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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/03/15
CHIMQA refers to any planned amp systematic activ con dence that products meet consumer s re skilled cra sperson served both as manufamp i p o A 1900 Frederick W Taylor father of scienti c mgmt separate planning function from execution Henry Ford total Q practices 1920 p one Labs development of new theories amp ods of inspection Pioneers of QA Walter Shewhart statistics QC Harold dodge Geoge Edwards Joseph Juran W Edwards Dening 9 40s amp 50s shortage of civilian goods in the US made production priority Q remained in its own dept Top mgmt showed little interest in Qamp relied on mass inspection 2 consultants Dr Joseph Juran amp Dr W Edwards Deming went to Japan amp introduced statistical Q control techniques Intro to top mgmt amp adopted a philosophy of continuous improvement kaizen throughout the entire org 1951 Union of Japanese Scientists amp Engineers JU SE instituted the Deming Prize Improvements in Japanese Q took 20 yrs until they surpassed US manuf efore 60s Japanese products were considered inferior amp most consumers bought domestic products 70s increased international competition amp appearance of higher Q foreign products on the market failure of the space expedition Challenger is the largest example of needs for Q Businesses see Q as key to their survival let alone pro tability A trend w US companies focusing on Q shortterm amp doing bad longterm 39 I39ll 39 October is National Month 1989 Deming Prize to Florida Power 1994 ATT the second1990quaility drove ever company 1999 nonpro t was added to award initiatives focused only on products amp saw a distinction between Q of mgm amp mgmt of Q Big Q 7 throughout the entire orgamp Little Q 7 Q on manuf only This brought the notion of TQM Orgwide performance excellence rather than just focusing on productionbased technical discipline Now TQM has no signi cance it failed but the underlying principles of Q mgmt are recognized as the foundation of highperformance ui QM came a trend amp many companies strived to institute a Q program amp failed TQM was seen as a fad amp inherently awed in 90s Reasons for TM failures are from oor mgmtorgamp strategies a er TQM came 6 Sigma customerfocused amp resultsoriented approach to business improvemen integrated approach to org performance mgmt results in Delivery of everimproving value to customers amp stakeholders contributing to org sustainability Improvement of overall org effectiveness amp capabilities Org amp personal learning 39 w r v c allenge today is to ensure that managers do not lose sight of basic principles on which ngmtamp performance excellence are based allocatrn necessary resources to maintain a focus on Q especially in economic downturn 7 key forces will in uence the future of Q Globalization Social responsibility New dimensions of Q Aging population Health care Environmental concerns 21St century technology 393 m erfectron Cons1stency Elirninatrng waste Speed of delivery directed toward providing consumers w products of appropriate Q along w the ns ect r i qty of product attributes function of a speci c tness for intended use 1 vs price product that measurable variable Q s o e rrnined by designers of offers greater usefulness at a comparab cts 4 1 focus on customers amp stakeholders 2 Employee engagement ampteamwork by everyone in the org 3 process focus supported by con uous improvement amp learning w TQ wide variety of graphical amp statistical methods to plan work activities collect data analyze results monitor progress amp solve problems Mu rm s ability to achieve market superiority Six characteristics of strong competitive advantage 1 It is driven by customer wants amp needs 2 Makes a signi cant contribution to the success of the business 3 Matches org39s unique resources w opportunities in the environment a good strategy uses the rm s particular resources effectively 4 Durable amp long lasting dif cult for competitors to copy 5 Provides basis for further improvement 6 Provides direction amp motivation to the entire org The net effect of improved Q of design amp conformance is increased pro ts Vital to focus Q improvement on both design amp conformanceQamp Business Results Businesses that invest in Q mgmt efforts experience outs anding returns amp improvements in performance 1 Which products amp services meet your expectations which do not What products or services do you need that you aren t receiving Are you receiVing products or services that you don t need CH Modem Q started in the manuf sector Service Q is as critical to retaining customers Service extends into education health care notfor pro t ampgovemment l I oduction system is composed of many smaller interacting subsystems system is set of functions or activities within an org that work together for the aim of the org Subsystems of an org are linked together as internal customers amp suppliers raditional Q assurance systems in manuf focus primarily on technical issues such as equipment reliability inspection defect ment amp process control The transition to a customerdriven org caused fundamental changes in manuf processes warm Marketing amp sales responsibility for knowing what consumers want amp how much they are willing to pay product design amp engineering developing technical specs for products amp production processes purchasing amp receiving purchasing should not only be responsible for lowcost procurement should also maintain a clear focus on the Q of purchased materials production planning poor Q o en results from time pressures caused by insuf cient planning amp scheduling manufamp assembly ensure product is made correctly both technology amp people are essential tool engineering responsible for designing amp maintaining the tools used in manuf industrial design amp process design working w product engineers to develop realistic specs manuf processes must be capable of producing output that consistently meets specs nished goods inspection amp testing purpose of nal product inspection are to judge the Q of manuf to discover amp help resolve production problems that may arise to ensure no defects reach the end user packaging shipping amp warehousing potential to be incorrectly labeled or damaged in transit aka logistical activities that protect Q a er goods are produced traceability is important installation amp services service a er the sale is one of the most important factors in establishing customer perception of Qamp customer loyalty Finance amp accounting Q was not considered in nancial analysis amp decision making before Responsible for obtaining funds ensuring the rm is costeffective amp pro table Financial decisions affect manufamp must authorize a suf cient budget QA responsible for studying amp improving the Q of the process for which they are responsible legal services making sure the rm complies w laws amp regulation 1 rvice any primary or complementary activity that does not directly produce a physical product the nongoods part of the transaction between buyer amp seller More than 80 of the US specializes in services service industry has not con onted same aggressive foreign competition as manuf amp service sector recognized importance of Q a er manuf Service Q focuses on customer satisfaction 1211mm Customer needs amp performance