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Week 6 Notes

by: Chaelin Despres

Week 6 Notes SCED 305

Chaelin Despres
GPA 3.76
Adolescent Development
Dr. Jamie Silverman

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About this Document

This covers Chapter 6 and 7 and discusses Cognitive Theories of Learning as well as the effective lesson.
Adolescent Development
Dr. Jamie Silverman
Class Notes
adolescent development, towson, towson univeristy, Education, secondary education, sced, cognitive theories of learning, effective lesson
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chaelin Despres on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SCED 305 at Towson University taught by Dr. Jamie Silverman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at Towson University.

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Date Created: 10/04/15
Chapter 6 Cognitive Theories of Learning What is an Info Processing Model 0 Dominant theory of learning and memory 0 Updated Info Processing Model of Learning and Memory Original Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968 Exeeutlilve Protegees 39 Seneew I Waring I Lengterm Register Memory Memery Beckground Knewledge L051 L051 Batkgreund Knewledge 0 Executive Process 9 determines what a person is interested in transferring into long term memory and how hard one thinks about the stimuliinformation to form new memories Conscious and unconscious 0 Approach each opportunity with a set of motivations that determine energy they will devote to learning 0 Sensory Register 9 receive large amounts of information from the senses and hold it for a short time a couple of seconds If not focused on it is rapidly lost Educational implications o Must pay attention to information to retain it o Takes time to bring information into consciousness Perception 9 mental interpretation of stimuli based on longterm memoryexperiences Attention 9 limited shift in priorities so other stimuli are screened out Gaining Attention 9 o Cues to show importance o Increase Emotional Content 0 UnusualSurprising Stimuli o Personal ImportanceSignificance 0 Working Short Term Memory 9 hold a limited amount of information for a few seconds what we are currently thinking Hold information in Short Term by saying it over and over rehearsal o Must leave room in lesson for rehearsal Capacity 59 bits of information o Chunking related ideas put together Sorting and connecting new information with existing knowledge Individual Differences 9 Background Knowledge o The more they know the better they can absorb new information 0 Long Term Memory 9 stores knowledgeskillsmemories and organize them for easy retrieval Episodic Memory 9 personal experiences 0 Flashbulb Memory occurrence of an important event fixes mainly visual and auditory memories in a person s mind Sematic Memory 9 facts generalized information problem solving skills learning strategies 0 Schema networks of concepts stored in individuals memories to allow them to understandincorporate new information Procedural Memory 9 knowing how 0 Stored in stimulusresponse pairings 0 Factors that Enhance LongTerm Memory Vary according to type of information concepts retained longer than names The degree that students had learned the material Active Processing fieldwork with processing of information from fieldwork o Other InformationProcessing Models Levels of Processing Theory 9 people subject stimuli to different levels of mental processing o Retain only the information that has gone through the most thorough processing o Highest level is giving meaning to something Dual Code Theory 9 information is retained in longterm memory in two forms visual and verbal o Paivio 0 Information that is recalled both visually and verbally is remembered better What do we know from Research on the Brain 0 How the Brain Works Neurons9 a long cell that receive stimuli from the environment translate them into electrical impulses and pass them across synapses to other neurons 0 Dendrites 9 one end of a neuron with thousands of tiny branches 0 Synapses 9 spaces between these branches Heuran tEtZEI39JE in ammation from ether l ieumns tl39lr39cugl39i that ha r159 of synapses or the cell body arid Eleni rn tee the axons hieUral rt fnquotma39tnnrl 5 Mararr Lita9 Hewitt Axons 9 at the end of a neuron that pass information to other cells H ui D di39u IZGEi aqjquot 7 1 ne M H integration 1 GHE xgnr a EU n LIE tlnEl39l P Amquot 2 39 p i3 terminal9 A Gutput F l ti r The Brain Stem 9 part of the brain that controls the most basic functions common to animals Heartbeat body temperature blood pressure Limbic System 9 above the brain stem four important components Thalamus 9 information from the senses not smell go Hypothalamus 9 controls the release of hormones to keep the body in balance controls sleep foodliquid intake Hippocampus 9 controls transfer of information from working to longterm memory Amygdala 9 regulates basic emotions Cerebral Cortex 9 carries out highest mental functions 0 Cerebellum 9 coordinates movement important role in thinking Corpus Collosum 9 connects two hemispheres coordinates functions throughout the brain quot rn39rr l o unta39y E y i movement 0 Mtquot I 390 39m Motor SKINS dc vc opmcnz Motor and spaem l produzt on Sensation Language ozrrprehengion Hig IE nl 39lle39la Se f more Inhibit on Ernot ons V s on Me nory EQJilil i um and szcie Cor39dinal on Brain Physiology and Functions Tna amus Hypothaiamus L mum meg Art39l39y39gdala Hippocampus Stainslevr HAS Major Areas of the Brain 0 Brain Development Begins at conception Early brain development 9 forming of connections among environments Windows of Opportunity 9 children who receive stimulation are given