Microbiology: Week 4 Lecture Notes
Microbiology: Week 4 Lecture Notes 101.0
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabel Markowski on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101.0 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Microbiology Week 4 Lecture Notes Phototrophs Continuation of Cellular Metabolism o Organisms convert light energy to chemical energy Use photosystems o Photosystems a reaction center rxn center and electron transport chain ETC Photosystem Rxn Center amp Light Harvesting Center Rxn Center site of electron excitation 0 Contains multiple proteins and lightreactive pigments chlorophylls LightHarvesting Center LHC assist rxn center 0 Absorb at different wavelengths than Rxn Center 0 Capture photons and transfer energy to Rxn Center 0 Contains additional pigments and proteins slightly different than Rxn Center 0 Conversion of light to chemical energy 0 Rxn center contains chlorophylls 0 Light proton hits rxn center and chlorophylls I Energy transferred to electrons making them have higher potential energy making good electron donors LHC Rxn Center A ETC 3 1 Donor DonoroXidized NADP NADPH T Acceptor Replenishes Electrons Photoheterotrophv Photoautotrophv 0 Organic compounds as carbon source 0 C02 as carbon source 0 Use light to make ATP 0 Use light to make NADPH Bacterial Phototrophs 0 Mostly bacteria phototrophs 0 Classes of Phototrophs o Anoxygenic Phototrophs Use one photosystem only and don t produce 02 I Green Bacteria Use photosystem I 0 Green Sulfur sulfur as electron donor 0 Green NonSulfur I Purple Bacteria Use photosystem II o Proteobacteria o Often ablegrow w aerobic or anaerobic metabolism or fermentation diversity 0 Extra membranes where phototrophic apparatus is More surface area 0 Oxygenic Phototrophs plants Use 2 photosystems together and produce 02 I Cyanobacteria o Bluegreen algae originated 02 photosynthesis 0 Combine PSI and PSII photons gt PSII Rxn Center gt quinones PSI more light excites gt NADPH 0 Water 02 waste product I Eukaryotes o Eukaryotic chloroplasts evolved from ancient cyanobacteria Applied Microbial Metabolism Impact on Earth 0 Microbes global element cycling 0 Carbon nitrogen sulfur phosphorus iron etc 0 Impact growth animalsplants o Metabolism affects manmade environment The NitrogenCycle N2 Q o 0 A Nitrification N0339 NH3 Nitrate Reduction Cellular N amino acids nucleotides etc 0 Almost all Ncycle bacteria and archaea 0 Important 0 Fixed N limiting for plantanimal growth 0 Humans altered natural N cycle synthetic N o Intermediates in N cycle may affect eutrophication be toxic increase global warming destructive to ozone layer be carcinogens decrease air quality 0 Processes o NFixation Reducing N2 to NH3 biological I HaberBosch Process chemicalsynthetic o Nitrification Use reduced N NH3 or NOg39 as electron donor I Ammonia Oxidation convert NH3 to N03quot 0 Lithotrophic aerobic respiration o NH3 donor Nitrite produced then Nitrate 02 Electron acceptor I Nitrite Oxidation convert Nitrite to N03 0 Lithotrophic aerobic respiration o Nitrite electron donor Nitrate produced 02 acceptor 0 Next step after NH3 oxidation 0 Denitrification Nitrate as electron donor I Anaerobic respiration I Most facultative anaerobes grow better in 02 but can grow in non02 environment I Not much different than other respiration I Nitrate gt N2 Nitrate Nitrite Nitrr Oxide Nitrous Oxide Nitrogen Impacts of NitrificationDenitrification o Nitrification o Produces acids building destruction 0 Removal of NH3 beneficial in aquatic systems fish tanks but detrimental for crop production products more soluble in water and leech away 0 Historical development of explosives quotnight soil human poop o Denitrification o Removes fixed N from ecosystem Nitrogen Cycle in Humans 0 Most Nitrate from diet then metabolized by microbes 0 Most secreted in urine up to 25 through saliva o Microbes in oral cavity reduce nitrite o Nitrite reacts form more reactive N metabolites o Newly discovered archaea Sulfur Cycle Sulfur Oxides in atmosphere Sulfur dioxide from X X combustion Sulfursulfates in soilsedimentswater o 0 H25 Hydrogen Sulfide I Toxic to animalsplants I Corrosive I Reacts rapidly with O at neutral pH 0 Elemental Sulfur 5quot o Sulfate 504239 I Abundant ion in the oceans I Part of sulfuric acid 0 Sulfur Oxidizers Bacteria and archaea that use reduced sulfur compounds as electron donor for aerobicanaerobic respiration 0 Bacterial examples I Thioplaca spp secrete slime that forms sheath for bacterial commuting I Thiomarogarita namibiensis nonmotilesediment disturbances releases them into water column I Help plantsanimals growth ex seagrass beds deep mudded roots clams contain this bacteria to provide nutrients to soilremoving sulfide o Sulfur Reducers use sulfate as electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration o Tend to be proteobacteriasome firmicutes I Multiple electron donors are possible I Cause metalconcrete corrosion Sulfur Metabolism in Humans o Sulfurreducing bacteria in colon 0 Dietary sulfur compounds gt Sulfide 0 Large amounts sulfide toxic 0 Small amounts signaling molecule Microbes and Food Production 0 Fermentation method to alter raw food through microbial processes 0 Cheapefficient way to preserve food 0 Acidsalcohols inhibit spoilage o Lactic acid bacteria I Grampositive I Generally firmicutes I Often aerotolerant I Produce of fermentation I Found in plantsanimals I Pathway hemolactic fermentation Net 2 ATP produced Glucose gt pyruvate V 2 lactate I Reflects need to reoxidize NADH to NADH
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