Week 5 Notes (Chapters 5, 6, 7)
Week 5 Notes (Chapters 5, 6, 7) Bio 1510
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nausheen Zaman on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see (LS) Bas Life Mch in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Chapter 5 Membranes Con o Cotransport Coupled Transport movement of one molecule uplagainst its concentration gradient is coupled with movement of another molecule down the gradient 0 Naglucose transporter uses Na gradient est by NaK pump source of energy to move BOTH Na and glucose into cell Uses ATP indirectly Depends on NaK pump I Creates NaK gradient gt used to make Naglucose transport occur 0 Na moves down gradient glucose moves uplagainst gradient I Na out gt Na in I Glucose out lt glucose in CWMHI E IEI39rE MEG39ENEHIH GENESHE39S HIE Fem55m FE llE lT f lE EIfEIUUEE I39I IJI39 GEE35quot Dutsicle of call 0 ll pumps 11 Glucose 39 5 Coupled Hallquot H f 7 transport t L 7quot rig sr i r i39 quotI 1 DP 135 K a mt or Ct w I llnside I of cell o Symport two molecules move to the same side of membrane at the same time Naglucose transporter 0 Because both Na and glucose are moving inout of cell at the same time even though concentrations of each ion on the outside and inside are different 0 Countertransport o Antiport when two molecules move to opposite sides of cell I NaCa2 and NaH exchangers u tattle inside 0 Summary of PassiveActive Transport Passive Transport Active Transport Moving down the concentration gradient Moving up the concentration gradient No ATP required ATP or other energy required Simple diffusion gases and nonpolar ATPdriven transport Na lK pump and molecules facilitated diffusion ions and coupled transport Nalglucose transporter polar molecules and osmosis water Na lH exchanger and Na ICa2 exchanger 0 Endocytosis Endo to break into Cyto cell 0 An energyusing process by which cells import substances from the external medium 0 Phagocytosis ingestion of large particles microorganisms cell debris I Active transport cellular eating I Used by protists ameboas to engulf and eat prey I Food vesicles go to ysosome gt ysosome breaks down elements inside food vesicle g Bacterial cells Plasma membrane 39 39 Pliztguiqrtrieiis Pinocytosis uptake of fluidsmall molecules I Cellular drinking I All cells in the body do pinocytosis I Plasma membrane collapses inwards membrane invagination I Food vesicle works the same way it works in phagocytosis Plasma V v membrane 39 51 Pint Iq39tr mils BGCMIeroimtigmglnc Helm Receptormediated endocytosis requires receptor to bring specific molecules into the cell I Uses ligands LDL low density lipoprotein I Coated pit covered in clathrin protein needed for coated vesicle inside cell to function I Lysosome breaks down LDL in food vesicle gt free cholesterol to be used to make cell membranes I Cholesterol only found in animal cell membranes to prevent cells from becoming too fluidpermeable to other cells I Hypercholesterolemia when an individual has a very high blood cholesterol level 600700 mg in blood because they lack LDL receptors due to mutation in the gene that encodes them 0 Normal person gt 100200 mg in blood Target molecule LDL ReceptorincL39liatctll cmllucytosis o Exocytosis an energyusing process where cells export substances to extracellular environment 0 Exo to exit 0 Example of active transport 0 Creates secretory vesicle Golgi Apparatus gt modified lipids transported out of cells by secretory vesicles as secretory products 5 r1 one MEGimvHilll Companies Il39it Emission wired for reprodudioin or display Secretory product Chapter 6 Energy and Metabolism 0 Where Do We Get Energy From 0 SUN energy used by organisms that photosynthesize gt ENERGY stored in CH bonds of glucose in plants gt Energy from CH bonds RELEASED highenergy electrons released gt Energy used indirectly to make ATP Chemical energy used in all living organisms gt ATP used for cellular functions ie muscle contractions o What Supplies Energy for ATP 0 Energy from electrons gt forms ATP indirectly I When electrons move to lower energy level loses energy I Electrons move to higher energy level gains energy Free Energy t6 Eepynght l The MEEIB WHiili Emmet1mm Ine Penniee ien required tor reproduction er dieelm Loewe oil electron oxidation Gain of electron reduction I i lower energyr i higher energyi o Endergonic vs Exergonic Reactions 0 Ender inward Gonic energy I COZ H20 gtsunlight C6H1206 I Products gt reactants energywise o Exer to exit Gonic energy I Cellular respiration use C6H1206 O gt COZ H20 ATP I Products lt reactants energy wise Wiemyrccr mcmrm Prln hmrme ue mmuz i ay wm r mm mv r H mmmmmmm m Til E E PEI Fireduete A r g m i Energy re t 3quotquot w r eeup plig39 H El E 1 i5 73 E Fleeetente E 393 aeee E m 3 g iFieactente g 39E E E I Energyie E E llet159d in 139 3 Products e E 39 m euree let Fieeetien F 1 Emme m eamim F M3 a D it o Enzymes in Chemical