6th week of notes
6th week of notes GEOL 105 ( Ken Lepper)
Popular in Physical Geology
Popular in Geology
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luis Blanco Seguerit on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 105 ( Ken Lepper) at North Dakota State University taught by Ken Lepper in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at North Dakota State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
GEOL 105 NoteTaker 092815 Introduction to Fossils Fossils Evidence of Past Life 0 Fossils traces or remains of prehistoric life now preserved in earth materials 0 Fossils are generally found in sediments or sedimentary rocks 0 Rarely in metamorphic rocks 0 Rarely in igneous rocks 0 Example in igneous rock Pompeii o Paleontology study of fossils o Biostratigraphy differentiation correlation and relative dating of rocks units based on the fossils they contain 0 Conditions Favoring preservation 0 Rapid burial 0 Possession of hard parts skeleton shell etc 0 Low temperature environments 0 Low oxygen environments 0 Fossils can be created from few thousand to many millions of years 0 Types of Fossils 0 Hard body parts by far the most common type of fossil Shell teeth bones etc o Entire Organism flesh included 0 Molds and casts Can be important to our knowledge of organisms without hard parts like jellyfish for example 0 Trace fossils Important to our knowledge of behavior of organisms Examples Bones teeth are examples of body parts lnsects in Amber are Entire organism fossils Entire organisms can happened in cold environments like Dima a frozen Baby Mammoth Petrified wood Natural cast of shelled invertebrates Mold of a trilobite mold of a jellyfish 0 Type of Trace Fossils 0 Tracks or Trails Dinosaur foot prints in limestone o Burrows t o Coprolites fossil vforieptiles do not ok t preserve well 392 o Habitatlterations Nests wallows bite marks think of beavers courting structures think of birds and fish etc State Fossil of North Dakota Teredo Wood a threefer Plan Bio Trace fossil 0 Plant fossil o Bivalve fossil 0 Trace fossil a g i Biostratigraphy Matching of rocks of similar ages in different regions is known as correlation Bio stratigraphic correlation relies on fossils 0 Williams Smith late 1700 noted that sedimentary strata in widely separated areas could be identified and correlated by their distinctive fossil content Fossils and Correlations Principle of fossil succession 0 Fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order and therefore any time period can be recognized by its fossil content Index fossil o A geographically widespread fossil that is limited to a short span of geologic time Fossil Suite 0 A group of fossils that frequently occur together because they inhabited the same biomes Fossil succession Birds come from Dina sours and the theory for the evolution of the horse Bio stratigraphic Correlation i stra tirapfiic familialtiara in Blue lines indicate the same type of fossils for the three different areas 0 0 Red Lines include the combination of fossils that are in the areas 0 Setting up the areas to create a Age time for the fossils We will have i4 r 1 FE Earnela ted I in r Eec i s Hail Ii T I if in 5 il LI39 ii 7 ll i 2 LEE L Em I 7 a a H i 5 3 an DinaH ii 39 ii i in 5 5 11 a From Oldest to Newest Going from the bottom until the top Three Largest Mass Extinctions in Earth history 1 Permian 251 Ma ago 0 95 of all marine organisms o 75 of terrestrials 2 Cretaceous 65 Ma ago 0 80 marine 0 Around 55 terrestrials 3 Holocene 10 ka today 0 4555 of terrestrials o Oceans difficult to assign a percentage but extinctions are definitely occurring 0 Entire Coral reef biomes marine mammals numerous marine birds and fish populations are plummeting threaten Note think to be instantaneous extinctions but these occurred during millions of years Stromatolites the Earliest Fossils The earliest evidence of life on Earth Archean Eon 35 34 Ga to Present today Mounds formed by colonies of cyanobacteria Living Cyanobacteria Ediacarain Fauna Earliest multicellular life forms preserved in fossil record 0 600900 Ma 0 Precambrian time Soft bodied o Preserved as molds Sample Test Questions Distributary channel systems are characteristic of which sedimentary environments Alluvial Deltaic Fluvial AandB A B and C W909 Answer is D Alluvial and Deltaic 0 Coal is most likely to form in which of these sedimentary environments Fluvial Deep marine Pluvial Transitional Shallow Marine W909 Answer is D Transitional 0 Which of the following isare not a sedimentary structures A Strata B Conglomerate C Concretions D Tool Marks E C and D Answer is B Conglomerates is not a sedimentary structure GEOL 105 Notetaker 09I30I2015 What39s the point