Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and Periodic Table
Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and Periodic Table CHEM 103 - 02
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vonshay Spence on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 103 - 02 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Mrs. Mary Gerhard in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see General Descriptive Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
VVVV VVVV VV V Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Law of Conservation of Matter states that matter can be neither created nor destroyed French Chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier Atom smallest part of an element contains 3 subatomic particles Proton a subatomic particle with a positive charge in the nucleus of the atom Neutron a neutral subatomic particle in the nucleus Electron negative charged subatomic particle that circles the nucleus Nucleus the center of the atom that contains the protons and neutrons In a neutral atom electronsprotons Atomic Number number of protons in an atom Mass number the number of protons plus the number of neutrons Element pure substance where the atoms all have the same atomic number lsotopes atoms of elements that have the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons Atomic Mass Number the number of protons plus the average number of neutrons Dalton s Atomic Theory 1 All matter is made of atoms Atoms are invisible and indestructible 2 All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties 3 Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms 4 A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms Law of De nite Constant Composition states that any compound is always made up of elements in the same proportion by mass French Chemist Joseph Proust Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev a Russian professor created the rst periodic table around 1860 Periods horizontal rows of a periodic table 0 Groups columns of a periodic table Periodic Law that elements are arranged in increasing atomic number and that similar chemical properties occur at regular intervals Metal elements that is solid except mercuryHg shiny conducts electricity ductile and malleable Nonmetals elements that lack that characteristics of metals and tends to accept electrons Metalloids elements that have both metal and nonmetal characteristics Boron Silicon Germanium Arsenic Antimony Tellurium Polonium Classi cations of Elements 0 Transition metals a group of metals that have electrons in the quotdquot subsheH Alkalimetals group 1A 0 Alkaline earth metals group 2A Halogens group 7A VVV Noble or inert gases group 8A Shell principal energy level of an atom Subshells a sub level of a shell with designation of s p d or f Orbitals are within the subshell they contain up to 2 electrons with opposite spins Ground state lowest possible energy level Electron Con guration of an atom description of the orbitals that its electrons occupy 1 Orbitals ll in the order of increasing energy from lowest to highest 2 Each orbital can hold up to 2 electrons with opposite spins paired 3 When there is a set of orbitals of equal energy each orbital becomes half lled before any of them becomes completely lled Danish Physicist Niels Bohr is responsible for the electron con guration of atoms Orbital Diagrams a notation that shows how many electrons an atom has in each of its occupied electron orbitals Valence Shell outermost shell of electrons Valence electrons the electrons in the outermost shell
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