 be tffte vt Steps to opposing policy propositions 1 Listen take notes 3 Decide which stock issue or issues to refute Restate your opponent s position State your position Put forth your arguments in opposition Support your arguments with evidence E W Summarize your position Chapter 3 What am Going to Argue About Know the definition of a proposition and the role it plays in argumentation specifies direction of change desired by advocate specifies roles of arguers suggests key issues of the controversy Know the types of propositions policy fact and value Guidelines for Phrasing Propositions Phrase the proposition clearly indicating what you wish to change Keep it to one sentence Use language in neutral terms CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS ARGUMENTATION gt What are its major characteristics Cooperative venture A tool for reasoning with others instrumental Ora or written communication Reying on reasoning and proof good arguments and evidence Aways characterized by controversy or disagreement X How is it related to Persuasion o Argumentation is part of persuasion Persuasion may be oral or written communication Persuasion may involve rational and emotional appeals to an audience Audience determines success of both argumentation and persuasion How did it develop historically Began in ancient Greece Part of the formal study of Rhetoric Aristotle s definition of rhetoric the art of discovering all of the available means of persuasion including debate s eeches advertisements flyers campaign iterature editorials Refined and developed by the Romans Ethical Responsibilities of Arguers gt Avoid plagiarism cite sources when you use another s ideas or information or for controversial information or quotes gt Know both sides of the controversy gt Speak honestly clearly and responsibly X PROPOSITION OF POLICY OUTLINE Proposition of Policy The United States federal government should fully fund and implement the Nuclear Power 2010 initiative by nancing new light water open cycle nuclear reactors through power purchase agreements loan guarantees and federal lines of credit In all fairness the idea for this policy is borrowed from one of my friends from the Arizona Debate Institute I Introduction dramatistic example of the status quo A The movie The Day After Tomorrow and how that fictional work might soon become reality B Relate it to the latest hurricane season and the devastation of Floridailoss of lives homes and money C Thesis statement proposition of policy The United States federal government should fully fund and implement the Nuclear Power 2010 initiative by financing new light water open cycle nuclear reactors through power purchase agreements loan guarantees and federal lines of credit and preview of main points 11 Signi canceHarms why your policy is needed what are the reasons why we should act now to solve a problem The United States continued dependence on fossil fuels threatens not only our economy but also the Earth s ecosystems A An oilbased economy will inevitably create an economic crisis as oil supplies run out 1 Oil prices are already high because of the instability in the Middle East and the dwindling supplies of oilithis means that oil shocks to the economy are inevitable Goodstein Heinberg 2 High oil prices will place an enormous strain our economy and could cause the collapse of our economy Roberts 3 A collapse ofthe US economy could lead to massive unemployment a collapse of the world economy and even war Roberts Scheer B If we continue to burn fossil fuels global warming will continue to increase at dangerous rates which threatens the health of the planet 1 Despite all of the research funded by the fossil fuel industries that claims global warming is not a problem the best evidence confirms that global warming is real and is starting the harm the environment Alvarez EPA Hansen Hari Henderson IPCC Species will not be able to adapt to rapid climate changes and it will upset the balance ofthe ecosystem Modest Mussels McDaniel 3 As a result our ecosystems will be irreparably harmed and we risk another mass extinction McDaniel Karl and Trenberth Gregory et al N 111 Inherency In the United States nuclear power is not growing fast enough due to the current costs of nuclear power A Part of the problem is structural because there are not enough nuclear power plants to provide clean energy Rhodes and Beller B The lack of subsidies inhibits the construction of new nuclear power plants Public Citizen C Another problem is that nuclear power has a negative stigma attached to itiafter Three Mile Island Americans have been afraid of nuclear power Walker PROPOSITION OF POLICY OUTLINE IV Restatement of the Policy The United States Federal Government fully fund and implement the Nuclear Power 2010 initiative by nancing new light water open cycle nuclear reactors through power purchase agreements loan guarantees and