Week 6 notes
Week 6 notes EXSC 223 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chase Heffron on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 223 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Thompson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Physical Education at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Week 6 Skin appendages Sweat glands these secrete through exocytosis found all over the body except for nipples and exterior genetalia There are eccrine sweat glands most abundant sweat glands and found in people of all ages although in infants they are not regulated well These glands secrete the watery sweat that we think of when we sweat This particular sweat is involved in thermoregulation You are always sweating When you don39t realize it this is nonsensible sweat Another kind of sweat gland is the apocrine sweat oland This gland is dependent on hormones These produce a water kind of sweat that is identical to eccrine sweat The difference is that they also secrete a fat in the sweat This sweat is associated with body odor The bacteria that breaks down the secreted fat is what causes body odor There are variations of apocrine glands A specialized apocrine gland is the mammary gland Another kind is the gland that produces ear wax Sebaceous glands Not sweat glands They produce lots of oil and when the cell gets so large it ruptures and releases its oil onto the skin This is holocrine secretion These types of cells are important in that they keep your skin from drying out Dermacydin which helps regulate bacteria growth on our skin is also secreted by these The glands are affected by sex steroids These glands also become more active after puberty This is where the increase in acne comes from Acne develops when the duct the sebaceous gland gets blocked The white pus that develops is white blood cells from in ammatory response The hypodermis is fat below the skin but it is not actual part of the skin It is not part of the integumentary system Hair Protects parts of body from the sun Clean air that you inhale nose hairs Hair is found all over the body with a few exceptions No hair on your palms soles lips and portions of the external genitalia Hair is dead keratinized epithelial cells Hair has hard keratin which makes the outer layer really tough Skin contains a relatively soft keratin Hair is found as an appendage of the skin Sebaceous glands are found next to hair follicles within the skin Hair consists of 3 layers Medulla center of the hair and is not found in all hairs M the next layer always present CLicle the outer layer always present Split ends result in the loss of a cuticle that allows the cortex to become frayed Straight hair is almost perfectly round Wavy hair has almost an oval shape Very curly hair has at side The hair follicle This is the base of the hair in the skin can project down into the hypodermis Hair is just a specialized kind of skin in a sense All the layers found in hair are in the skin The follicle wall surrounds the hair follicle The outer layer of the follicle wall is the connective tissue root sheath The next layer in is the glassy membrane followed by the external epithelial root sheath then followed by the internal epithelial root sheath Cells in the hair follicle are nourished by the melanocyte of the hair This allows blood ow into the hair When this blood ow stops hairs go dormant Melanocytes give color to the hair as well The amount of melanin produces how dark hair is from being blonde to black Red hair is distinct because it is associated with a molecule of iron All red hair can be traced back to an island off of Ireland Types of hair Terminal These are visible hairs These hairs are nourished being nourished They grow at about 25 mm week These hairs cycle through terminal to veus phase About 90 hairs go from terminal to veus every day on a single body Vellus very small hairs that are dif cult to see on the body These hairs are dormant Eventually these hairs reawaken and work to become terminal hairs About 85 hairs go from veus to terminal every day Balding pattern in men is known as true or frank baldness male pattern baldness is passed down from the mother This is caused by follicular response to a testosterone called DHT Male pattern baldness is really just promoting your hair to switch to a veus state Skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma least malignant or least serious of skin cancers Cancer of the keratinocytes in the stratum basal Common that there is an ulceration in the center of the cancer Squamous cell carcinoma Cancer of keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum There is also often times and ulceration in the cancer Good outcome if caught early Melanoma Cancer of the melanocytes that reside in the basal membrane Melanomas tend to spread to the other parts of the body Most cancer cells cannot spread easily but melanoma is successful at it Melanoma is also dif cult to identify Melanoma tends to spread downward underneath the skin before it rises and forms a mole To identify skin cancer the ABCD rule Asymmetry two sides don39t match Border irregularity indentations in border Color pigmented spot contains several black colors Diameter larger than 6 mm Classi cation of tissue injury by burns First degree only epidermis is damaged swelling redness and pain Second degree burn epidermis and upper regions of the dermis are damage Symptoms are the same as rst degree burns but blisters appear Third degree burn entire thickness of the skin is damaged burned area appears gray charred at the edge Complete destruction of skin Skin is absent in 3rd degree burns Dehydration is the big problem with 3rd degree burns Rule of thumb to quantify area burned Rule of 939s body is divided into 11 regions of 9 surface area Arm extremities are 9 of body surface area each Leg extremities are 18 each Your chest and abdomen is 18 etc Burns are critical if over 25 of the body has second degree burns or if over 10 have 3rCI degree burns or if there are third degree burns on face hands or feet Chapter 6 Bone and the skeleton Bone is a very dynamic tissue in your body 3 types of skeletal cartilage 1 Hyaline Provides support and its exible very abundant Seen at the end of long bones Ground substance is smooth and slick This cartilage is found at the ends of ribs in your larynx your nose Good at resisting compression Has a sturdy shape and slick surface It is also found at the ephesial growth plate 2 Elastic with stands repeated stretching Found in ears 3 brocartilage compressible with high tensile strength Found in the vertebrae and a couple other places Does cartilage grow Yes cartilage does grow but it grows at such a slow rate that if injured it probably won t repair itself In kids cartilage grows rapidly Cartilage is avascular Without a direct