Fossils are one of the best way to quotconnectquot with the geologic past The goal here is to recognize several types of fossils and to learn how paleontologists distinguish between similar forms Review Stromatolites The earliest fossil evidence of life on Earth 35 34 Ga to present day Layered mounds formed by colonies of cyanobacteria Review Ediacarian Fauna Earliest multicellular life forms preserved in fossil record 0 600900 Ma Softbodied o Preserved as molds Geologic Time Scale Simplified E i hi39ii g relll ir Mg Dcwrmnce of Ediamria 39 ctur ence of S Itrumam lite The Cambrian Explosion 600 to 540 Ma Transition from Proterozoic to Phanerozoic Eon o Appereance and abundance of hard bodied macro fossils Prot from Protozoans single celled organisms Phan from Greek phaneros visible Trilobites Phylum Arthropoda 0 Other arthropods insects arachnids crustaceans Class Trilobita Very early exoskeletal organisms Extreme diverse o numerous types 0 numerous niches life ways quotThequot Fossil of the Paleozoic Era 0 Lower Cambrian to Upper Permian Trilobate Threelobes Tril mites nth Tri Imites ia nts Batems brachycepheius 5 will w q h r W n 39 EA km wi39 imquot a iiiiiiixlxi Ornate Trilobitea Delicate Trimbites Trillite Clwuin Genus Agnesiue Phylum Brachiopoda Brachiopods o Bilaterally symmetric bivalves 0 Lower Cambrian to Recent Py39rii tized Emchi Phylum Bryozoa Bryozoans Twig animals 0 Colonial organisms o ZOOIDS o Branching fanshaped or corkscrew macro structures 0 Lower Ordovician to Recent Woman Fossi Is Phylum Mollusca 0 Class Gastropoda o Cambrian to Recent 0 Class Cephalopodia o Ammonoidea Devonian to Cretaceous o Nautiloidea U Cambrian to recent 0 Class Bivalvia o Ordovician to Recent 0 Class Coleoidea o Octopi Squid Cuttlefish very weird to find in the fossil record Madam Errrail a gastrode Ga stratapods C ilfedi Shell with transati n al mg axis f mii rl Cephal puds Ammnites C iled sham wnith ut trans lat im Cephal pods Nautilus Cilied Shelli with ut translatian Fm sxiil w39itlh nacre What s the ifference Playutilgids Almminnites Simple suture Sample suture Herr day mi Eamhrian Nautiloid are the oldest species and ammonoids are an evolution Bivalve Mollusks Symmetric valves ex clams oysters mussels Note Symmetry on shells mmmmwna dam lelltuilin plme is mmmw 139 l Tfflim ll fl39J39Tji i llmlwl 13a 3 I 111 runway Phylum Echinodermata 0 Class Echinoidea o Starfish Brittle stars sand dollars Sea urchins Ordovician to Recent 0 Class Crinoidea o Ordovician to Recent o Fivefold symmetry parts do not have to be in equal size 3955 j Echinidea StarfiSh Echinoidea Brittie Sta r5 Echimidea Sea Urchins Crinoidea Cri aidis Ex39ta nt Sea limes C r39i nidea Stemetamk segmentg ashquot 4 i49 l mg Crimnidea Calyx Feeiing head Phylum Cnidaria Corals 0 Class Anthozoa 0 Order Tabulata Cambrian to Permian 0 Order Rugosa Cambrain to Triassic 0 Order Scleractina Triassic to Recent f mh Tabulata Tabulate Caral LILMr EHh IH mm H1 man lill39l girlmum run II culumm mleanl39nu quotcampusEli Iz iT mung ludiuu dumla39 II was miu lr39s39imfli lulnl innijnminaj in prohum sii r a ma Ruggsa 39HDM I CDFEIS wwwma sieilkneit Sclera tinia Extanthadern Cma s Living coral polyps SUMMARY Phylum Arthropoda 0 class Tribolita Phylum Brachiopoda Phylum Bryozoa Phylum Mollusca 0 Class Gastropoda 0 Class Cephalopoda Order Ammonoidea Order Nautoloidea 0 Class Bivalvia Phylum Echinodermata 0 Class Echinoidea 0 Class Crinoidea Phylum Cnideria 0 Class Anthozoa Order Tabulata Order Rugosa Order Sciertinia Life Through Time Biological quotagesquot of the Earth Paleozoic Era Cambrian period 542488 Ma 0 Age of Trilobites Ordovician period 488444 Ma 0 Age of Cephalopods Silurian period 444416 Ma 0 Age or Corals Devonian period 416359 Ma 0 Age of Fishes Mississippian period 359318 Ma 0 Age of Crinoids Pennsylvanian period 318299 Ma 0 Age of Plants age of Coal Permin period 299251 Ma 0 Age of Amphibians Mesozoic Era Age of Reptiles o Triassic period 251 202 Ma 0 Jurassic period 202146 Ma 0 Cretaceous period 14665 Ma Cenozoic Era Age of Mammals o Tertiary period 6526 Ma Large Mammals o Quaternary period 26001 Ma Mammals start to be part of the Earth Review Sample Test Questions The state fossil of North Dakota is A tree frog trapped in amber Bison latifrons ancient long horned bison A trilobite with long eye stalks A Worm filled brachiopod Teredo Wood W909 Answer is E Teredo Wood True or False No hominids have ever gone extinct therefore humans occupy a special place in nature and don39t have to worry about extinction A What39s hominid is that like two words that sound the same B I am going to cry C True D False Answer is D False Fossilized feces animal droppings are trace fossils called A Gastroliths B