POL 161 Machiavelli Notes continued
POL 161 Machiavelli Notes continued POL 161.001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey True on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL 161.001 at Illinois State University taught by Jakeet Singh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Political Theory in Political Science at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Machiavelli The Prince (continued) Key themes (919) o Focus on armies and war Never use mercenaries or auxiliary armies (pg. 38 and 4243) Mercenaries are fighting for money, not for their land or loyalty, which means they will run from the fight when they face death and will fight for the highest bidder. Auxiliaries are someone else’s army. Therefore, if you lose then it is only your loss and not theirs. If you win, they will hold you as prisoner for their prince. Selfreliance Constant preparation, study, and planning Especially in times of peace Chapter 14, pg. 4647 Review o Pull apart morality from politics There are some times where they overlap, but not usually Important to chapters 1518 Most theoretical significance Key themes (919) o Chapter 15 Lays groundwork Contrast realism and idealism Clarifies how and why he has written this book, comparing it to other books that have been written How a ruler ought to deal with others o “our next task is to consider the policies and principles a ruler ought to follow in dealing with his subjects or with his friends” (pg 47) However, he stays practical and looks at how things actually are rather than imposing ideals Despised Greeks because they are too focused on morality and took ideals and imposed on the world. Opposes Plato and Aristotle (pg. 48) Realism vs. Idealism Deal with politics as it is, with circumstances as they are, and with humans as they are. o To be successful in politics Classical version of realism Human beings, political actors, necessarily crave and seek power o Constant contest for power, greater power over others Reason for seeking power and what to do with power is to preserve selfinterest o Humans and political actors are self interested human beings, and act rationally to preserve selfinterest Begins with selfpreservation Basic need to survive In a contest for power there is always a winner and a loser o Power gained by one actor means the power loss by all others, other contestants. Zerosum contest Need for selfpreservation comes from fear; fear is a central motivating factor for self preservation One can’t always be good/moral to hold onto power o Derives this from the idea that human beings cannot be trusted, self interested, therefore you cannot trust others. So, you cannot be moral either Living up to an ideal, being moral, will bring himself destruction Pulling apart morality and politics o A break from traditional morality, in order to be successful in politics. Ways of fighting: Human and animal, fox ad lion (chapter 18) Can’t always be good and live up to ideal Then cannot always fight in distinctively human way (fight with rules and hold yourself accountable to fight with in rules) Animals do not fight this way o Animals do not fight this way o Animals do not fight this way o 2 ways to fight (human and animal) (pg. 54) o Can’t always win by fighting within the rules, be prepared to break them. o Prince both learn both ways of fighting o Know when to break the rules Another model (2 animal ways of fighting) o Lion Shortcoming: Cannot avoid traps, does not foresee in this way; not nimble, agile Has brute force and ferocity o Fox Shortcoming: does not have sheer force (ferocity, does not scare enemies away) Cunning; knows how to avoid traps o Prince must be both People often prioritize the lion Reputation for morality more important than actuall being moral (chapter 18) o Relates to be Ring of Gyges Cultivate best reputation for being moral, but you can’t always be it, therefore, make them think you are moral. (pg. 55) Subject judge on appearances and outcomes rather than who you really are because they don’t know who you really are. Know when to switch over from morality to politics Better to be feared than loved, but never hated (chapter 17) o Brings in another famous argument in 17 and 18 o Best rulers need to be both feared and loved Most of the time you will have to choose, and if you have to choose, choose to be feared Pg. 51 and 52 Much more able o control someone’s fear but not love Love is in the other person’s hands Fear is generated by yourself; human beings are naturally fearful and selfpreserving and act on fear in predictable ways Love is no in their selfinterest, fear is their selfinterest o But do not provoke hatred o Hatred is the most dangerous and fear can tip easily from fear to hatred Idea of cruelty well used vs cruelty abused Continually creating disorder can lead to hatred Hated overcomes fear and can cause people to act irrationally and rebel. o Do not take one’s loved ones or property unnecessarily to avoid being hated (pg. 52) o Do not appear weak by going back and forth on actions Do not seem weak Key Themes (20 to 26) o The better between princely virtu and fortune (chapter 25) Fully articulates broad picture of what the prince’s challenger is Main challenger is to cultivate virtu (skill) to battle fortune (Goddess of fortune) o Gender battle, manly prince battling off feminine fortune o Continual battle o It is easy to give up and put life in hands of fortune o Human actor can control about ½, fortune about other ½ (pg 74) Can be prepared for Prince must have foresight, planning, adaptability ‘River’ analogy Metaphor of Fortune being a lady.
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