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JUS 444 - Week 7 Notes

by: Kali Notetaker

JUS 444 - Week 7 Notes JUS 444

Kali Notetaker
GPA 3.92
Environmental Justice
Dr. Richter

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About this Document

Class: JUS 444 - Environmental Justice School: Arizona State University Notes: Week 7 notes (September 29th, October 1st)
Environmental Justice
Dr. Richter
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kali Notetaker on Saturday October 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JUS 444 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Richter in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Environmental Justice in Environmental Science at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 10/03/15
No class Thursday October 8th Film Screening Plastic Paradise Wed 107 630 Harkins Valley Art Theater 300500 word response for the talks you attend 5 points each JUS 444 Week 71 Water 0 Critical water issues 0 Lack of water 0 Ground subsidenceaquifer depletiongroundwater recharging the land on top of the underground aquifer is literally sinking Draining the aquifers faster than they can be replenished by rain water and snowpack melt o Contamination from agricultural runoff o Drought 0 Privatization Water facts 0 250 million in US get their water locally 13 of ground water little treatment 23 from surface water more contamination 0 Different kinds of water residential industry irrigation and cooling for plants 0 Water is essential for development and sanitation 0 Water in the West 0 Desert imaginaries make the desert bloom like a rose 0 Make the unproductive productive 0 Rain follows the plow quotselling the westquot To the modern incarnation desert oasis Beyond Phoenix 0 70000 gallons of water every day 0 Three main sources Aquifers 44 Colorado CAP 32 Salt and Verde Watershed SRP 24 0 CAP water removed form lake Powell Navajo generating station moves water Watercreated energy from hydroelectric plants 0 10 used by residential half for lawns 20 by industry companies like Intel or WalMart and commercial 70 by agriculture 0 Importance of Equity and Limits of Efficiency in Water Resources 0 Why is water important Water as a basic human right More important than oil emerging global crisis Integral to health and a sense of place cultural value of water Governance is key aspect often overlooked o Policies that govern the distributions of water 0 Ef ciency Argument Water is just a commodity no cultural or symbolic aspect Reward people who use more water giving them lower rates Reward not punish California lawn laws Colorado Compact 1922 rain catchment laws not allowed Market driven 39Polluter pays system nonpreventative Affected by scale where markets exist Reduces water to a simple commodity economically de ned ONLY Privatization 0 Reign in corruption and inefficiency Increase efficiency of use less waste of water Requires strong regulatory bodies to enforce esp at municipal level Problems Polluter pays how do you decide who pays when there are a lot of people who are included in pollution Can only catch huge polluters 0 Pay the ne and get off scotch free gt the lake is still polluted Selfinterest model presumes saving water is a shared goal Ignores power imbalance between parties Omits historical context 0 Cannot account for ecosystem changes assumed that snow would come every year providing water in the spring gt not happening anymore 0 Equity Argument Democracy an ideal or vision 0 Participation from the public is key Justice fairness dignity respect quotEquity is a necessary condition for a just societyquot 0 Governance and policies 0 Bringi Reduction of subsidies how do you accurately value water How to create fair and open water markets Decentralization of control gt bringing it back to watersheds instead of machines Citizen participation in watershed management grassroots not just government stakeholders Allocation an distribution to the public ng ef ciency and equity together Collecting your own water rain catchment and zero scapeing Change water rates make it expensive enough that people will conserve it instead of waste it but cheap enough so that everyone has access to water How do you ranch sustainably Do other species have a right to the resourceshabitats or do humans have the nal say JUS 444 Week 72 Review Equity and Ef ciency 0 Equity framework Fair balanced transparent o Emphasizes political procedure and participatory process 0 Historical context recognized power imbalances 0 Just compensation and protect vulnerable populations 0 o O Broader issues dignity survival life and health Value diversity and ecosystem 0 Institutional arrangements US and Mexico 0 Ef ciency framework 0 Economic incentives to change behaviour 0 