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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robin Bosco on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM204 at California State Polytechnic University taught by DavidCooley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/218355/com204-california-state-polytechnic-university in Communication at California State Polytechnic University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
April 5 h 2011 An argument is like Tennis match Volleyball is more apt description though Argument Type 1 7 A product an argument that you come up with form it something that you envision Argument Type 2 7 A process which involves another person entity Argumentation vs Persuasion Ethos pathos logos forming argument on ethics credibility or emotion or frame of mind passion or logic Ethos 7 appeal to ethics Pathos 7 appeal to emotion frame of mind passion Logos appeal to logic All three of these together form persuasion Aristotle maintains that a good persuader uses all three Argumentation deals with only the logos Wayne Brockriede 7 before was a sender oriented arguments he advocated a receiver oriented argument what does the receiver interpret The three types of arguments Argument Type 1 The arguer as rapist all about power not out to compromise but win Zerosum game if I win more then you lose more Assert themselves get caught up in super uous argume Argument Type 2 The arguer as seducer is about getting their way but through beguilement trickery about winning the point however they need to the used car salesman Argument Type 3 The arguer as a lover sees it not as zerosum but as a winwin game There are times to be type12 examples of when are politics in court police interrogation military parents crisis situation emergency When do we see seduction IRL 7 commercials when something is new and improved retail also in court Where do we see lovers as arguers 7 real estate community projects haggling mergers Burdens for the arguers cetain obligations that arguers have depending where in the argument they are who they are against France you re presumed guilty until proven innocent Structure Topical Advantage Burden Advantage Affirmative Initiator Get rst and last De ne the terms Burden of proof word set the ground about what the debate will be NegativeRespondent The Block Presumption Respond rejoinder For any particular argument there is an initiator and a respondent for the overall argument one side will be supporting and the second will be negating it Richard Whately 7 wrote the elements of rhetoric laid out the concept of presumption innocent until proven guilty Summary judgment 7 says the other side hasn t proven their case so we rule in your favor Primae Facie 7 at first glance the initiator has to overcome the presumption and supply proof In argumentation silence consent Psychological theory tells us we are more easily retaining information first and last Primacy affect 7 that which we experience first is retained longer Recency Affect we remember things better if theyre more recent The Block A N A N A N etc etc until the negative decides to get back to back Ethical Considerations Nichomachean before now be BRASH Bbelievable Rrelevant Aaccurate Ssufficient Hhonest Toulmin Model 6 Parts The Claim the point of which you are attempting to convince your audience policy claim value claims factual claims Grounds The evidence we have to support the claim answers the question what proof do you have Inherently nonargumentative The Warrant Ways to connect the grounds to the claim the justification or reasoning used to show that given the grounds our claim makes logical sense Indicator is because or since The ground doesn39t explain itself until the warrant becomes clear don t always need to have the warrant The warrant always has to be there but sometimes it is implicit so it doesn39t need to be stated If there is no justification then the logic breaks down even if it seems obvious it still might need to be explained for less educated people When starting argument start with the grounds see where that leads us Ie it is cloudy it will probably going to rain Not Ithink it will rain yuppp it is cloudy Sometimes need to explain warrants so people do not assume what the warrant is April 14Lh 2011 Backing supports the Warrants QualifierModality shows the degree of severity that the author believes his argument probable plausible probable Rebuttal exception to the claim an instance where the claim isn t true if you offer too manyt challebges the validity of your claim April 19 2011 Grounds 6 Types of grounds Premise things that are generally understood to be true so we don t need to have them pointed out to us General concepts that we assume to be true Social norms are an example of premises rituals are also an example hand gestures Example a circumstance situation or phenomenon that the audience can relate used to explain a different unknown situation It takes the known and relates it to the unknown If the audience cant understand the connection then it is useless Statistics a numerical representation of reality They take probability and relate it to a number Utilized because they are quantifiable Misleading at times as you need to understand what they are measuring Testimony The opinion of an expert on a certain matters ie doctors Two types of testiomonu Expert someone is learned in