Reactions 0 Lowers activation energy Ea minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction 0 Exergonic can react independently but it takes too long on its own gt catalysts needed to speed up reaction I When enzyme is missing gt activation energy is very high reaction slows down GWME TM mam Ha Emmet Inc Pgmm redidrm Farrenrolch ariaawait r uncatalyzed E catalyzed to h Actiuatiioin 5 g i energy g m Activation IE t 39 energy ll ti E E Fieactant Lil or g E ii P I i roduct fI i v m SE Lu l l Gourae oil Reaction 339 How Do Enzymes Work 0 Facts about Enzymes 1 Each enzyme has its own substrate 2 Many of their names end in ase 3 Names can tell us about their functions ie DNase gt enzyme that breaks down DNA RNase gt enzyme that breaks down RNA both belong to a group of enzymes called nucleases enzymes that break down nucleic acids by hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides 4 Not consumed in chemical reactions they are simply reused 5 Many enzymes are proteins 0 Ribozymes RNA molecules that catalyze chemical reactions RNA molecules that act as enzymes 0 Peptidyl transferase catalyzes formation of peptide bonds between amino acids needed for translation to occur Cerfw 1 hit 39IIJELJJ39 Hi qu Image ream red ht r rumftn cl d m 1i The substrate sucrose consists oi glucose and l ruciose bonded together a The binding of the substrate and enzyme places stress on the glucose lrucijose herd and the bond mealts 2 the substrate binds to the aciwe site oi the enzyme 39I orrning an enzyme aubalratc complex r Glucose Frucloso 39 Ellycosid ic K I 4Productaare released and the enzyme IS tree to bind other substrates 5 Enzyme sucrose Factors that Control Enzymes 0 Temperature I Most human enzymes have an optimal working temperature of 37C 0 Human enzymes are proteins and become denatured in high temperatures I Thermophilic bacteria enzymes can function in temps at 700 or higher o Usually found in hot springs I Switching the environment these enzymes are usually in will have adverse effects 0 Thermophilic enzymes will not work in human body because it is too cold and human enzymes will not work in hot springs because high temps denature them Gee eet l te F139eLErawHill UEII39ITIPEHEEE Irma Hermann recluseJ fer repreizluetnmer meme p timem temperate re fer Dptlrnum temperature fer enzyme human enzyme frem heteprirrge prekeryrete e r E ea e f E in 39l r r E SE 4E ED ED TEE Temperature ef eeetien E e 0 pH I Most human enzymes have optimal working pH of 7 0 Neutral environment I Excep ons o Pepsin in stomach works best at a pH of 2 very acidic environment 0 The environment in the stomach is acidic because the stomach lining produces hydrochloric acid 0 Trypsin in the small intestine works best at a pH of 8 mildly basic environment mighti lie rdzGr39rre rHrll Dmpanles line crnusemMmquum for lltprti lxl l39l Dl39 displayquot Dp til lul m pH fer pepein Optimum pll fer trypein Flete el Heeetien o lnhibitorsActivators o Inhibitors prevent enzymes from working I Can stop enzymes from reacting when energy is not needed for a function that has already occured I Competed with substrate to change the active site I How can the competitive inhibitor be overcome Activators Substrate S39U Efrale H nmtpetiti ve A competitive v inhibitor Activega a Inihlltor I Site v r 39 lElnlzym e Alllosteric site 2 39 Competitive inhibitor interferes Allosteric inhibitor change5 with active site of enzyme so SPEP B 39 f EFEFWE El 3 substrate cannot bind him 10 SUEEFE EE luritpctitit39c filihfi tillfi n 9quotitlittttli39it ic tritiw inl tih iitimt o Activators help enzymes work better I Also bind to allosteric site I Cofactors 0 Inorganic metal ions Fe2 Zn2 Cu2 0 Organic nonprotein molecules coenzymes o vitamins BS B12 0 Modified nucleotides NAD NADP FAD ubstrate Active V Activator elite r E nayrne Ml steric site I 0 What is Metabolism 0 Total of all chemical reactions carried out in an organism 0 Two types of reactions I Anabolic create larger molecules from smaller ones photosynthesis o Endergonic reaction I Catabolic larger molecules broken down to smaller ones cellular respiration o Exergonic reaction 0 Biochemical Pathway 0 Includes multiple chemical reactions that occur in the same area 0 Product of one enzyme substrate for another enzyme 0 Glycolysis part of biochem pathway occurs in cytoplasm I All enzymes needed for glycolysis also found in cytoplasm a f Intermediate 39 eubetrete Intermeeiete eubetrete E Intermediate substrate G End product 0 Positive vs Negative Feedback 0 Positive Feedback a process where final product increases its own production I IE releasing oxytocin during childbirth I During labor oxytocin increases its own production gt more contractions gt further movement of baby into birth canal I Positive feedback in body Oxytocin causes uterus to contract I End product acts as an allosteric activator J Initial substrate Intermediate