Basic Communication Skills
Basic Communication Skills ENG 96
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Date Created: 10/03/15
i Cause And Effect Essay Writing Prompt Write an essay in which you discuss the causes and effects of stereotyping and racism The film Crash deals with various forms of stereotypes and racism it also shows the causes and effects of these thoughts and ideas Your essay will explore these items Cause and Effect With this developmental pattern you will illustrate the relationship between two variables one dependent on the other Describe the many ways in which this particular variable affects the other and explain why it does so Cause and Effect List a series of causes as to why people use stereotypes or are racist in nature List a series of effects occur when people are ignorant with regard to cultural and society issues Organization Use the following organizational pattern General causes followed by a series of effects Causesgt Effectgt Effectgt Effectgt General effects followed by a series of causes Effectsgt Causegt Causegt Causegt Organization Continued Sample Outline Directed Summary ofthe film Crash First paragraph General effects of racism and stereotyping Cause I Bad personal experiences 4Cs Causell Background 4Cs Cause Ill Lack of an education 4Cs Conclusion Interesting Anecdote Organization Continued Sample Outline Directed Summary ofthe film Crash First paragraph General causes of racism and stereotyping Effect Hatred towards certain races 4Cs Effect ll 4Cs Effect lll Violence towards individuals of a different race andor women 4Cs Conclusion A Quote Misconceptions about various groups Introduction to College Writing 0 These slides are mainly review I will indicate when you should take some notes however much of this should be review The Reading and Writing Process 0 Take a good look at Stage 1 2 and 3 in The Longman Reader pages 16 0 Look at the annotations made for Family Counterculture on pages 6 and 7 0 Examine the questions at the end of the reading but DO NOT write them out 0 Think of your readings as sample essays Audience 0 Your audience will be other students and me 0 For outofclass assignments your first audience is other students who will be doing the peer evaluations 0 For inclass assignments I will be the only one reading your essays Purpose 0 There are several questions to ask before writing an essay Do I want to entertain Is my goal to tell a story Do I want to persuade Is my goal to convince the reader that my point of view is a correct one Do I want to inform Is my goal to explain something or give information about a topic Purpose continued 0 The essays in this class will begin with personal essay and then move on to expository and textbased essays o Argumentative writing will be explored in 104 and especially 105 Exploring Strategies o Freewriting writing without stopping 0 Why is it effective A student generally has writer s block when heshe thinks about spelling punctuation and mechanics When you freewrite it doesn t matter if you ve made a bunch of mistakes Your ideas are what s important Brainstorming and Clustering o Brainstorming listing a series of related items 0 Clustering using circles or bubbles to map out ideas 0 Try freewriting brainstorming or clustering on the topic of things to do when you re in Las Vegas or why I am attending Cal Poly Developing 0 Descriptive essays will have spatial and chronological emphasis o Exemplification classificationdivision and definition will have an emphatic and simple tocomplex approach 0 Argument will have an emphatic approach Developing continued 0 In our class each essay will have a different way of developing the thesis 0 Please follow the different guidelines for the different kind of essays Not all the outlines are the same CompareContrast Essay Checklist Pick question number one under quotWriting Assignments Using ComparisonContrast as a Pattern of Developmentquot for any of the assigned readings Outline 0 Directed Summary 0 Thesis I Subject of the paragraph I Controlling idea I Corroborating details I Careful description ofthe details I Connection to the thesis REPEAT THIS PROCESS starting with subject ofthe paragraph and then moving onto 4 Cs controlling idea corroborating details careful description of details and connection to the thesis This is for each body paragraph Checklist for Classification Essay 0 Freewrite brainstorm or cluster 0 Organize your ideas carefully 0 Remember to use the 4Cs in your outline and essay 0 Pick between block or pointbypoint method 0 Your introduction needs to have an opening sentence with appropriate title and author 0 You also need a directed summary and thesis 0 Examine the handout entitled llSample Directed Summary 0 Your conclusion can be one of the following 0 Significance of subject All these matters need to be understood because 0 Most important point Lastly remember that 0 Request for actionopinion X must be changed 0 Useful quotation In the words of o Emotional statement Let s all move to or Please 0 Interesting anecdote A short relevant story 0 You will have two class periods to finish this assignment 0 You need to pass two out of three inclass essays 0 You needa MINIMUM WORDCOUNT OF 750 Sample Directed Summary Mike Rose s Just Wanna Be Average deals with a group of students who gain very little from attending a parochial school in Los Angeles Rose chronicles some of the more tragic experiences in high school as he is mistakenly placed in the vocational education track Because of this mix up he attends classes that are