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by: Robin Bosco

AdvocacyandArgument COM204

Robin Bosco
CSU Pomona
GPA 3.99


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Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robin Bosco on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM204 at California State Polytechnic University taught by StephenRobertson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/218354/com204-california-state-polytechnic-university in Communication at California State Polytechnic University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
Midterm review sheet Ch 1 foundations of argument 0 What is an argument 0 A means of discovering knowledge and solving problems it s verbal interaction to resolve a con ict of opinions relies on proofreasoning 0 Difference between argument type 1 and type 2 o Argument 1 product anything we are making 0 Argument 2 Process engage with others requires Argument 1 o 3 types of arguers what they are characteristics of each who wrote the article Brockriede o Brockriede wrote this interpretation of arguers o Rapist Domination power control admit you are wrong is a very winlose scenario aggressionassertiveness I Military law enforcement crisis situations 0 Seducer Getting their point across by stretching the truth or distracting you manipulation I Asking for donations interviews 0 Lover Taking other side s perspective into thought a winwin scenario both sides can be happy consideration I Relationships mediators counselors 0 Ethics what is it how does it apply to argumentation why was Aristotle obsessed with it 0 Ethics moral choices a person makes regarding behavior it s the philosophical study ofwhat s right and wrong I Deontological ethics based on a set of absolutes that differentiate between right and wrong quotCode of ethics I Teleological ethics based on outcomes or ends of communicating the way you end it not achieving it o Applies to argumentation arguers bear a heavy ethical burden can be used to advance good or evil audience will judge you on it o BRASH what are the components of this acronym how do we use them for evidence for ethics 0 B believable to the audience understandable so they can accept o R relevant can skip around real issue by being confusing o A accurate use of evidence 0 S sufficient so you can convince the audience 0 H honest Not out of context Ch 2 burdens o Burdensadvantages of each side know the table from lecture know which parts apply to affneg and which apply to initiatorrespondent o Roles ofinitiator and respondent switch not stuck to Aff or Neg A2 STRUCTURE ADV TOPICAL ADV BURDEN Affinitiator First and last word Get to de ne terms Burden of proof Neg Respondent The block Presumption Burden of rejoinder o Presumption what is it why is it important to argument who invented it Whately what does it mean to overcome it o Invented by Whater 0 Presumption beliefs and behaviors that a field presently facors I Artificial arbitrary quotinnocent until proven guiltyquot I Natural observation of natural world quotain t broken don t fix 0 To overcome means the audience accepts a proposal for change 0 It is important because it tells us what the audience presently views 0 Prima facie what is it who presents it what does it translate as o Prima facie quotat first sight or quoton the face of it is sufficient to justify changing belief or behavior causes us to suspend our reliance on presumption as a guide for belief or behavior 0 Presented by the Affirmative or Initiator to bring about change Ch 5 Toulmin model 0 6 parts what are they how do they interrelate which three are the necessary parts 0 Claim conclusion of your argument make people believe you Grounds evidence data facts to support your claim not judgmental 0 Warrant justification or logical reasoning to show why the grounds lead to the claim can be implicit o Backing evidence support for the warrant quotgo to bed now because 0 Qualifier Uncertainty about the claim quotprobable plausible possible 0 Rebuttal exception to the claim don t want too many quotsometimesquot 0 Diagram how do the parts fit together 0 Grounds 9 Warrant ampBacking 9 QualifierRebuttal 9 Claim ch 6 grounds 0 types of evidence what are the 6 types what are advantagesdrawbacks to each which type would be better to use in certain situations 0 Premise generally held belief that people think is true like common sense social norms audience must share to convince Everyone believes it and can be hard to overcome unless verified 0 Example a circumstance situation or phenomena that the audience is familiar with that is used to explain a different circumstance situation or phenomena You must convince the audience to see the connection and the more abstract the harder you have to work Statistics numerical representation of reality It is easily understandable and comparable It can be manipulated what is it measuring and how do you formulate that number 0 n O o Testimony opinion ofsomeone who is an expert in the field Two categories expert testimony years of study and immediate testimony eye witness Is the source credible o Artifact a physical object that is used to demonstrate something It cannot be misinterpreted 0 Observation get the audience to see or observe it What they are seeing is actually true 0 tests of evidence how can we question the validity of the types of evidence what makes strong evidence 0 Observation tests source qualifications data accuracy originality recency attitude 0 Statistics tests reliability accuracy comparable units 0 Artifact tests genuiness and representativeness 0 Scientific tests generalizability of settings manipulation and control consistency o Expertise tests source expertise bias and factual basis 0 ev locations where can we go to find evidence what sources are there for evidence 1 place to start looking for data personal knowledge 0 Source locationsy0urself library bookstore internet people institution archives government offices museums locationscene 0 Source types books reliable indepth periodicals credible brief and routine references Encyclopedias accumulation of facts government documents interviews experiments etc Other information o Dissoi logoi what is this concept who invented it Protagorus what does it translate as o Invented by Protagorus 0 Translated as quotdifferent words and is a rhetoric exercise where the arguer argues both sides of the debate as a way to obtain a better understanding of the topic and possibly how to win or compromise


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