Week 1 Lecture notes and selected outlines of Essays to read
Week 1 Lecture notes and selected outlines of Essays to read GE CLST 30A-1
Popular in Never-Ending Stories: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Myth
Popular in Arts and Humanities
This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vivian Yang on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GE CLST 30A-1 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Prof. Kendrick, Prof. Nagy, Prof. Watkins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Never-Ending Stories: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Myth in Arts and Humanities at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
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lfwjj w 3 M 33 3 9 L quotfi i my 3 lmz w CWLMWQ g i WWW I y a L a yr I n a gt4 H VET 3P n m 3 H W52 5 365 J bis9391 i ggzw k1 iiiWM Ema Em K 45 if 4 Mht Li Mi CE a rquot I g I 395 f h I r j 1 quot f 39 WU M LEE W1 Mr er LL by i mg gmg g Ar ririm fjrg 1519 fa1 A f fi gm 3quot I u I 391 39i aquot I l 39 I 39 u 4 39quotF 1quot 39 39 v r r 39 39 5 5354 3Q VL5 J Mirirxmv zf ia i W W11 1 M a m m I 139 P n f L 391 f quot 1 p 39 5 A I ji 1 Wi i Mii i m tj Hm36quot Vii E39E Li m39g39f td quotf r izwi 3amp1th a Linmtam Lrhgfq 3 l3 j C j a 339 quotMi Mil 1 3M WA M v rm a II V a a39 I V g ng I v u w H I M I V 393 h g 391 a J v w 1 W T3 WW 3 5 39ymtb t at 9 133121 WW i w 39 vimiw E lu T r V gt 39 quot al39 39I quot7 t quot v T 39 halfSJ quotn a quot391 quot I I Ir Vi f 39 M 3 j in 5 5 am 5g F bj t LL 3 I M j 1 I I L W firbi Mi W sn m W12 43 f nmm 5m 5 a QM a w max I 39 a 39 quot PL 1 39 g 7 I 5 39a 39 p Hf Um Mn w 4151 mi m Lin m Maj ax m WW g 343quot x 649 a LNJM J 1 a 7 r7 a a J J a Pi wit x m 3 w v i quot 1 M hi i Wm Eymw a Em zmrf39 at wag WWW r fitt ila YB39J w quot 5 m ll 7 7 his 743 quot j39 45am 1 L mMmm mm MM WW t m mm r i MM quot3va quotr d E L L M Q L BMww ELM DWEx WM quot ELM WW 4iquot39 Q Eff 1 quotWWW f 39hi Wan w gLM39 a 4M4 xinmmixmj k a r i a A m v 3 Ii quot uv I r i 32 In L I If I I I Iquot Wiquotquot 5 5 i 49 j quot5 Wm w HW ri Swj m stdm m H mm M W MM L w39i u ch 4quot I a J i i M A in 7 I I n wile1 S a 7 r I 9 f 31 E W 3 0 C w M u QMMw 1 W 1quot Wm M1 3 fi39mrg 1wfjf ism 39 I 39 quot i 4 7 ft I I J quotJ m 5quot i39 39M i 16 m Wt w m M fi iii W H1quot Us J1 rH xi What is History Edward Carr answer depends on our own position in time and our circumstance 19th century was dominated by a need for facts 0 matched with Great Britain39s empirical theory of knowledge must have complete separation between subject and object 0 ex The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary part of the empirical school shows separation by saying fact is quota datum of experience distinct from conclusionsquot 0 called quotcommonsense viewquot of history facts are available to historians as documents inscriptions and the like but how the historian presents them depends on himself 0 empirical school calls for getting facts straight before interpreting them as quotfacts are sacredquot however according to Carr this doesn39t work not all facts about the past are treated as historical facts by historians quotcommonsense viewquot certain basic facts same for all historians and form backbone of history 0 ex Battle of Hastings was fought 1066 such basic facts however are a quotdutyquot a necessity and not part of the historians39 actual job these basic facts are based on an quota priori based on theoretical deduction from the historian 0 effect of a fact amp opinions it induces is influenced by the context and order of facts given most basic facts of history like example above is only known because it is deemed important enough by the historian but it is necessary for historians to be selective belief that historical facts exist objectively amp independently of historian fallacy 0 ex something like a mob occurs and someone is killed not yet considered historical fact gt professor cites in lecture not yet a historical fact gt if more people take it up it turns into a fact of history if not it will disappear in the line of historical events example presents how even in a basic fact of history there is already interpretation of historian mixing in History is a jigsaw of missing parts not only due to accidentally lost parts but because bits and pieces of it has been selected to survive to future generations over time the history we read is a quotseries of accepted judgements Barraclough ancientmedieval historian of this age and time only has certain amount of facts to deal with as it was selectively passed through time modern historian has overflux of facts has to chose what to preserve 19th century fetish for facts and documents if it is in documents it is quottruequot documents however only present what author of the document thought 0 ex Foreign Minister of Weimar Republic Streseman died leaving behind numerous documents which his friends esp secretary Bernhardt collected and published selective documents Bernhardt focuses on large successes with Western policy which through the books appears to be what Streseman focused on However in documents all together Streseman actually focuses a lot on Eastern policy esp with the Soviet Union Sutton translator of such German books then publishes quotcondensedquot version for English readers