access to nutrients it is dif cult for it to grow How does cartilage grow Appostional orowth refers to the growth on the outside New cartilage is laid down on top of existing cartilage because chondroblasts are found on the external face Interstitial growth This refers to growth on the inside Chondrocytes encased in the laucunae produce cartilage but at a much slower rate than chondroblasts Bones 5 functions Support supports the structure of your body Protection your skull your vertebrae ribs Movement bones are the level system muscles act upon Mineral storage Calcium and phosphate are stored in bone Blood Cell formation hematopoietic stem cells with marrow cavities Bones of the skeleton can be divided into 2 groups Appendicular skeleton limbs and girdles Axial skeleton central bones ribs vertebrae cranium Different classi cation of bones Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones Bones have landmarks or bony markings Bulges depressions and holes serve as sites for sights of attachment for muscles ligaments openings for nerves and blood vessels to pass sights of attachment There are 2 types of bone In both cases the bone is made of mineralized collagen They are both hard Spongey bone Named for its appearance of looking like a sponge Spongey bone is never found by itself It is always surrounded by a layer of compact bone In different species there are different ratios of spongey bone Birds have large levels of spongey bone The struts that make up spongey bone are called trabeculae These trabeculae distribute stress received on one side of compact bone to the other side The open spaces in spongey bone is where bone marrow is found Compact bone smooth surface bone that is really dense and hard Long bone anatomy The diaphysis is the shaft of a long bone The hollow center on the bone is called the medullarv cavitv The ends of bones of are called epiphyse this is a layer of compact bone lled with spongey bone at the ends of bones The epiphyseal line separates the epiphysis from the diaphysis ln someone still growing this line is called the epiphyseal plate or growth plate There are two kinds of bone marrow Red marrow marrow associated with red blood cell and white blood cell formation All marrow in a newborn is red marrow All marrow in children is red marrow Shortly after puberty the red marrow dies off in the diaphysis It is then replaced by yellow marrow In adults red marrow is only found in the trabeculae of spongey bone and in the heads of the femur and humorous Yellow marrow fat stored within bone The epiphyses ends of long bones Exterior is compact bone and the interior is spongey bone When hyaline cartilage is described as articular cartilaoe it is normally associated with the epiphysis The outsides of bone is either covered by cartilage or some other tissue Articular cartilage lines portion of bones Areas of bone that aren39t covered by this cartilage are covered by membranes The membrane on the outside is known as the periosteum The endosteum is a membrane that lines the inside of the bone lt lines the meduary cavity These membranes are made of dense irregular connective tissues Sharpevs fibers are connective tissues that hold the periosteum or endosteum to the bone The inner osteogenic layer of bones is composed of osteobasts and osteocasts Bones have a rich blood supply bones have foramen through which blood vessels and nerves can enter the bone to deliver nutrients and take away waste products There are 4 types of bone cells Stem cells gives rise to osteobasts Osteoblast cell that makes new bone 39blasts build They lay down collagen After laying down collagen come back and lay down mineral which makes your bones stiff These cells build lacunae for them to become incased in Osteocyte These are the osteobasts incased in the lacunae Osteoclast Thought to come from hematopoietic cell 39clasts cean39 They secrete an enzyme to break down collagen and secrete an acid to break down mineral lf osteocast activity is greater than osteobast activity bones become weaker This is osteoporosis Compact bone is made of osteons Osteons are column like structures made of concentric layers of mineralized collagen These layers are called lamellae Each layer of lamellae has bers running in opposite direction from the next layer They are composed mainly of collagen The Haversian or central canal runs in the in the middle of the osteon that contain blood vessels and nerves Volkmann s canals are channels that run at right angles to the central canal connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal Spongey bone is not organized into osteons Spongey bone is not found on its own in healthy bone Spongey bone is made up of struts called trabeculae The trabeculae is constantly remodeled to distribute stress that is put on the bone Bones are actually not the hardest tissue in your body in fact bones ex Chemical composition of bone inorganic Hydroxyapatites or mineral salts make up the majority of the mass of bone They make up about 65 of bone by mass These are mainly calcium phosphates Bone Development The formation of bone can be called ossi cation or osteogenesis Embryonic development Membrane bone intramembranous ossi cation this is seen in at bones When it starts the only thing present is a membrane An ossi cation center is formed It consists of mesenchymal cells that convert into bone stem cells that convert into osteobasts These cells lay down osteoid or collagen They then start to mineralize this and form bone As this continues blood vessels penetrate the bone These blood vessels bring in osteoclasts As the osteobasts form new bone osteoclasts break down bone This forms spongey bone The end result is spongey bone encased in compact bone Endochondral bone endochondral ossi cation In this process you start out with a cartilage template Early on you see a bony collar form This boney collar will become the diaphysis of a long bone When this collar forms around the cartilage the nutrient access for the cartilage become limited When cartilage loses access to nutrients they secrete calcium and die An ossi cation center forms over the dying cartilage The cartilage dies off at a faster rate than bone is being formed As time goes on a nutrient supply is brought into the bone This nutrient supply provides nutrients for the osteobasts and brings in osteoclasts This helps remodel the bone In time a medullary cavity forms that is lined by bone Eventually the entire diaphysis will consist of bone mostly compact bone The diaphysis forms before the epiphyses The epiphyses forms independent of the diaphysis There are independent ossi cation centers for each epiphysis When a child is born the epiphyses are not fully formed A few months after birth the diaphysis and epiphyses are formed and growing
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