federal lines of credit A A concise explanation of the type of nuclear reactor used B A concise explanation of the funding for the policyiclarify what power purchase agreements entail and how loan guarantees and federal lines of credit work V SolvencyVVorkability The 2010 plan can fulfill our energy demands and provide the United States with cheap and clean energy A Nuclear power can provide cheap energy Rhodes and Beller B 2010 plan makes nuclear power affordable and competitive with other sources of energy Business Case C 2010 plan will help provide clean energy for the entire United States Nuclear Power 20107 V1 Conclusion remind the reader of the dramatistic example and the main points in the paper A Come back to the story about Florida and remind the reader that wild weather patterns could spread throughout the United States B Also remind the reader about the instability in the Persian Gulf and the impact that it could have on their daily livesilong gas lines a faltering economy etc C Conclude with a restatement of the thesis proposition of policy Works Cited Alvarez Lizette Blair Warns of Climate Threat New York Times 15 September 2004 A13 Department of Energy Business Case for New Nuclear Power Plants Bringing Public and Private Resources Together for Nuclear Energy October 1 2002 Domenici Pete A Brighter Tomorrow F ulfilling the Promise of Nuclear Energy Lanham Md Rowman amp Littlefield 2004 Environmental Protection Agency Global WarmingiClimate 20 September 2004 lthttpyosemiteepa ov om 39 39 39 llllll usf quot htrn1gt Goodstein David Out ofGas The End ofthe Age ofOil New York WW Norton 2004 Gregory Jonathan et a1 Climatology Threatened Loss of the Greenland Icesheet Nature 428 2004 616 Hansen Lara Senate Committee on Commerce Science and Transportation Hearings on Climate Change 108Lh Cong 2quotd sess Washington GPO 2004 Hari Johann The Global Warming Crisis The Independent 15 September 2004 33 PROPOSITION OF POLICY OUTLINE Heinberg Richard The Party s Over Oil War and the Fate of Industrial Societies Gabriola BC New Society Publishers 2003 Henderson Mark Scientists Claim Final Proof of Global Warming The Times 6 May 2004 4 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Summary for Policymakers A Report of Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Available at lthttpwwwipccchpubspm2201pdfgt accessed on November 15 2004 Karl Thomas and Kevin Trenberth Modern Global Climate Change Science 302 2003 171923 McDaniel Carl Increased Human Energy use Causes Biological Diversity Loss and Undermines Prospects for Sustainability Bioscience 52 2002 91728 A Modest Proposal to Save the Planet The Independent 27 May 2004 2 Mussels Found Near Pole in Global Warming Sign New York Times 18 September 2004 A5 Nuclear Energy Institute Nuclear Power 2010 A Key Building Block for New Nuclear Power Plants ltwwwneiorgindexaspcatnum3ampcatid1201gt accessed on November 15 2004 Public Citizen Nuclear Power 201 0 Unveiled Bush Plan for New Nuclear Reactors Maps Out Monstrous Subsidies March 2004 Roberts Paul The End of Oil On the Edge of a Perilous New World Boston Houghton Mif in 2004 Rhodes Richard and Denis Beller The Need for Nuclear Power Foreign Affairs 79 2000 3045 Sheer Hermann The Solar Economy Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Global Future London Earthscan 2002 Walker I Samuel Three Mile Island A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective Berkeley University of California Press 2004 CHAPTER 7 HOW DO I REASON WITH MY AUDIENCE KNOW THESE TYPES OF REASONING the warrant step in the Toulmin Model 0 ARGUMENT FROM CAUSE quotWE WILL PRODUCE BETTER EDUCATED STUDENTS IF WE PRODUCE BETTER TEACHERSquot WARRANT IS THAT THERE IS A CAUSE TO EFFECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BETTER TEACHERS AND BETTER STUDENTS o ARGUMENT FROM SIGN quotDISCRIMINATION HAS EXISTED IN THIS COUNTRY FOR A LONG TIME THIS IS SHOWN BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT AND THE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY LAWS ALL OF WHICH WOULD HAVE BEEN UNNCESSARY IF DISCRIMINATION DID NOT EXIST warrant is that these are common signs or indicators of discrimination ARGUMENT FROM GENERALIZATION INDUCTION llFACTORY FARMING IN CALIFORNIA IS A MAJOR PROBLEM BECAUSE OF TWO FARMS CITED RECENTLY IN THE CENTRAL VALLEY WARRANT WOULD BE THAT THESE ARE REPRESENTATIVE EXAMPLES OF THE ISSUE 0 ARGUMENT FROM ANALOGY FIGURATIVE Metaphor quotThis car is a lemon quotStudents should be taught handgun safety in school After all cars are potentially lethal instruments and we teach students how to drive safely in public schools Pornography is a cancer in our land Like a cancer it must be removed before it destroys our society WARRANT WOULD BE BASED ON SOME BASIC SAMENESS BETWEEN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF WHAT S BEING COMPARED a ARGUMENT FROM PARALLEL CASE LITERAL COMPARISON