eliminating even more of what Bernhardt had on Streseman39s Eastern policy thus focusing history on one small part of Streseman39s policies 0 ex Looking at Streseman39s papers Streseman criticizes Soviet ambassador Chicherin But what we know of Chicherin and the meetings is only what Streseman thought of them vice versa if we had documents on Chicherin39s accounts What is history Croce history contemporary history seeing the past through eyes of the present in light of its problems historian39s main job is to evaluate what is worth recording Becker historical facts don39t exist until historians make them Collingwood history past amp what historian thinks of it past is in sense still in present but it is dead and meaningless unless historian understands thought behind it Oakeshott historyhistorian s experience only way of making historywriting it History is never a pure fact 0 ex Historian Trevelyan family of Whig tradition therefore his works present history through the eyes of one with such background to more fully understand history of a historian one must first understand his background and bias Historian must have imaginative understanding not sympathy of those he writes about try to see things from their point of view we can only view and understand the past in eyes of the present function of historian is to master and understand past as a key to understanding present but this too presents how historians are selective history between objective compilation of facts amp subject product of historian History is a continuous process of interaction between the historian and his facts an unending dialogue between the present and the past The Creation Myths of the North American lndian Rooth one of consequences of comparative method in mythology refinement of typology Classification according to general types 0 are identi able myth types cognates found in diverse cultural contexts that can be plotted on maps 0 w maps folklorists could get idea of geographic distribution of myth more diffused older it was assumed to be 0 idea that people moved from Asia to N amp S America supports similarities bw Asian amp American Indian myths comparative amp typological studies not always worldwide may be limited to language family continent studies require bibliographical expertise one must search through numerous published sources to locate versions of myths being investigated 0 emphasis of typological studies text of myth o mythritualists amp students of comparative mythology concerned w interrelationship bw myth amp other cultural elements typological scholars interested in myth amp relationship to cognates in other cultures folowing essay shows how around 300 American Indian myths only around 8 types Essay starts here around 300 versions of myths in all of North American Indian literature regarding beginning creation or formation of worldearth 0 focus on compilation of all myths of common theme creation of world 17 of compiled myths not classifiedfragmented other 83 1 of 8 types essay will not discuss detail motifs of western coastline parallels E amp N Asia or detailmotifs bw East amp West 8 types of creation myths 1 EarthDiver Myth 2 WorldParent Myth 3 Emergence Myth 4 Spider Myth 5 Fighting or Robbery Type 6 Ymir Myth 7 Two Creators and Their Contests 8 Blind Brother The Myth Types 1 The Earth Diver 0 found all over N American continent except Arizona amp New Mexico Alaska exempt for all creation myths o myth being dives to bottom of ocean only 1 existing to get sand to make earth gt only gets small amount under nailclaw gt being is underwater for long time ends up deadhalf deadgt earth is created might be mixed w seedsetcgtearthkneadedstretched amp placed on water gt grows to present day sizegtwhile earth grows creator tries to find out size through inspectiongt animal dispatched pauses to eatflap wings gt geographical formations gt creator punishes themex white raven turns black 0 sometimes myth secondarily linked to deluge severe flood o in Earth diver myth interest of audience creation 0 in deluge interest disaster saving mankindanimals repeopling world distribution Eurasia N Asia E SE Europe up to parts of Germany myth motifs N AmericaE Baltic states motic of animal running around world limited to N America distribution of ED myth shows that mythtypes related not individually developed across continents limitation of ED to mostly N Asia E amp SE Europe myth has own special distribution w geographical continuation 0 supports probability of common origins idea of primeval water ocean as original element should not have occurred in central areas of large continents indicates common origin observations of shells in mountains may have stimulated myth telling amp offered proof logical for coastalisland areas to have idea of primeval water maybe traveled from shoreside to other areas 2 The World Parents SkyFather amp Earth Mother limited to SoCal Arizona amp New Mexico same type as Japanese Chinese amp Polynesian similarities goddess of earth gives birth to all things staff with special point erection of staff talk bw god and goddess failure of firstborn birth of sun hiding of sun 0 other versions may mention children crouching bw parents WP in N America limited to narrow area w relationship of dif versions of this type WP series of detail motifs not essential to myths not