Market driven reduces water to a simple commodity having pricegallon o Affected by scale where markets exist Want larger markets dictating the smaller markets 0 Reduces water to a simple commodity if water is important it wont be wasted o Privatization 0 Increase ef ciency less water less waste 0 Case Studies 0 Colorado pulse Release water to the low CO River Delta in Mexico to simulate ecological regrowth and diversity in 2014 0 California drought Historic drought brought on by a series of conditions 0 High temp more evaporation drier soils and vegetation 0 Extreme risk for wild res gt no water to put out res 0 Risk the forests or people s water 0 New restrictions as well as alternative methods of allocating water 0 Water restrictions exceeding expectations 0 Willingness of public to invest in infrastructure 0 The AmericanMexican border Framing water rights as equity Equity on the border 1200 of 1957 miles of border is de ned by Rio Grande Sovereign powers struggle over access and control Binational agreements necessary for peace andjusUce Early history Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 0 Set physical boundary but not water use 0 Settlement patterns drive con ict Harmon Doctrine 1895 0 US has no obligation responsibility regarding water with Mexico US claimed all water rights International Boundary and Water Commission 1896 o Recognized inequities called for international dams o In practice Elephant Butte created 1906 Convention high principles of equity 0 90 of the water stayed in the US Treaty of 1944 Water treaty of 1944 US realizes drawbacks of uniateraism and HD in Canada and Mexico Always downstream from someone Divisions and costs Respect for international law but not equity as focus 0 Does not address quality division of smaller waters groundwater ecosystem or socioeconomic or administrative asymmetry Salinity Crisis 19611973 Diplomatic failure US dumps brackish water Overly strict reading of allocations of CO river Con ict with context of 1944 treaty International courts would side with Mexico Quality of water was nally addressed 0 Water needs to be just as clean as the water America has La Paz 1983 After NEPA sustainability emergent New stakeholders recognized agriculture and environmental issues Sewage and pollution issues NAFTA and AAC BORDER ECOLOGY what happens when you build a wall across different ecosystems o NAFTA 1992 0 Free trade agreement 0 Ethics of unequal development greater water demands water transfers poHqun 0 Does not address systemic inequality environmental justice 0 AllAmerican Canal 1939 Lining with canal o No ground water was coming through Meaning Mexico lost their groundwater source 0 1942 initial construction Case Study Acequia Systems Acequias communal irrigation ditches Guaranteed under Spanish and Mexican law Part of land grant system What de nes the acequia system 0 Environmentally Politically Culturally and socially 0 Video 0 Ef ciency Water rights etc were all determined by legal works parttaniento 0 Equity Water was not looked at as a commodity Everyone was given equal amounts of water 0 A lifestyle culture and what gives people survival in a harsh land 0 How the land is integrated with everything 0 Different countries coming together with Northern Mexico 0 Values more than just the individual life 0 Understand that value of holding onto historic water rights 0 What differentiates acequia and Lake Powell Ecologicalconsciousness Acequia people know when there is a drought 0 Lake Powell having backup water Local economy Acequia People in charge of water gt if I use too much water then someone downstream will suffer 0 Lake Powell Federal government in charge Cultural value of water 0 Mexico no cultural value anymore gt younger generations do not realize the 400 year old tradition of digging and maintaining the ditches US cultural traditions like going to Lake Powell with family every year 0 Environmental Foundation of agroecological livelihood Anthropogenic wildlife habitat Preservation of agrobiodiversity Seed saving drought and altitude appropriate strains Landscape mosaic Not efficient messy and wild but healthier and more sustainable for the acequia system 0 Cultural function of Acequias Native source of hispano environmental ethics Connections of people and place Commonwealth for selfgovernment 3 factors 0 Use value of water to community usufructuary rights to communal water 0 Mutual aid everyone uses less Cooperative labour maintenance 0 Political land grants and communal water Power and control over livelihood Challenge inequality Enclosures and privatization Legal challenges Recognize treaties and agreement Resist stereotype of 39primitive recognize local autonomy to a sense of place


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