Coprolites C Dungites D Poopoliths Answer is B Coprolites GEOL 105 Notetaker 10022015 Metamorphism and Metamorphic Textures The rock cycle 1 Igneous Rock 2 Sedimentary Rocks 3 metamorphic rocks compaction and camentation l r j Metamorphism o The Transformation or one rock into another by temperatures andor pressures unlike those in which the original rock formed 0 Generally temperatures greater than 300 C and depth more than 23 Km 0 Metamorphic rocks can be produced from o Igneous rocks 0 Sedimentary rocks 0 Other Metamorphic rocks 0 Metamorphism progresses in a continuum from lowgrade to highgrade 0 During metamorphism the rock cannot melt but undergoes significant changesin o vicosity loss of cohesion between crystalsgrains o Crystalography atomic arrangement within crystals Crystallographic changes Recrystallization AIZSiO5 Kyanite Andalusite sillimanite Pressure EPHJ Silliman Maialusiie Jquot 39 I I I n i I l I quot quot V 4m 5m EDD WEI B Tern 2 rams 6 Types of Metamorphism Contact of thermal metamorphism 0 Results from intrusion of magma into host rock Hydrothermal metamorphism 0 chemical alterations from hot ionrich water Regional Metamorphism o Occurs during Orogenesis mountain building 0 Produces the greatest volume of metamorphic rock 0 Orogenic metamorphic belts usually display zones of contact andor hydrothermal metamorphism Shock metamorphism o Occurs when High speed projectiles called Bolides strike Earth39s surface Agents of Metamorphism Heat Pressure Chemically active fluids Heat 0 Two primary sources of heat 0 Heat from magma Contact Metamorphism 0 An increase in temperature with depth due to the geothermal gradient Pressure 0 Isotropic isoequal tropo Change 0 confining pressure applies forces equally in all directions 0 Increases with depth 0 Anisotropic Aninot isoequal tropochange o unequal pressure in different directions 0 induces differential stresses or shear stresses Chemically Active Fluids 0 Mainly water with other volatile components 0 Commonly including disperged metals 0 Enhances migration of ions 0 Aids in recrystalization of existing minerals 0 Source of the fluids 0 Pore spaces of sedimentary rocks 0 Fractures in igneous rocks 0 Hydrated minerals such as clays and micas Metamorphism The importance of Parent Rock 0 Most metamorphic rocks have the same overall chemical composition as the parent rock from which they formed 0 Example Sedimentary limestones transforms to metamorphic marble but remains CaCo3 Metamorphic textures o Textures refers to the size shape and arrangement of minerals grains 0 Two primary types of metamorphic texture o Foliated from differential stressesl anisotropic pressure 0 NonFoliated from confining or isotropic pressure 0 Foliation any planar arrangement of mineral grains or structural features within a rock 0 Examples of Foliation Parallel alignments of flattened minerals grains and pebbles Compositional banding Rock cleavage where rocks can be easily split into thin tabular sheet I r u gt i r u r i U r r NJ 7 i i i quot Ju I 39gt r H I P p l 39l i l I 39r l l J39 39 l 39l 39 ii I l l l I I l a i J After metamorphism o Foliation can form in various ways including 0 O O Rotation of platy andor elongated minerals Recrystalization of minerals in a preferred orientation Changing the shape of equidimensional grains into enlogated shapes that are aligned or rotated Changing the shape of equidimensional grains changing the shapeorientation of equidimensional grains by rotation Foliated Textures o Resulting from differential stresses OOOO Slaty parting Schistocity or schistos texture Platy minerals are discernible with the crenulated unaided eye Gneissic banding During higher grades of metamorphism ion migration results in the segregation of minerals onto bands Augen texture During higher grades of metamorphism with the high shear stress Isolated minerals grain that appear NonFoliated Textures o Resulting from confining pressure 0 Fused Granular texture Metamorphism of chemical sedimentary rocks and pure sandstones o Porphyroblastic texture Large grains called porphyroblast surrounded by minerals High fluid content in parent material 0 Eclogitic texture Extreme high Temperature and confining pressure low fluid content in parent material Garnets in a Narich green pyroxene Review Ssm i TEEt QUEEHUH a Ta39 l The fssili organism pioturotl is so arthropod osllod am A Erioiatl Trilobite Etromstollito Eirsohiopooll showrooms EFF Answer is B Trilobite Review Sample Tost Question I Tho frssi organism motored has E f oi stai39I39n39umstoiF sod is sometimes os illoo a sea Hails tht is t at Nautilus Rogosa Coorollito Erloiio Triloito WF F P Answer is D Crinoid
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