area develop strength in that area o Peak in early childhoodelementary school 0 Implications of Brain Research for Education Amount of stimulation early in development relates to the number of neural connections the basis for higher learning and memory Extensive training can change brain structures even into adulthood Brain becomes more efficient as a person gains knowledge o Automaticity 9 seemingly effortless performance made possible by extensive experience and practice allow brain to skip steps in solving problems Proficient readers activate three regions of the left brain 0 Dyslexics over activate Broca s area in front of the brain which controls speaking 0 Good readers use a more ef cient pathway print to understanding than Poor readers print to speech to understanding 0 Applications of Brain Research to Classroom Teaching Shift away from linear hierarchical teaching towards complex thematic integrated activities Similar to principles of progressive education of John Dewey Consensus Conclusions o Not all learning is equally likely 9 some learning is easier than others language understanding objects and their behavior natural number system are easier than fractions algebra 0 Brain development constrains cognitive outcome 9 behavior change through learning cannot exceed the developmental status of the neural structure 0 Some regions of the brain may be particularly important for cognitive outcomes and supporting certain sorts of neural activities related to learning and cognition 9 prefrontal cortex is immature in adolescence mediator of behavioral planning and reasoning attention impulsivity control cognitive functioning ability to use rules What Causes Pe0ple to Remember or Forqet o Forgetting occurs because information in working memory was never transferred to longterm memory 0 Lost access to information in longterm memory 0 Forgetting and Remembering Interference 9 information gets mixed up withpushed aside by other information 0 People are prevented from mentally rehearsing new information Retroactive Inhibition 9 previously learned information is lost because it s mixed up with new and similar information Proactive Inhibition 9 previous knowledge interferes with learning later information Individual Differences in Resistance to Interference 9 ability to focus on key information and screen out interference is subjective important in cognitive performance Facilitation 9 previous learning o Proactive Facilitation previous learning help retain similar information o Retroactive Facilitation learning new information helps understand old information better Primacy and Recency Effects 9 o Primacy Effect tendency to learn the first items presented o Recency Effect tendency to learn the last elements Automaticity 9 level of rapidityease that a task involves little or no mental effort 0 Practice 9 Massed Practice 9 practice new information until it is thoroughly learned Distributed Practice 9 practice a little each day over a period of time Enactment 9 learn better if asked to enact a task than read instructions Generation 9 create something using the new information summaries concept maps etc How Can Memory Stratedies Be Tauqht o Verbal Learning Paired Associate Learning 9 learning to respond with one member of a pair when given the other member o Associate a response with each stimuli o Imagery Serial Learning 9 learning a list of terms in a particular order 0 Loci Method think of a familiar set of locations and imagines each item on the list in one specific location 0 Pegword Method memorizes a list of pegwords that rhyme with the numbers 110 0 InitialLetter Strategies initial letters of a list are arranged in an easily remembered word Free Recall Learning 9 memorizing a list in no particular order What Makes Information Meanindful o Rote versus Meaningful Learning Rote Learning 9 memorization of factsassociations Meaningful Learning 9 relates to informationconcepts learners already have 0 Uses of Rote Learning Inert Knowledge 9 can beshould be applicable to a wide range of situations but is applied to a restricted set of circumstances 0 Schema Theory 9 information fitting into an existing schema is more easily understood and learned Hierarchies of Knowledge specific information grouped under general categories which are grouped under more general categories 0 Meaningful learning requires the active involvement of the learner Importance of Background Knowledge provides students with a more welldeveloped schemata for new information How do Metacoqnitive Skills Help Students Learn 0 Metacognition 9 knowledge about one s own learning 0 Thinking and learning skills SelfQuestioning Strategies 9 students look for common elements in a given task and ask themselves questions about these elements What Studv Stratedies Help Students Learn 0 000000 Practice Tests NoteTaking Underlining Summarizing Writing to Learn OutliningConcept Mapping The PQ4R Method Preview Question Read Reflect Recite Review How do Cognitive Teaching Strategies Help Students Learn O 0 Making Learning Relevant and Activating Prior Knowledge Advance information 9 schema theory help fit new information into previous knowledge Advance Organizers 9 initial statement about a subject to be learned to provide a structure for the new information o Activating prior knowledge enhances understanding and retention Analogies 9 linking new information to wellestablished background knowledge 0 Important that they are thoroughly familiar to the learner Elaboration 9 thinking about material in a way that connects the material to information or ideas that are already in the learner s mind Organizing Information Well organized material is much easier to learn and remember than non organized