way below his intelligence level Throughout the essay he gives many examples of the different kinds of students and teachers that occupy these remedial classes They range from ineffective to lazy Some are also very abusive and bizarre He finally encounters a student who says quotI just wanna be average and he finds this disturbing Furthermore he illustrates the fact that he had only one teacher who cared and this alters his perception of learning Otherwise he would himself be content with being average I agree with Rose with the notion high school is mostly made up of average students This is a directed summary not a full summary 0 Since this essay deals with exemplification the directed part of the summary is a general summation of the examples that Mike Rose gives If you were asked to write a classification essay I would have listed the various classifications Rose conveys in his essay Notice that the author and essay are mentioned in the first sentence Full name of the author and essay is used 0 After full name and title are used last name and the word quotessayquot are used DO NOT REPEAT THE FULL NAME OF THE AUTHOR AND TITLE OVER AND OVER AGAIN The paragraph is in literary present Signal phrases deals writes uses illustrates are used 0 Other signal phrases include I Says shows agrees disagrees points out opines believes and the like An appropriate quote can be used at the end of the paragraph 0 A quote may be used if it corresponds with the theme of the directed summary A clear thesis is given Grammar Packetl Multiple Choice Directions Read the instructions carefully and then choose the appropriate answer 1 Choose the correct sentence a The oil spill in Louisiana is tragic because there are so many consequences b Because there are so many consequences the oil spill in Louisiana is tragic c The wildlife has all but disappeared as a result many people are very upset 2 Choose the correct sentence a New Orleans has gone through a lot the past five years Hurricane Katrina was the first great disaster b They are going through some tough times people in California can relate c We have had earthquakes floods droughts and the like as a result we are used to disasters Choose the correct sentence a The Midwest has gone through some tornadoes recently and some people are reported missing or dead b I have always been afraid of tornadoes because they seem so difficult to escape c At least you can see it coming you can t see an earthquake coming 4 Choose the correct sentence a There are fools who chase these twisters b Sometimes I wonder about the stupidity of these daredevils c I would not be surprised if someone tried to jump over a volcano would you be surprised 5 Choose the correct sentence a What is your greatest fear b Idon t ever want to die in an airplane crash even though people die rather quickly c My friend Randolph who is very daring says he wouldn t mind dying in an airplane crash 6 Choose the correct sentence a People don t want to know when they are going to die b I certainly don t it would make me nervous c There are others who would like to know so they go to a fortune teller 7 Choose the correct sentence a There was a volcano that erupted in Iceland b This natural disaster caused delays and cancellations of airlines c Europeans were not able to travel vacation or sightseeing Choose the correct sentence a History has recorded many disasters but people are generally resilient b Because people are resilient They bounce back after a few years c The dinosaurs became extinct even though they seem much stronger than human beings 9 Choose the correct sentence a I was involved in the San Francisco earthquake that rocked the Bay Area in the early nineties wow what a huge disaster b The buildings were swaying a bridge collapsed as well c Whenever I go to the Bay Area I can t help but think about that disaster 10 Choose the correct sentence a During that earthquake There was a World Series game between Oakland A s and the San Francisco Giants two loser teams b They had to postpone the games for two weeks the A s won in a sweep c This World Series had the lowest ratings I wonder why 11 Choose the incorrect sentence a The girl who loves to dance is Simone 5 9 b Simone who is a Cal Poly student enjoys going to clubs c She met her boyfriend Rex at a club which is called Das Klub Choose the incorrect sentence a Playing video games there are many obstacles to overcome b Jaycee loves playing Counterstrike c These games may cause violence but there is no real evidence to prove this Choose the incorrect sentence a Bowling is a pastime that nobody enjoys as frequently b I hate bowling because it requires very little skill c Bowling cycling camping and to run marathons are not the popular activities they once were Choose the incorrect sentence a Kids today play with high tech gadgets the new phone is one example b When we were kids we never dreamed of cell phones c We were happy to have a remote control for our television we didn t need much to be happy Choose the incorrect sentence a Having all of this technology makes life quite easy b Staying caught up in this fast paced world Students will soon carry several books in one pad c Nobody reads the newspaper anymore however this can be a good thing since we won t waste as much paper Choose the incorrect sentence a Will bookstores become extinct I have no idea b There used to be record stores back in the day but everybody downloads music these days c Libraries may become useless because new technology will replace books as well Choose the incorrect