quotVietnam taught us that we should not get involved in a war that puts us in the role of foreign invaders facing local insurgents An American military presence in Sudan would put us in exactly this position again Thus we should not respond to the calls to send troops to Sudan to stop the interethnic violence in the Darfur region WARRANT WOULD RELY ON SIMILARITIES BETWEEN WAR IN VIETNAM AND CONFLICT IN SUDAN llGRAFFITI IS LIKE ANY FORM OF PUBLIC ART AND SHOULD BE SUPPORTED ARE THERE MORE SIMILARITIES THAN DIFFERENCES o ARGUMENT FROM AUTHORITY A TEAM OF RESEARCHERS LED BY JOHN RUBEN OF OREGON STATE UNIVERISTY HAS CONCLUDED THAT BIRDS DESCENDED FROM REPTILES NOT DINOSAURS AS HAS LONG BEEN CLAIMED WARRANT RELIES ON EXPERTISE OF RUBEN a ARGUMENT FROM DILEMMA quotIF YOU AREN T WITH US THEN YOU ARE AGAINST US WARRANT RELIES ON HAVING ONLY THESE TWO CHOICES Chapter 8 What Should I Avoid Fallacies of Reasoning i Hasty generalization jumping to a conclusion based on insufficient evidence Cal Poly must have a problem with people smoking on campus because I saw three students smoking outside of building 9 today 2 Transfer fallacy of composition when a claim asserts that what is true of a part is true of the whole Several students in my classes are losing financial aid I would assume all students at Cal Poly are losing financial aid too 3 Transfer fallacy of division opposite of the one above Asserts that what is true of the whole will be true of the part The Lakers had a great season last year and that means all their players had great seasons as well Transfer fallacy of refutation or the Straw man fallacyquot An argument by an opponent that focuses on an issue that is easy to overturn introduces a bogus claim that wasn t part of the original argument Diverts attention and misrepresents so it s less than the original claim thus easy to overturn enatorJones says that we should not provide more funding to 39 ecurity I disagree entirely I can39t understand why he wants 55 like that m 4 Irrelevant Arguments Non Sequiturs a conclusion that does not follow from its premises You will do what I say because you are my child Racism is wrong therefore we need affirmative action From the Simpsons Ralph Wiggum Martin Luther King had a dream Dreams are where Elmo and Toy Story had a party and l was invited Yay My turn is over Principal Skinner One of your best Ralphie quotThe Color Yellowquot The Simpsons 2010 5 Circular Arguments Also called begging the questionquot Reasons given are identical to claim itself therefore arguing in a circle Example Active euthanasia is morally acceptable It is a decent ethical thing to help another human being escape suffering through deathquot Claim It is a decent ethical thing to help another human being escape suffering through death Claim of value 39 n Active euthanasia is morally acceptable e same thing twice 6 Avoiding the Issue Evading an issue changing the subject Attacking the person quotAd hominem You shouldn t believe so and 50 s argument because so and so is a liberal or gay or black or hispanic Shifting ground adopting a new position Seizing on a trivial point 7 Forcing a dichotomy either or Choosing between two eitheror options oversimpli ed choices You either support the president on the health reform issue or you are on the side of the health insurance Fallacies of Appeal gt Appeal to Ignorance quotLook there39s no conclusive evidenceon the issue at hand Therefore you should accept my concluSIon on thIs Issuequot Arguer uses lack of evidence as support for the claim People have been trying for centuries to prove that God exists But no one as yet been able to prove it Therefore God does not existquot Here39s an opposing argument that commits the same fallacy quotPeople have been trying for years to prove that God does not exist But no one has yet been able to prove it Therefore God exists There is one situation in which doing this is not fallacious f qualified researchers have used well thought out methods to search for something for a long time they haven39t found it and it39s the kind of thing people ought to be able to find then the fact that they haven39t found it constitutes some evidence that it doesn39t exist Appeal to the People gt Appeal to Popularity we should believe or do something V V because the majority of people think we should or because it s popular also known as bandwagon fallacy Most people think physician assisted suicide is wrong so do I Appeal to Authority be convinced to do or believe something because of the authority or celebrity advertising Appeal to Tradition we ve always done it this way why change Fallacies of Language Ambiguity terms used legitimately but differently by advocate and opponent Equivocation an individual uses a term in different ways in the same argument Emotionally loaded language Technical jargon X
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