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Public Speaking

by: Robin Bosco

Public Speaking COM 100

Robin Bosco
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.99

Rebecca Franko

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About this Document

Rebecca Franko
Class Notes
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robin Bosco on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 100 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Rebecca Franko in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/218352/com-100-california-state-polytechnic-university in Communication at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 10/03/15
CHAPTER 11NUSNG LANGUAGE SPEAK CLEARLY CONCISELY AND CREATIVELY CREATIVELY Use Metaphors and Similes Examples Metaphor quotHistory is a drama with many acts Simile quotFreedom is like a drum strike it and it Resounds everywhere Use concrete language that paints pictures Use repetition alliteration amp contrasts CLEARLY amp CONCISELY Avoid technical jargon meant to impress Explain unfamiliar words use examples and quotconnotative meaning Be specific be economic in your use of language SPEAK APPROPRIATELY Avoid slang fillers swearing disrespectful language language inappropriate to the occasion CHAPTER 7 SUPPORTING MATERIALS WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW FROM CHAPTER 7 Your persuasive points cannot stand alone they need a foundation of evidence or supporting materials to make them strong credible and convincing You should use a variety of support and cite the sources of this outside support TYPES OF SUPPORTING MATERIALS 1 Examples 2 Statistics 3 Testimony EXAM PLES Are they representative Do I use enough of them Do they clarify personalize and reinforce my main arguments Brief Here is an eXample of39an example or HypOthetlcal You might Use at Cal 71 gt This is information provided by other people or organizations It can be expert or peer but don t use peer testimony to prove controversial points Reserve peer testimony for less controversial points and make sure you use expert to support peer testimony gt Ask yourself are my sources qualified unbiased Do I identify them so my audience knows their credentials gt You may quote or paraphrase from experts STATISTICS This is information or data presented in numerical form Instead of Unemployment is up Say Unemployment rose to 9 5 percent last month according to the labor department Instead of Students are racking up debt Say The New York Times says the average college student loan amount nationwide was 5800 Tips Are your stats cu rrent from credible urces made meaningful and explained rounded 39 d correctly CHAPTER 1 5 Understand the challenge of persuasive speaking Understand that speeches may gain immediate action or passive agreement The concept of the target audience39I Questions of Policy Fact and Value and how to organize each type of speech Since many of you will present policy speeches understand the importance of addressing need plan and practicalityquot for policy presentations For policy speeches you might also want to consider Monroe s tivated Sequence for organizing your presentation CHAPTER 16 Methods of Persuasion How do you persuade your audience what kinds of argumentsreasoning can you use By credibility your own credibility and the credibility of others By using evidence supporting materials Inductive reasoning reasoning from specifics to a general conclusion Example 102 children have died from swine flu so far It39s becoming a much worse problem than federal officials expected Possible fallacy Hasty generalizationquot jumping to a conclusion based on insufficient evidence If you were arguing that all fruits and vegetables in Calif ould be taken off the market because of an E coli scare County that could be a fallacy Continued chapt 16 gt Reasoning from Principle Deductive Example Cruelty to animals is wrong Animal testing is cruel Animal testing is wrongquot Reasoning from cause to effect Example If we allow schools to give out and encourage condom use teen pregnancy rates will go up Possible fallacy False cause Bk Chapter 16 continued Reasoning from analogy comparing Vietnam to Iraq a quote from Nebraska Senator Chuck Hagel now we are locked into a bogged down problem not unsimiliar dissimiliar to where we were in Vietnam The longer we stay the more problems we re going to have Ask yourself is this a valid comparison Otherwise possible fallacy False analogy Reasoning from sign you reason from indicators example More students at Cal Poly are working part 39 that the tuition increases are really having Chapter 16 continuedFalacies Red Herring raising an irrelevant issue Why should we spend our money battling wildfires in California when we ve had a drought for many years Ad Hominem She s just a tree hugging environmental whackjob personal attacks EitherOr also called false dilemma false dichotomy You claim there are only two possible options Either we send more troops to Afghanistan or lose the war on terrorism and our standing in the world Bandwagon popular in ads and marketing it s true because it s popular or because many people believe it We serve billions of hamburgers every day so we must be the best Slippery Slope We can t legalize same sex marriage The next thing you know people will marry their pets you argue without proof that one thing will lead to another so you don t favor it EMQTMNAL A1915EALS gt When you stir listeners gt Guidelines feelings involve them gt emotionally put a human face on a gt Don t appeal to feelings alone gt Not appropriate on a problem YOU are speech of fact describing gt Don t use emotions to manipulate your audience gt Use appropriately sparingly responsibly Balance emotional 7 if 7 7 I u quot appeals Wlth OgICal appeals CHAPTER 5 ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE Concepts to know AudienceCenteredness t Analyzing audiences Demographic analysis Age Gender Race Religion amp Group membership Situational analysis Size of audience setting attitudes of speaker and audience t Adapting Speakers adapt before and during the speech t How to get information Assumptions Interviews Questionnaires Similarities Differences Public Speaking and Conversation 1 Organizing with a beginning middle and end 2 Tailoring your message to an audience even if that s only one person 3 Communicating your message with impact it Adapting to listener feedback through verbal and nonverbal cues 1 Public speaking is more structured prepared practiced limited by time 2 More formal in terms of language and delivery 3 Delivery should be practiced but performed or read Ideal is to deliver a speech extemporaneously More Chapter 1 Q 0 Public speaking has a long tradition 0 Public speaking helps develop critical thinking skills 0 The speech communication process is not one way 0 N ervousness is normal and can be managed Public speakers need to be aware of and responsive to cultural diversity T and Public 0 Why are ethics important The power of speech is often abused xquot J 0 Make sure goals are ethically sound choose worthwhile topics 0 Be prepared don t waste audience s time 0 Be honest give credit to outside sources avoid plagiarism 0 Respect your audience and differences of opinion SPEECH COMMUNICATION MODEL Q SEVEN ELEMENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION PRQCESS i SPEAKER MES AGE LISTENER FEEDBACK INTERFERENCE SITUATION CHAPTERS 8 amp 9 ORGANIZING THE BODY AND HOW TO WRITE INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Concepts to know Chapt 8 How to pick and phrase main points No more than 25 main points order them by importance pick an appropriate pattern topical spatial or chronological Tips for preparing Keep them separate ideas Balance time to each Use parallel wording Use supporting materials and sources Importance and use of transitions Chapter 9 Writing effective introductions and conclusions Know what should be included in each what makes good intros and conclusions


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