a certain field Trust a doctor when talking about medicine Not so much when talking about F OOOOTBAWWWWWW Immediate important not in a certain field but in the immediacy of an event eye witness who witnessed a certain event establish the sources credibility Artifact an artifact is a physical object that you can observe to examine something Observation what you personally are observing scienti c experiments Reasoning Two types of reasoning Deductive Goes from general to speci c take generally known facts and apply them to speci c conclusions Inductive Take speci c instances and apply them to general conclusions 2 different types of arguments we can make from deductive reasoning syllogism where you take 2 premises and arrive at a conclusion if your logic is true then as long as the rst two are true then the conclusion os true Categorical syllogism use categories to base Ifthen statement Either A or B Enthymeme introduces uncertainty Causation Induction look for correlation patters 1 Sign an indication that something has is about to occur 2 Example situation Occurrence Random sampling is important fot statistics April 26 2011 Logical Fallacies Two types of fallacies Faulty Reasoning when your types of reasoning break down your syllogism cause sign Example When these are misapplied the reasons are warped Examples Syllogism All humans are mortal Socrates is amortal Ergo Socrates is a human Cause Faulty cause false cause Post hoc ergo propter hoc after this therefore because of this just because something precedes another event does not mean that it caused it Superstitions are also example of this Have to understand why things happen Can be attributing of a cause that39s not a cause or thinking something is the only cause Sign False sign Example Hasty generalization if you don39t have enough examples to support further examples At what point does it stop being hasty and become a pattern The more speci c a generalization the more speci c examples need to be Faulty Logic logic is the putting together of the pieces so that they make sense An argument is going to be fallacious if the warrant doesn t explain the claim Example why did the chicken cross the road Because vests are sleeveless Tautology April 28m 2011 Propositions A proposition is the general subject of a debate the overarching point to an argument the key core issue 3 types of propositions Fact is interested in whether something is or is not true is empirically verifiable something we can see and measure if in the right place at the right time and able to witness Truefalse Value subjective value judgments subjective value judgments Beauty is a good example Comparison to others standards Evaluative term Policy interested in change whterh or not a change should occur relative to the situation Will have a comparison of costs to bene ts Clash the point of disagreement with the other side Stasis point Midterm Study guide on blackboard May 5 2011 Refutation a response to an argument Respondent has the burden of rej oinder 4 Types of Refutation Concession You concede the point granting that their argument is true and correct Two reasons to concede a point Silent or not necessary We don t need to respond to the response All you need to do to an argument is take out some of its points at least for the respondent Can concede an argument if it can be manipulated to work for you Mitigation still granting an argument but mitigating the impact that it has Conceding a point but lessening the impact of the point Contains the damage as opposed to letting it run free Denial Just says youre wrong the argument is not correct A strong form of refutation implies there is a breakdown in their logic Turn ip where you take there argument and show how it works for you and not against you Turns are twofold kind if acts as denial it takes away offense for the arguer and adds offense for us However it39s a little hard to employ as you are using their own argument against them The stronger your refutation is the more likely it will be you win Direct Refutation where you apply your refutation types directly to the claims that thay make Essentially saying youre wrong and heres why Indirect Refutation where you offer up your own argument to overshadow their claim Essentially saying Im more right than you are Problem Plan Benefit 2 Avenues for refutation 4 Steps for Refutation Direct 1 Restate Restate their argument so the audience knows what argument youll be refuting 2 State offer your claim of refutation 3 Explain your argument offer up your warrants and your grounds need to allow audience to understand what your argument is 4 Compare Compare the two arguments you have both arguments and you have to convince the audience that your argument beats their argument May 10 2010 Fact In order to prove a fact as truth need to provide evidence Simplest All that is needed is evidence n order to prove its truth The interesting propositions of fact are those that aren t easy to prove Value deals with ethics opinion based our opinion in uences our interpretations Need criterion measurable standards with which to measure the value and evidence to show that the value meets the criterion Policy need the stock issues refers strictly to policy cases Address a need to change offer a plan and show the plan will fix the problem Signif1cant need to show we we nneed to change Harms it is ha1mful to us need to change Inherency