seen in other types detail motifs found in Pacific Islands amp China shows genetic relationship WP limited in Eurasia to E amp SE Asia to W Mediterranean area probably travelled from Pacific Islands to MesoAmerican areas like SoCal 3 The Emergence Myth limited to N America amp SW area some offshoots to Plains area have idea of existence of different worlds 0 men animals vegetation live in cavegt earth is ready for inhabitants people instructed in ceremonies customs amp craftsgtcornmother sun twins or hero sent to lead them to sun from dark miserable cave I may climb vinetree piercing cavetop animals may be sent to dig hole etc I cave may be refuge from deluge same motifs found in Mexican myth geographical distribution up to Maya amp Quiche shows connection to MesoAmerican areas 0 Em peculiar to area in American tradition 4 The Spider as Creator Being o Socal Arizona New Mexico Spider helps with creation weaves umbrellalike foundation for earth fastens it w web amp thread 0 deluge version spider weaves scaffold to save people may present idea of dif color directions 0 idea of Spider as first being Spider praises ability to stand on water float in air as did in beginning of world SC limited to S North America may extend high north in Plains area centre of SC southern areas Mexico parallels in Eurasia special detailmotifs common to Chinese amp SoCal traditions 0 considered to have common origin idea of Pacific Islands to N America 5 The Creation or Formation of the World Through Struggle and Robbery 0 western area of N America from around alaska to CA 0 idea that creator shapes world amp gives it its character by theftrobbery of sun fire or water struggles w giants o idea that raven flies bw dark amp light earth amp water gt turning dark 0 correlation bw Asia Old Scandinavia Eurasia amp NW coastline 6 The Ymir Type world created from corpse of dead giantmanwoman parallels to Eurasia Pacific Islands Scandinavia connection to creation of Adam idea of skull is made to sky bones to stones hair to vegetation blood to water etc o opposite in creation of Adam stone water clouds for brain vegetation for material of man 7 The Two Creators c all over N America idea of Two creators o pictured as siblings dif generations godsgodlike beings testing strengths competing abilities o Eurasian parallels 8 The Blind Brother 0 only in SoCalamp Arizona 2 brothers from ocean older tricks younger to opening eyes first gt destroyed sight younger brother cannot create people as well tries to destroy them eventually returns to ocean o relation to Mexican amp MesoAmerican tradition 0 only in American continent General Conclusion 1 small number of mythtypes fixed geographical areas of types amp congruence of detailmotifs show types traditional forms w geographical boundaries like cultures 2 small number of types of global amp popular theme amp congruence of detailmotics show relationship bw Asiatic amp American creation myths 3 4 myth types limited to Southern part of N America relation to Meso America Pacific E amp 8 Asia 4 proof of relationship bw MesoAmerican tradition area amp Pacific Islands E amp 8 Asia N American continent amp E amp N Asia two channels of cultural contact bw Eurasia amp America EarthDiver Creation of the Mythopoeic Male Dundes o Jungian approach to myth not same as Freudian approach Jungian analytical psychology Freudian psychoanalysis o Jungian theory assumes existence of pre cultural panhuman archetypes manifested in mental phenomena including myth o Freudian theory shows there is relationship causal or correlational bw initial conditions of infancy amp early childhood regarding relationships amp adult projective systems include myth I childhood conditions vary culture to culture like adult projective systems I Freudian symbols of symbolism displacement condensation projection etc may be operative in all cultures particular symbols amp speci c projections culturally relative o Jungian archetypes not fully knowable Freudian isomorphism parallelism can be tested for correlation 0 studies of myth distribution show there is no myth that is universal no myth found amongst ALL peoples of Earth 0 no myth limited to single culture usually however shared amongst related peoples o if archetypesinnate amp genetic why aren t all myths everywhere But if Freudian theory is correct how can there exist myths shared bw dif cultures 0 does that mean all cultures same infantile conditioning Essay starts here one reason anthropologists may fail to make notable advances in myth studies rigid adherence to 2 fundamental principles literal reading of myth amp study of myth in monocultural context 0 insistence of literal v symbolic interpretation cultural relativism v transcultural universalism continuation of rxn against 19th c thought universal symbolism most supported amp influence of 2 dominant figures Boas amp Malinowski I both favored studying one culture at time in depth amp that mythnonsymbolic I Boas mythology reflects culture 1 1 relationship idea that purely descriptive ethnographic data can be culled from myths of particular culture I Malinowsky myth direct expression of subject matter 0 much research to demonstrate myth as cultural reflector but does not account for all data later studies showed discrepancies between usual descriptive ethnography amp ethnographical pictures of