sentence a It is amazing how quickly we are moving into the future there are people who don t want to be a part ofthis high tech world b Others are addicted to technology and they can t live without it c Because life is so easy these conveniences do seem to contribute to obesity Choose the incorrect sentence a Are we going too fast b Maybe we will be extinct there might be a great accident in the future c Seeing all this happening so quickly I am not sure we are creating a better world Choose the incorrect sentence a Riding bicycles climbing mountains and camping outdoors are not as common b Traveling overseas to view museums The rich people seem to enjoy these expensive pastimes c Everybody else is visiting these famous places through the internet they are too lazy to go through the hassles oftraveling Choose the incorrect sentence a The Getty Museum which is one of our favorite tourist attractions is an architectural marvel b I love museums that have modern art c Kristin loves museums that have beautiful gardens the Huntington Library is her favorite because it has a variety of gardens Choose the comma splice a There are many reasons to watch sports being from Los Angeles b Having lived in Los Angeles many sports teams were around c Watching the Dodgers was fun they haven t won a World Series in over twenty years Which one ofthese sentences is incomplete a The Rose Bowl which is in Pasadena sometimes holds the BCS National Championship game U U Which Which C Which a b c Which a b c Which a b c Which a b c a b c Which a b c a b C Which a b c Which a b c Which a b C Which a The BCS National Championship a controversial game College football doesn t really have a real champion They need to have playoffs one of these sentences is incomplete UCLA has the most national championships and they have over one hundred Eleven ofthose championships come from basketball Being a die hard UCLA fan Joe is anxiously waiting for the basketball tournament to begin one of these sentences is incomplete Colleges also have interesting names Such as the Gauchos the Anteaters the Blue Devils and the Litany Lions My favorites are the Broncos the Tigers the Boston Terriers and the Orangemen don t know who came up with these names one of these sentences is incomplete There are also many great fight songs For example USC s fight song They sing it after every game one of these sentences is incomplete The great rivalries between so many colleges and so many students who attend them My favorite is Michigan versus Ohio State They always want to beat each other one ofthe following has a dangling modifier Running into the end zone is the goal ofthe running back or quarterback I enjoy watching touchdowns Attending Notre Dame the football games are sold out one ofthe following has a dangling modifier Situated near the valley Penn State has a great football tradition Called quotHappy Valleyquot Joe Paterno has coached there since the sixties Being from Pennsylvania is not very cool one ofthe following has a dangling modifier Jenna decided to go to Duke University being from North Carolina Because North Carolina has great schools People often stay within the state for higher education The same cannot be said for South Dakota being a state with very few universities or colleges one ofthe following has a dangling modifier Another state having great colleges is New York Living New York City the subways take students to their various institutions The subways always running on time are a cheap form of transportation for many starving students one ofthe following has a dangling modifier Having won a NCAA tournament Syracuse University is a popular place for basketball fans Having gone to Syracuse Carmelo Anthony knows about this tradition Having lived in upstate New York the weather is very cold especially in the winter of the following is not parallel I enjoy the jogging and swimming at the UC Riverside track and pool To jog swim and bike around various campuses is enjoyable beneficial and a great way to do aerobic exercise Colleges have great facilities for jogging swimming and cycling of the following is not parallel Oregon Oregon State and many other colleges in Oregon are getting national recognition b I like Oregon and Washington c These schools have great students fine faculty and beautiful scenery 34 Which of the following is not parallel a Not only do they have great undergraduate studies but they are also offering a lot of graduate courses as well b Not only are they academically strong but they are also athletically strong as well c Not only are these schools near desirable cities they are also near wonderful parks 35 Which of the following is not parallel a Beautiful trees and lush lawns surround the University of Oregon b The sun doesn t go down in the summer until 11 pm so people enjoy golf tennis and other fun activities that many people enjoy for a long time c In fact people like to hike kayak and bike late at night during summer 36 Which of the following is not parallel Students faculty and other people of like mind who attend Oregon State hate to be called the Ducks But there are very few nicknames that apply to these schools and locations Their history tradition and lifestyle deal with the Gold Rush but no school in the state of Oregon is called the Forty niners 37 Which one is a fused sentence a Equot a Title IX helped women s athletics become more prominent it also helped with scholarships for women b College athletics is now more even it wasn t this way in the sixties and seventies c Women s rights