the problem is inherent and will not go away Two different types of inherent ba1riers Structural and attitudinal Structural is the system or certain aspects of the system that prevent us from changing Attitudinal is cetain attitudes prevent people from xing a certain system Topicality Stays on the same general topic Solvency workability practicality the solution will fix the problem and will be practical A proposition is the general overall topic that you are debating your action has to conform to the topic we are debating 2 Major aspects Resolutional Analysis Identify the type of proposition that are arguing fact value proposition De nitions Criterion address the criterion Substantive arguments Plan for your plan 4 aspects htat are needed to be addressed 4 components of a plan Agent whos actually gonna do the plan Mandates what is the plan going to dowhat is being mandated by the plan Fundingcosts how will the plan be funded where will costs come from Enforcement how to make sure people will adhere to the plan Negative argumentationrefutation Two methods of refutation again direct and indirect Fact disrupt the proof if I can show that their examplesproofs don t actually show what they think they do then that disrupts their ability to show that their case is true counterevidence evidence that is contrary to their claim arguments for my own side Value disrupt the proof if I can show that their examplesproofs don t actually show what they think they do then that disrupts their ability to show that their case is true counterevidence evidence that is contrary to their claim arguments for my own side Show that their criterion is not achieved the negative achieves the criterion more could offer a counter criterion a better way to evaluate the debate tum the criterionvalue objection May 17 h 4 Policy stock issues 1 Signi cant Harms prove that it isn t significant 2 Inherency argument can be that the barrier is hard to overcome there are other barriers t overcome 3 Topicality in order to win topicality prove that their interpretation is bad and htat your way pf interpreting it is good 4 Solvency can mitigate turn or deny solvency Indirectly can offer a disadvantage by saying something bad will happen For direct refutation just have to totally disprove one of these Can offer turns or denials Easiest to refute is solvency because it is speculative it isn t known for sure Pictorial representation of a disadvantage Boulder perched on edge of cliff and we know the boulder not gonna fall if left there Disadvantage has 4 parts Uniqueness if you side with the negative the disadvantage will not occur The Link the plan action that starts the chian of events in motion what causes the disadvantage to occur The internal link any intermediary step that is necessary to get from the link to the impact The Impact the bad consequence of the disadvantage what is it that happens that would make us not want to do the plan The disadvantage works to disprove the solvency disadvantage can only occur if the audience sides with the affirmative As affirmative have to take out one of the 4 disadvantage parts Respondent has the easier job negating the affirmatives argument The more intemal links your disadvantage has the more likely it is to fail When answering try to take advantage of internal links 3 other arguments to make tas the affirmative Can turn parts 234 Link turn is just doing the opposite of what the link says In iorder for link turn to work as offense also need another argument In order for link turn to be advantageous need to prove nonuniqueness argument too Turns become advantage for your side Internal Link Turn you cause the link and the link leads to a good thing not a bad thing Impact Turn it is a good thing for the impact to happen not a bad thing Don39t want multiple types of turns when do that they contradict each other is called a double turn yourself the other side gets to grant your arguments and are really hard to get out of Can have multiple turns for the same problem just not multiple types of turns Debate 1 Harry should have killed wormtongue lAC harry should have killed wormtail in the shrieking shack revenge would have saved Sirius and others hat wormtongue was involved in killing CX lNC he is the hero he hasn t killed anyone need him alive to show that Sirius is innocent CX 2CA womrtongue is evil and a killer should have been killed by harry CX 2NC self sacri cing hero Hairy isn t a killer voldemorts own spell rebounded back to him voldemort was gonna come back regardless didn39t need wormtails help CX lNR how is he sel sh he tries to save everyone he never asks someone else to do anything for him he tries to do everything himself lAR fate worse than death double stande on how wormtails killer but not harry 2NR wormtail is trying to be sel sh being sel sh 2AR revenge would have freed Sirius would have saved him from a fate worse than death harry should kill him out of revenge pity something else Will only bene t erryone else Debate 2 Prohibiting marijuana is an unfair restriction on peoples liberties lAC not as bad as alcohol its our choice government shouldn39t be regulating that CX lNC laws are made for our protection there are health risks National institute of drug abuse says its addicting CX 2AC its unconstitutional CX 2NC CX lNR it s the most commonly abused drug so regulating it wont mae it safer cant compare it to