SUDSII EIIE A l Intermediate substrate B Enzyme 3 End product 0 Negative Feedback a process where final product inhibits its own production I E high concentration of ATP inhibits production of more ATP I Also called feedback inhibition 0 Inhibits its own productivity by inhibiting one of its own enzymes acting early in the pathway 39 lot Initial quot substrate A Enzyme 3 End product 0 How Does ATP Work 0 ATP hydrolysis ATP broken into ATP Pi inorganic phosphate I Pi bonds to target molecule and makes it phosphorylated gt gains energy 0 ADP hydrolysis ADP broken into AMP Pi I Pi can phosphorylated into another molecule 0 ATP and ADP can donate other phosphate group but not AMP 0 ATP has most energy because it has 3 phosphate groups more Pi group more energy How Does ATP quotWorkquot 3 G T i b Adenosinediphosphate ADP an TQ anic phosphate 0 e O ADP 7 IF Adellazing mmphospha39m AMP Chapter 7 How Cells Harvest Energy 0 Cellular respiration reaction gt catabolic exergonic reaction 0 Glucose 02 reactants o 6 C02 6 H20 ATP energy released products 0 Glucose goes through oxidation loses e gt C02 0 02 is reduced gains e gt H20 0 Why Do We Need to Eat Plants 0 Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm with presenceabsence of 02 I No 02 fermentation I With 02 moves to pyruvate oxidation 0 AcetylCoA CoA Coenzyme A 0 Used in Krebs Cycle occurs in mitochondria matrix with pyruvate oxidation 0 ET Electron Transport Chain occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane I Generates the most ATP mmbm39 H Cum 7 quot 39d I39 Wim twin639 W 39 WWW r x 39 Guitar mitochondrial membrane tisi m tiff l Glucose N lnterme rubraine 1 5pmquot 2 a k II39U ledFIIb Ehamiasmealia ATP Ewnthala M chug Tquot 1 o How to Make ATP 0 Substratelevel phosphorylation a way of making ATP during glycolysis Krebs Cycle by enzymatic transfer of Pi group from a phosphorylated organic substrate directly to ADP I Does not produce the most ATP in the body I Oxidative phosphorylation produces majority of ATP 0 To make ATP I ADP Pgroup enzyme 0 Kinase transfers Pgroup from one molecule to another I PEP ADP Pyruvate kinase gt pyruvate ATP 0 Exergonic reaction W T gMg mamcmam 39 397 trepihm l 1 1 d39iphasplhuhj EEFP 0 ATP Synthase phosphorylates ADP gt AP using energy from proton H gradient 0 Oxidative phosphorylation produces most of the ATP occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane I inner mito membrane eukaryotes plasma membrane prokaryotes 0 ATP synthase needed for reaction to happen 0 How Does ATP Synthase work I Proton gradient created by proton H pumps 0 Always move H ions from mitomatrix gt intermembrane space 0 More H ions in the intermembrane space than mito matrix 0 Always move upagainst concentration gradient using active transport Only energy they accept is from electrons for pump to work Create H gradients refers to uneven distribution of H ions across the membrane gt powers ATP synthase I Pumps need highenergy e to function I Force of protons diffusing through ATP synthase used to make ATP lt chemiosmosis 0 ATP Synthase transmembrane protein that acts as an H ion channel by allowing H ions to move out intermembrane space into mitomatrix down concentration gradient by using passive transport facilitated diffusion More H in intermembrane Less H in mitomatrix H ions rush through ATP synthase gt rotates combines with inorganic phosphate gt ATP Chem energy Emrm39lj 5 Miln rllm In llfrrrawwmm PIE unimlm39 in inch Hquot y HEWWPWH39 i r till i i1tivj39f 0 Electron Transport Chain ETC 0 Proton pumps part of ETC I Pump H up concentration gradient using energy from electrons o e from ETC come from glycolysis pyruvate oxidation and Krebs cycle 0 ETC occurs in inner mitomembrane e transported to ETC by e shuttles Mitochondrial matrix T cytochrome ATP MW dEhY m lma be oomplerr oxidase samplerr synrtshose NM w rowi ill 39f llnner I 39 I y if 7 mitochondrial I rmternbrane t f v llrttorrrrom hrarre space 39 1111 victim trntmlmri chain all fih orrainsrnnsis 0 Electron Shuttles NAD and FAD I NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide I FAD flavin adenine dinucleotide I Dehydrogenase glycolysis pyruvate oxidation and Krebs Cycle enzyme that transfers hydrogen atoms from one molecule to another I H atom H proton e I NADFAD gt oxidized forms of NADH and FADH2 respectively I NADHFADH2 gt reduced version of NAD and FAD respectively I H donated to solution I NAD carries 2e and H to ETC Electron Shuttles NAID and FAD nose 39 r r W OehWQEnIEEEEH Hediuctiioin gt P muci Enzyme wm rr 1 Enzymes that use NM 392 In an oxidatrionsrsduotion 3 NMJIl dilltusss away as a oolactor for oxidation reaction 2 electrons and and can then donate reactions bind Nt LDf and the a proton are transferred eteotrons to other substrate to MEDquot forming NAMJH molecutes A seoondi proton is donated to the solution reduced 7 2 29 W carries 7 29 and 2 gt Carrled to ETC