material Using Questioning Techniques 9 insertion of questions requiring students to stop from time to time to assess their understanding Using Conceptual Models 9 diagrams showing how elements of a process relate to one another Chapter 7 The Effective Lesson What is Direct Instruction 0 Direct Instruction 9 lessons in which you transmit information directly to students Structuring class to reach a defined set of objectives efficiently Preferred for a welldefined body of informationskills that all students much master not when information is objective an exploration or open ended objectives How is a Direct Instruction Lesson Tauqht 1 State Learning Objectives and Orient Students to the Lesson 9 setting out objectives at the beginning of the lesson provides a framework for information instructional materials learning activities and establish a positive mental set attitude of readiness in students arouse their curiosityinterest 2 Review Prerequisites 9 link information that students already have with the new information a b Assess students on prerequisites before starting a lesson Do this in order to provide advance organizers 3 Present New Material 9 a Lesson Structure 9 should be logically organized and be pointed out to students Lesson Emphasis 9 Give clear instructions about the most important elements repeat important points Lesson Clarity 9 use of direct simple and wellorganized language to present concepts Explanations 9 emphasize concepts and principles and link to what students already know use strategies that help students visualize and organize complex ideas Worked Examples 9 model the strategies used by an expert to solve a problem so students can use similar strategies DemonstrationsModelslllustrations 9 maintained in longterm memory far more readily than only auditory information Embedded Video 9 helps children learnretain information because it is easy to understand and links to the main content Maintaining Attention 9 use variety activity humor to enliven the lecture and maintain attention Context Coverage and Pacing 9 can increase pace of teaching as long as it doesn t compromise learning 4 Conduct Learning Probes 9 variety of ways of asking for brief student responses to lesson content give feedback on students understanding a b Checks for Understanding 9 response can be written physical or oral to gage whether or not the students have understood Questions 9 prompt students to take the next mental step go deeper into the content or as learning probes to gage how well students are learning the lesson c Wait Time 9 length of time you wait for a student to answer a question before giving the answer i Wait approximately 3 seconds d Calling Order 9 call on students at above and below class average to ensure that all students understood the lesson e AllPupil Response 9 choral response one possible correct answer gives information on entire class s level of knowledgeconfidence 5 Provide Independent Practice 9 work students do in class on their own a Seatwork 9 inclass independent practice b Effective Use of Independent Practice Time 9 i Do not assign independent practice until you are sure students can do it ii Keep independent practice assignments shorts iii Give clear instructions iv Get students started and then avoid interruptions v Monitor Independent work vi Collect independent work and include it in student grades 6 Assess Performance and Provide Feedback 9 contain an assessment on the degree in which students have mastered the objectives of the lesson and give feedback 7 Provide Distributed Practice and Review 9 a Reviewing important information enhances learning i HOMEWORK How does Research on Direct Instruction Methods Inform Teaching 0 ProcessProduct Studies obseners record the teaching practices of teachers whose students succeed at a high level and compare them to other teachers 0 Correlation between student achievement and teachers use of direct instruction How do Students Learn and Transfer Concepts 0 Concept Learning and Teaching Definitions Examples 0 Teaching for Transfer of Learning Cannot be assumed RealLife Learning 9depends on the degree to which information was learned in the original situation and on degree of similarity between the original situation and the new one Initial Learning and Understanding 9 how well students understood the material and how meaningfully it was taught Learning in Context 9 ability to apply knowledge in new circumstances Teaching of Concepts 9 first present examples of the concept used in similar contexts and then offer different examples Transfer versus Initial Learning 9 in introducing a new concept use similar examples until your students understand the concept and then diversify the examples still use essential aspects of the concept Explicit Teaching for Transfer 9 teaching how to look for commonalities among story problems to show them how to transfer concepts between circumstances How are Discussions Used in Instruction 0 Subjective and Controversial Topics Discussing these increases knowledge about the issue and encourages deeper understanding 0 Difficult and Novel Concepts Searching for theories challenging themselves students gain an appreciation for the meaning of a concept 0 Affective Objectives Objectives that are concerned with student attitudes and values More effective at changing individuals attitudes and behaviors 0 Whole Class Discussions Teacher plays a less dominant role Students come up with own ideas Information Before Discussion 9 ensure students have adequate knowledge base 0 Small Group Discussions Increase student achievement Students need to be wellprepared Encourage engagement in group


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