alcohol lAR double standard if its regulated it would be better regulated accessibility would be less 2NR 2AR its not unconstitutional Debate 3 The US should allow students to use marijuana lAC The US should allow students to use marijuana allows the parent to decide whether or not to allow their kids to use it Causes less medical deaths than other prescription drugs Isnt a gateway drug It39s the parents decision not the governments CX what age does this start lSt grade lNC Children dont listen to their parents marijuana affects the attention of kids would negatively impact their performance CX even if parents told them not to use marijuana they would still have the ability to get it from friends 2AC when you take marijuana it will affect kids attention but it actually would take 800 joints to kill a person If legalized everywhere then it would allow the parents to be more in uential School is a federal government institution and be allowed to be used anyways Frequent marijuana use doesn39t affect the brain CX 2NC it shouldn t be legalized once children enter school if legalized it sends out the message that drug usage is ok even though its not as dangerous it still has side effects is still addictive Breathing difficulties the side effects of marijuana are amplified if used habitually impairs learning memory The THC that causes the high effects CX lNR Overdose response marijuana smoke contains 3 times the tar and 50X more carcinogens there is a possibility of dying not from the smoke but from the tar lAR THC Vaporizer marijuana causes no deaths aspirin causes hundreds of deaths proven for pain insomnia anorexia 2NR marijuana causes less deaths legalization may cause to use at younger age 2AR its parents choice to decide for the kids its not the federa governments decision the parents can decide for their kids Debate 4 The US federal government should legalize marijuana for medicinal and distribution only lAC Government regulates the growing by local farms and then distributes it at local dispensaries will take it away from the black market bring in more funds Comparison to vicodin CX lNCUS should not legalize it regarding the black market will still happen cuz of people who don t have medical cards If it is legalized then it will be a stepping stone to harder drugs CX physical impairments marijuana has been tied to brain damage depression etc etc but aren t as prominent as the other side effects of other drugs 2AC less toxic and elss addictive than caffeine side effects only last during the psycho activity usually Never been any recorded deaths attributed to marijuana C 2NC could still be obtained by kids theres a reason that the FDA hasn t approved it CXriposte lNR just because a study was done for one person it has to be a general sample people who want to abuse it can abuse it Will just open more doors to legalize other drugs lARin response to gateway drug they usually don39t start with marijuana pa 2NR marijuana could be used as a stepping stone wont stop drug dealers as those without medical cards will still want a way tog et it 2ARresponse to anyone can fake symptoms you can fake symptoms for anything It would reduce street value would be bought less from street dealers theres physicam damage and temporary memory loss Vicodin is more addictive Cannabis has been smoked in western countries no recorded lung cancers or emphysemas they keep using the same 4 arguments Use multiple sources don t have to respond to everything STAY ON TOPIC make sure your sources aren t retarded Research what negatives responsibilities are for arguments make sure to address them If they don t define terms take them up on that Don39t forget for closing arguments don t forget to address the audience and not your opponents Debate 5 The US Federal government should repeal DOMA lAC its not a choice its how they were born theres a strong genetic basis for homosexuality goes against the bible lNC legalizing gay marriage would force them to conform to Americas standards Repealing DOMA doesn39t include the others of LGBT community Malriage is a social construct CX 2AC Country is in divorce rate 50 can go to vegas in get married in 50minutes Massachusetts legalized gay marriage and lowest divorce rate CX 2NC Divorce rate is high their entire argument is that gays shouldn t want to get married Whn man and woman get married they make babies and shit Homos don t do that CX lNR without legalizing gay ma1riage they wont receive the same rights But they can just not using the right ways channels This isn t a ght for just homos but all people errywhere lAR It s a civil rights issue 2NR homos have the same rights as us but don39t have the same options as real marriages don t have to conform to the rest of society 2AR not a choice they were born that way Legalizing marijuana will have a positive effect on college campus life Debate 6 lAC Legalizing marijuana allowing it for users over 18 and government can tax it Positive effect will be reduced crime and mellow student body Reduce stress not addictive less addictive than other drugs using marijuana will lower acohol use CX lNC Legalizing marijuana will have negative effects because of all the effects it has on the brain its addictive but less addictive than other stuff Frequent usage of marijuana the effects can last for days or weeks No reason for students to use marijuana people try to legalize it for medical