civil rights and other issues of this nature helped Title IX pass 38 Which one is a fused sentence a Joining intramurals during the semester b Asking about the flag football season the schedules were introduced to the students who joined Coming off the field was his primary goal he pulled his hamstring on the last play ofthe drive 39 Which one is a fused sentence Understanding and to learn about its history are ways to better yourself as a human being Students understand their limits When they participate in college sports It is important to set goals not all ofthese goals are academic in nature 40 Which one is a fused sentence 5quot was a Running and jumping are two skills required in many track events these skills are especially important in the high hurdles b The long jump is another event that requires these skills another one is the triple jump Track and field has often been dominated by the east coast colleges Because they seem to be the most concerned about this event 5quot Sentence Identification Directions Identify each of the following sentences as A simple B compound C complex or D compoundcomplex 41 Nearly everybody is afraid of death 42 Due to this fear many people don t handle mortality too well 43 I am not sure what is more frightening than the prospects of dying since everybody will eventually pass away 44 Do people go to heaven or hell 45 After someone dies many people believe that their souls survive O3 U39IU39IU39IU39I U1 0 gomxim U39I 0391 There are many people making headlines this week because they have just passed away One is John Wooden he was the greatest college basketball coach of all time Rue McClanahan died as well however most people don t remember her She starred in a show called Golden Girls this was a great comedy Dennis Hopper who is my favorite actor also passed away due to the fact he had prostate cancer Gary Coleman died as well DifferentStrokes seems to be cursed Even though many ofthese people are famous they are still mortal Since Michael Jackson died last year it seems as though celebrities are dying with great frequency What is going on Many people get depressed whenever these kinds of news hit the Internet but they forget about it the next week From the 1960s celebrities like Marilyn Monroe John F Kennedy and others have made headlines Today there is more media hoopla when famous people die mysteriously Some of these deaths are suicides and very few people understand the circumstances Brittany Murphy s death is still a mystery furthermore her husband s death is rather bizarre as well since it looks like he committed suicide Although people have a lot of money and fame these items don t mean they are happy but thousands chase these dreams anyway Individuals lose their privacy ifthey get famous 62 63 64 65 Some people just want their fifteen minutes Some believe in karma so many believe these deaths are inevitable Who will be next No news is good news nevertheless it is best to stay positive Error Analysis Directions The sentences below contain grammatical problems these problems include a comma splices b fused sentences c fragments d faulty parallelism or e dangling modifier 66 67 68 69 Going through many hard times is demoralizing being in many difficult relationships is also heart I 0391 II U300 oooooooo bLuNI x How many millions of people have seen Batman I have no idea Jayden is driving to Las Vegas feeling very tired and sick I want to rent and driving a car very quickly up Interstate 5 To be or not to be That is the question wrenching There are many great writers in our country Some of whom are very beloved To fish mountain bike and running races are some of my favorite activities of all time Running up a hill the terrain was very difficult to master Marathons are exciting to many people however I can t see myself running one any time soon Many students enjoy cycling and to jog Because there are many different hobbies for the masses It s difficult to imagine not having a favorite pastime Many students love going to concerts to see their favorite bands to listen to loud music and going to the mosh pit to get hammered Other students enjoy watching baseball games and to root for their favorite teams Being very lazy Some students don t pick up hobbies or sports activities Music is a way to relax yourself it is also as Dick Clark says quotThe soundtrack of your lifequot There are many genres of music One of which is hip hop Another being country music Since there are so many types of music Many individuals have a hard time keeping up There are also too many radio stations not enough people can keep up with the changing of these stations either 85 Some of the more popular bands are actually older bands Such as U2 The Rolling Stones and The Beatles 00 0391 Oasis Blur and others like these particular bands with Britpop sound are from England People also enjoy listening to underground music these individuals are more hardcore than others 88 Jason attended a concert getting very excited about rushing the stage 89 Being excited and thrilled about a System ofa Down concert the parents became worried about their teenage sons and daughters 90 There are also very controversial artists Like Eminem 50 Cent and Slip Knot 91 Some lyrics are also very violent and emotional these lyrics often cross the line of what is decent or not 92 I enjoy listening to bands from the eighties Some of them being The Smiths REM Joy Division The Pixies The Primitives and Transvision Vamp 93 When you attend concerts these days people seem more mellow than before this is