myths 0 Spencer might have to look to psychology instead of history historians not only usu not trust psychology but also don t really accept myth as symbol 0 Freud was excited to apply psychology to mythology but realized he and his students amateurs of the subject while those with training were not interested in psychoanalytic theory 0 rejection of Freud s theory large portion of mythological conception of world psychology projected to outerworld difficulty 2 ways psychoanalytic theory may be applied myth may be analyzed with knowledge of particular mythmaker or without 0 unknown whether both methods are equally valid 0 gt next question do myths reflect past present or both many anthropologists analyze as present analyzing presentday culture in terms of its myths Kardiner myths responses to current realities may have changed many times throughout the years evidence of folklore scholarshipstability in oral narratives myths and tales of different informants keep basics 0 ex cosmogonic myths have not changed materially for hundreds of years not necessarily valid to analyze presentday culture in these myths which are likely to be from prehistoric past however at certain time periods myths may have minor changes that signal definite cultural changes 0 experimentsstudies show myth variations fall on cultural lines basic problem can myth as while be analyzed meaningfully myth corresponds to culture of time it was first created but it is rare to know when these myths are first made up myths are also all over world impossible to ascertain date and place of first appearance problem students of anthropology may try to use myths shared between many cultures to analyze specific culture 0 fallacy to analyze international talewidely diffused myth as if it belonged to 1 culture but good to analyze differences that occur as myth enters another culture if only permissible to analyze differentiae distinguishing mark does this mean entire structure of widely diffused myth cannot be meaningfully analyzed 0 are human universals myths that can be analyzed not fallacy to analyze world wide myth as if it belongs to all cultures it appears in I does not preclude that there are as many meanings as there are cultural contexts I limited of human universals suggest similar meaning Kluckhohn there are givens of human life that will cross cultures these givens are present in myths one of most widespread myths myth of EarthDiver 0 creation from muddirt sim idea to the creation of man from similar substance 0 magical expansion of mud 0 why idea of cosmogonic myth so widespread Freud s theory works well with idea of emergence myth world given birth by Earth mother but seems not to apply to ED myth what could serve as model for its construction 0 hypothesis based on 2 key assumptions 0 1 existence of cloacal birth o 2 existence of pregnancy envy by males 1st assumption sexual theories of children ex child s ignorance of vagina gt assumption of birth by anus 2nd male s envy of female childbearing role parturition envy pregnancy envy 0 supported by large number of clinical cases in which men seek to have babies in form of faeces imagining excretion on world both assumptions try to explain why ED myth in Genesis woman s creative role is denied Eve made from Adam Noah male makes wombark flood waters abate after period corresponding to length of human pregnancy likely that Noah s Ark form of ED myth esp in detail of raven amp dove etc perhaps male creation myths correlated with patriarchal societal organization hard to accept ED myth as anal birth fantasy from few clinical cases only of Western civilization may be because 0 ethnographers amp folklorists traditional myths of excrement rarely printed but there is wide range of myths detailing formation of world by excretion rarely found in N America 0 process of sublimation to divert the energy of a sexual or other biological impulse from its immediate goal to one of a more acceptable socialmoral or aesthetic nature or use I idea of goldjewels mud clay etc as substitution in excrement fantasy relates to ED myth in how children like to play with things occupied with dirt under nails etc relates to Christian dualism o God amp devil contest devil dives for dirt tries to save it by putting into his mouth God s expansion of earth gt devil spitting it out gt rocks amp mountains God sends bee to spy devil calls for God to eat his excrement gt God does gt stop further growth of earth 0 God creates pure body leaves to collect soul devil defiles it God turns it inside out impurities of intestines Roheim myths amp foktales derived from dreams Schwartz dreams amp tales may have similarities not necessary to assume tales dreams Roheim ED like basic dream dreamer falls into hole diver to primeval water double vector of regression into womb amp penis into vagina parallel of pregnant woman and growing earth 0 idea that notjust one person dream amp spread multiple similar dreams 0 depends on theory of dreamorigin amp specific nature of basic dream still this does not tie ED to excremental pressure myths or dreams Kluckhohn man may not be born with idea of pregnancy envy acquired through mediation of culture necessary to remove ALL traditional blinders amp collect ALL pertinent material even if it borders on obscene
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