use or taxes Not gonna help much on campus CX 2AC Would have a bad effect regarding regular use most students wouldn t use it regularly Has been proven to mellow people out and relieve stress Would reduce crime on campus and reduce drug dealers CX 2NC Effects of marijuana still last hella days just cuz its legal wont mean people will stop having disputes marijuana smoke can damage brain heart lungs one joint has the same amount of tar as 5 cigarettes CX lNR negative effect on briains lungs not gonna have positive effects cuz already exposed to alcohol and cigarettes shoulda add another third poison for us lAR DUIs and accidents errything has negative side effects It wouldn39t be that much worse than alcohol already is 2NR if we know for a fact that alcohol has so many side effects why legalize something else that would effect us Short term effects are still present there are so many alternatives for it 2AR just because something has negative effects doesn39t mean it shouldn39t be legalized Debate 7 The federal government should allow stats t decide the legality of samesex marriage lAC Federal government should be worried about the country as a whole not as the individual states states will feel differently this will slowly but surely show that same sex marriage can work CX same sex marriage should be legalized to the stats lNC if you love each other why do you need that title married CX marriage has been a civil have been gays for a long time 2AC should be up to the state CXdebate isn t about whether or not it should be legalized but if it should be allowed to the states 2NC off topic stuff about lSt amendment birthing issues CX shit about declaration of independence changed the topic to civil marriage lNR off topic stuff about lst amendment birthing issues lAR abandon the idea of a traditional marriage discrimination wasn39t always a Christian institution 2NR protect free will of religion if fed govt allowed states to decide 2AR people should get the right to choose and be an example to the other people Introduction Attention Gaining Device I bet with the way gas prices have been lately you re starting to think offshore drilling is a good idea Introduction to Topic But I m here to tell you why it is not a good idea Credibility I have been researching offshore drilling using countless resources and I have come to the conclusion that the rewards would not be worth the risk Preview There are three reasons why the US ocean policy on offshore drilling should not be changed The first reason is the amount of oil produced by these offshore sites will not make a significant dent in our foreign oil dependency The second reason is there will be negative effects on the environment caused by pollution and possible oil spills The third reason is the views of our coast will be ruined Body US dependency on foreign oil will not be significantly effected A According to a Washington newspaper lifting the ban of offshore drilling will not produce results for about 10 years This is due to the fact that leases for the right to drill take time and when the leases are finally signed the equipment has to actually be built B When the equipment is finally built and the oil is finally drilled it will only be about 1 of the international production quotThe issue is not whether the US can significantly reduce its reliance on oil imports with domestic offshore oil says Robert Kaufman but whether there is enough that is recoverable to significantly lower the price of a barrel of oil on the global market Idon t believe our 1 is going to reduce the price ofa barrel on the global market C USA Today reports that there is only an estimated 18 billion barrels of oil in the untapped sites which would provide oil for about 25 years This is not a significant amount oftime especially because we have to wait more than a decade to see results The Environment will be negatively effected A A number of environmental groups and Sen Obama warn that pollution would increase due to the building of the platforms and production of oil Green Trend B According to an article on environmentalcaliforniaorg there is a high possibility of oil spills from tankers platforms and pipelines Santa Barbara spill 1969 100000 barrels 800 miles of beaches 1000000 birds decimated fish population 03 C This shows that it s not just the environment but the marine life in the areas would be interrupted as well Even if there was not a spill the ocean life would be interrupted by the mere presence of the oil platforms The views of our coast would be ruined The coastal environment is an important aspect of living in California People pay large amounts of money for views of the ocean and tourists come from all around to visit our beaches Having oil platforms on the horizon would ruin those views and in return beach property might not be so desirable and Tourist rates would reduce dramatically And if there were a spill you have to believe no one would be going to the beach And this would mean reduced revenues for the state The natural beauty of the coast would be lost with drilling platforms on the horizon Conclusion The US offshore drilling policy should not be changed The benefits are far too small and the risks are too large We cannot risk the health of our planet and the quality of our lives for a short term solution to a long term problem
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