Chapter 4.3 Notes on concept checks, textbook, and videos
Chapter 4.3 Notes on concept checks, textbook, and videos PSY 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Professor Goldinger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/03/15
Chapter 43 Peripheral Nervous System PNS 0 Input and Output functions 0 Contains two divisions 1 Somatic Nervous System gt Peripheral portions of sensory and voluntary movements gt Brings sensory info into central system and transmits to muscles for voluntary movement gt 31 pairs of spinal nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves 2 Autonomic Nervous System gt Actions of many glands organs and smooth muscles gt 3 divisions Sympathetic parasympathetic and enteric 1 Sympathetic Coordinates arousal stress prepares for energy requiring fightflight situations uses adrenal and cortisol for a quotwake up message 2 Parasympathetic Rest repair and energy storage relatively calm times doesn t use energy 3 Enteric Nerve cells embedded in gastrointestinal system also called quotsecond brain releases chemicals essential for digestion pain hunger fullness serotonin Endocrine System 0 A system responsible for the release of hormones into the blood stream Examples pituitary thyroid adrenal ovaries testes 0 Similar to nerve cell communication but more distant 0 Input from the nervous system and the hypothalamus o Arousal metabolism growth and sex 0 Pineal gland releases chemical messenger melatonin maintains sleepwake cycles 0 Pituitary gland body s master gland activates other glands regulated by the hypothalamus directs release of growth hormone and sex hormone contains two groups 1 Oxytocin and vasopressin released directly 2 Several hormones influence other glands hormone release 0 Thyroid gland raises and lowers rate of metabolism Neurons and Gila Neurons gt Similar to cells keeps out water gt Has branches axons for transmitting info to neurons and dendrites for receiving inputs from other neurons Many dendrites one axon Axons communicate with adjacent cells usually small Synaptic vesicles small hollow spheres containing chemical messengers Grey parts of the brain high density of cell bodies White parts of the brain large bundles of axon VVVVV Gila Provide structural matrix for neurons Some are mobile to clean up neuron debris Tight connection with blood vessels serving the nervous system Bloodbrain barrier keeps toxins from blood out of the brain and away from neurons Some Gila wrap around axons to insulate them called myelin to make faster neural signaling gt When myelin Gila in the brain and spinal chord are damaged there is permanent scar tissue gt When myelin Gila in the peripheral nervous system are damaged axons can regrow and heal gt The last area to be myelinated is the prefrontal cortex VVVV V Neuron Communication The brain has 100 billion neurons nerve cells Neural signaling is a two step process 1 In signaling a neuron s axon it generates action potential electrical signal that travels from the axon junction to the terminal 2 Between two neurons action potential is received and signals release of chemical messages gt In myelinated axons they can skip myelin sections Nodes of Ranvier fast pace gt In unmyelinated axons action potentials occur step by step slower pace Polarized far apart Depolarized close together Hyperpolarized even farther apart Reaching threshold produces action potential opening pores for ions to come in the cell and electrically charge it First sodium then potassium o Refractory period is when it returns to its resting state 0 Synapse the point between neurons separated by tiny gaps with fluid where electrical signals don t work so chemical messengers neurotransmitters are used Neurotransmitters o Crosses the synapse to fit in the receptor like a lock and key 0 Reuptake break down return to axon terminal 0 Causes excitation depolarizes neuron speeds up decreases or inhibition hyperpolarizes slows down increases electrical difference inside and outside cell 0 Resting neuron is negative inside and positive outside 0 Examples gt Serotonin sleep appetite mood low serotonin activities causes depression gt Acetylcholine ACH important for behavior at neuromuscular junction interference causes death or paralysis used in Autonomic nervous system and brain circuits for learning and memory Alzheimer s disease nicotine affects it Norepinephrine arousal and vigilance bipolar disorder and PTSD Dopamine movement planning reward and addiction Parkinson s disease Endorphins pain runner s high with sore muscles Oxytocin love Epinephrine heart rate increases SSRI s Prozac increases effectiveness of neurotransmitters like serotonin by blocking reuptake into axon terminal VVVVVV
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