standards are dif cult to measure because it varies from customer to customer 2 Production of services typically requires higher degree of customization than manuf 3 Output of many service systems is intangible while manuf has tangible output Manqu can be assessed against rm design specs but service Q can only be assessed against customers subjective expectations 4 Services amp products are consumed simultaneously manufd goods are produced prior to consumption Services cannot be inventories amp can only be inspected at point of execution 5 Customers are usually involved in the service process amp present when it is being performed39 manuf is performed away from the customer 6 Service is generally labor in ystem amp the system must be focused towards a purpose 2 Understanding variation basic understanding of statistical theory amp variation theory of knowledge managers need to understand how things work amp why decisions that affect the future should be effective Knowledge is not possible wout theory which is why Deming never gave an actual remedy for Q amp 4 Psychology Deming s philosophy on understanding human behavior amp treating others fairly Pay is not a motivator as opposed to having a purpose 11quot m 1 Create amp publish amp mission statement amp commit to it Businesses should not exist simply for a pro t they are social entities whose basic purpose is to serve their customers amp employees 2 Learn the new philosophy Companies must take a customerdriven approach based on mutual cooperation between labor amp management amp a neverending cycle of improvement 3 Understand the purpose of inspection Encourages workers to take responsibility for their work rather than leave the problem for someone else down the production line 4 End business practices driven by price alone Direct costs associated w poor Q materials exceed the cost savings Deming emphasized making longterm relationships for mutual improvement 5 Constantly improve systems of production amp service Improvement comes from understanding customer needs w feedback amp achieved through reducing variation 6 Institute training People are an organization s most valuable resource 7 Teach amp institute leadership T he job of management is leadership not supervision 8 Drive out fear amp create trust Fear encourages shortterm thinking 9 Optimize team amp individual efforts Teamwork breaks down barriers between departments amp individuals Biggest barrier union amp mgmt 10 Eliminate exhortations from work force Assumption that Q problems are due to human behavior amp workers can improve simply through motivation when the problem can lie in the system 11 Eliminate numerical quotas amp management by objective Focus on improvement If improvement is tied to meeting numerical quotas amp numerical goals without methods do not work 12 Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship Don t treat people on the oor as commodities Deming sorted performance into 3 categories majority of performance within the system outside the system on the superior side amp performances outside the system on the inferior side 13 Encourage education amp selfimprovement Organizations must invest in their e 1 action to accomplish transformation Any cultural change starts w top management amp includes everyone else I 1 Q planning the process of preparing to meet Q goals2 Q control the process of meeting Q goals during operations 3 Q o Q is free not a gi but it s free What costs money is the unQ of thingsall the actions that involve not doing it right the 1 time i v I A i u hree Steps to Quality Quality Leadership with a strong focus on plannin Modem uality Technology rk forceOrganizational Commitment supported by continuous trainin and motivation nstrurnental in apanese quality strategyIn uenced participative approaches involving all workersAdvocated the use of simple visual tools and statistical i perspective on quality based on the economic value of being on target and reducing variation and dis ell39 the traditional View of conformance to speci cations Help improve quality in US companiesRecognize achievements of excellent rms and provide examples to 39 Leadership Strategic developing J 39 que r l echnical specs amp criteria to be used as rules guidelines or de nitions of characteristics to ensure that materials products amp processes amp services are t for their purpose It was made to standardize Q requirements for European countries within the common market system standards adopted by International Organization for Standardization in 87 revised in 94 amp 00 ISO9000 de nes Q system standards based on the premise that certain generic characteristics of mgmt practices can be 39 standardized amp that a welldesigned wellimplemented Q system provides M in MM 3 con dence that the outputs will meet customer expectations 1 management responsibility 2 resource mgmt 3 product realization amp 4 analysis amp 39 r Registration3rdparty does certi cation amp registration ased on statistical measure that equates 34 or fewer errors or defects per million opportunities pioneered by Motorola in the mid 80s amp popularized y the success of General Electric Six sigma can be described as business improvement approach that seeks to nd amp eliminate causes of defects amp errors in manufamp service processes by focusing on outputs that are critical to customer amp a clear nancial return for the organization Motorola 6 Sigma as a Framework blueprint for TQM quot Although different Baldridge amp Six Sigma are highly compatible amp can each have a place in the mgmt system of a MEL 4 umin rc successful or CH V V 0 create satis ed customers the organization needs to identify customers needs des needs amp measure the results as the basis for improvemenLL 1 4 r y is a behavior Loyal customers spend more are willing to pay lugher pnces refer new clients amp are less costly to do business w It costs 5x more to nd a new customer than to kee an existing one happy A rm cannot create loyal customers wout rst creating satis ed customers the production amp service systems to meet those a ociety for Q Index continuall decl improvements have not kept pace w con useful man I in which products are used volumes or expected levels of service Features bells amp whistles Reliability probability of operating for speci c time amp condi match standards Durability amount of use before deterioration or replacement39 Serviceability speed courtesy amp competence of repair39 Aesthetics look feel sound taste smell39 Reliability ability to provide what was promised39 Assurance knowledge amp courtesy of employees amp ability to convey erformance primary operating characteristics ons of use39 Conformance degree to which characteristics trust39 Tangibles physical facilities amp appearance of personnel39 Em athy degree of caring amp individual attention Responsiveness willingness to help omrnent cards amp formal surveys Focus groups Direct customers amp provide prompt services customer contact39 Field intelligence Complaint analysi Internet monitor39 V V edesign of the work to increase empowerment decision making and tearnbased partici ation initiatives for promoting greater labormanagement cooperationunion initiatives to foster knowledge sharing and organizational learning partnerships with educational insitutions to help ensure the future supply of wellprepared employees