because many people have gotten hurt or killed in the past 94 Jason enjoys singing along with his favorite band playing air guitar along with his favorite guitarist dancing acting and screaming 95 Who can forget the final performance of Elvis Presley Even though he sang in front of a small crowd in Las Vegas 96 There are many musicians who have died young For example Jimi Hendrix Jim Morrison Janice Joplin Kurt Cobain and Jeff Buckley 97 Why would they commit suicide did they in fact commit suicide 00 l 98 Or maybe being killed 99 Whitney Houston once stated quotCrack is whackquot she has not been viewed in the same way since 100 I ve been to many concerts not too many live up to the hype 101 I did see U2 they did live up to the hype 102 Coming out in the seventies with their country rock hits nearly everybody loved The Eagles 103 Their most famous single quotHotel California It is still loved by many listeners 104 People also love Pink Floyd A band that has some depressing music 105 Unfortunately we don t buy records any more used to love the cover art on record albums 106 People don t even remember cassette tapes Which is kind of weird considering I still have a tape player in my SUV 107 Playing songs on the radio and to listen to these songs are part of our pastime 108 Whatever happened to Van Halen The greatest group with multiple singers 109 Ricky used to visit Penny Lane To peruse all of the albums and tapes 110 Records used to go gold or platinum depending on how many the band members sold i CompareContrast Essays CompareContrast Essays Comparing is finding something similar Contrasting is finding something different Comparecontrast essays are generally used to explain a particular concept CompareContrast Essays Continued f Focus on one of the essays that we ve read Examine carefully the student essay which responds to one of your readings Use only details that help advance your argument CompareContrast Essays Continued After you ve settled on what you ll be comparingcontrasting it is important to figure out which pattern you ll be using Block method Write about youth for example for the first half of your essay Write about being forty and overfor the second half of your essay In other words block off one subject before moving on to the other CompareContrast Essays Continued You can also use the pointbypoint method In this form of writing you need to deal with one point and then comparecontrast that point For example let s say that you are going to contrast youth and aging Your first would deal with for example obsession with appearance You would address the youth s point of view and the overtheforty crowd s point of view CompareContrast Essays Continued When revising your essay be sure to have the following A focused concept An appeal to reader s interests A logical plan Clear definition Appropriate writing strategies Careful use of sources Essay of your choice CompareContrast Essays Continued Outline for block method Directed Summary Thesis Being younger is often pleasant but being older has distinct advantages Youth Subject Obsession with beauty for both the younger and older Controlling idea Corroborating details Careful description of details Connection to the thesis Subject Dealing with critical decisions for both the younger and older Subject Knowing yourself C C C Conclusion Significance of subject CompareContrast Essays Continued Outline for pointbypoint method Directed Summary Thesis Being younger is often pleasant but being older has distinct advantages Youth Subject Obsession with beauty forthe younger Controlling idea Corroborating details Careful description of details Connection to the thesis Subject Obsession with beauty forthe older Subject Knowing yourself forthe younger C C C Subject Knowing yourself forthe older Conclusion Significance of the subject Adding Stronger Details to Your Essay After the controlling idea you can make references to one of your readings The corroborating details can come from Dave Barry for example One quote that is noteworthy is it was obvious to any sane observer that no matter how carefully they applied these products they would never look remotely like Cindy Crawford who is some kind of genetic mutation 371 Adding Stronger Details to Your Essay Or you could paraphrase that same quote To look like Cindy Crawford as far as Dave Barry is concerned is next to impossible no matter how much makeup is applied 370 Analysis A short analysis of the situation or quote or example should follow as your careful description of details Women do need to realize that beauty is not the only factor in determining their selfworth There are other things such as inner beauty and personality that Barry alludes to that are just as significant Adding Stronger Details to Your Essay Here is another noteworthy quote The roadsides once so attractive were now lined with browned and withered vegetation as though swept by fire These too were silent deserted by all living things Even the streams were now lifeless Anglers no longer visited them for all the fish had died 360 Adding Stronger Details to Your Essay Paraphrase Rachel Carson indicates that nature once beautiful has been slowly destroyed to the point where even anglers cannot fish in these deserted streams 360 Analysis There are many instances of nature that has been ravaged by human beings West Fork which used to be one of my favorite streams now has graffiti litter and fecal matter I cannot walk in that stream without the fear of a piece of glass being lodged in my boots or even worse in my foot