Psy 3 - Biological Psychology with Professor Miller
Psy 3 - Biological Psychology with Professor Miller 43760
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittnee Zuckerman on Monday October 20, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 43760 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Miller in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 10/20/14
Psych 3 Biological Psychology Week 1 1072014 Neuroanatomy A brief history of Biopsychology The brain was not always valued as important There was little appreciation for the brain Most scholars and philosophers such as Aristotle praised the heart and thought the mind came from the heart As time went on Leonardo da Vinci used his anatomy studies to depict that thoughts were coming from outside the soul in other forms of spirits and the body would pick up these spirits ventricular system Rene Descartes studied the human body and believed in Dualism Motor control and spinal re exes fascinated him He believed that motor movements and quick re exes were things that had to be carried out by the body but thoughts and feelings had to come outside the body a concept called dualism notion that the mind is subject only to spiritual interactions while the body and brain are subject only to material interactions 18005 research on damage to specific parts of the brain Brain localization If they had damage to a specific brain part they would have damage to a specific cognitive function 0 Paul Broca neurosurgeon studied patients with strokes and aphasia a problem being able to produce language even when they understood it Patient Tan his patient can only say Tan when he responds to questions and talks Broca s aphasia patients are aware of their issue and understand 0 Brain localization brain modularity 0 Start of cognitive neuroscience and biopsychology The case of Phineas Gage 1848 0 Bar went straight through his head including a section in his brain 0 He was okay but he had trouble getting along with people and being responsible when he never had those problems beforehand o Damaged the medial portions of the prefrontal cortex I This part of the brain is really important for keeping track of our emotions and inhibiting things and regulating emotional reactions we get 0 Phineas Cage lost his ability to inhibit and regulate and understand multiple perceptions 0 He was used as an argument against brain modularity Phrenology 0 Popular towards the end of the 1800s 0 Idea that for example if someone s memory was incredible their brain portion of memory would have to be really big So you could feel 0 around the bumps in people skulls and based the bumps on their heads on how good or bad they were at different mental concepts that they judged through their bumps Once they started doing systematic measurements to skulls they realized this idea was absurd Ramon y Cajal 0 1900s 0 O Neurons were long interconnected tubes that were communicated information Cajal s friend Golgi created a staining method to fill neurons with dye to stand out in tissues Cajal was able to see these neurons and realized they weren39t long continuous tubes They were separated by other neurons by a gap synapse and had big and small branches Neuron doctrine the hypothesis that the brain is composed of separate cells that are distinct structurally metabolically and functionally Neuroscience advanced during the late 1800s Cognitive psychology The future of biopsychology OOOO 0 Researchers are using fMRIs to read the minds of individuals lack Gallant from UC Berkely Researchers are decoding brain signals to move prosthetic limbs Optogenetics make a protein sensitive to light turning on or off neurons Nanoprobes are being used to measure functional brain activity The Nervous System Central Nervous System amp Peripheral Nervous System Central Nervous System 0 0 Brain Spinal cord By the time a baby is born the connections are still forming but the neurons have mostly migrated to the place where they are going to be in adult brain The baby has many more neurons than you39re going to need as an adult By 25 days a neural tube forms By the age of 5 the connections are fully made Until you are 25 your brain is still developing Basal View of the Brain Brain stem midbrain area hindbrain medulla pons o Regulate heart 0 Regulate respiration 0 Important for basic survival o Damage to the brain stem will kill you o Cannot live without or damage to the brain stem 0 Well protected Cerebellum o Hangs from the cortex 0 little brain 0 Very important for motor control o Balance Pituitary Gland o Hormone secretion 0 Regulates the glands testes ovaries adrenal glands etc Olfactory bulb o Receptors for smell Optic Chiasm o Point at which two optic nerves meet Medial View of the Brain Pineal Gland o Source of melatonin release Thalamus o Relay site for sensory processes 0 Conscious awareness o All information that comes through the brain is relayed through the thalamus before it reaches the cortex Corpus callosum o Right above the thalamus o Connects the right and left hemispheres o Millions of axons bundled together Hypothalamus o In front of the thalamus o Full of neurons 0 Regulator of the brain 0 Controls hunger thirst temperature regulation reproductive behaviors and aggression Cingulate Gyrus o Sits above the corpus callosum o Association cortex involved in decision making monitoring behavior and directing attention o Monitoring device Lateral View of the Brain Occipital lobe 0 Processing visual information o Taking in input from the eyes so we understand what we are looking at Parietal lobe o Somatosensory o Allows us to shift our attention from one thing to the next 0 Spatial attention Temporal lobe o Auditory processing 0 Language comprehension 0 Object recognition for memory Frontal lobe 0 Motor control 0 Reasoning 0 Language production Broca s area 0 Inhibitory control Phineas Cage s problem 0 Working memory Motor cortex 0 Body related 0 Different areas of the body are mapped onto very specific regions in this motor cortex The fingers take a large part of the motor cortex devoted to control the fingers o The trunk and the hip don39t need a lot of muscle control so it is controlled by a relatively small area of the cortex 0 Lips are exceedingly complex 0 Brain Systems Basal Ganglia 0 Structures important for motor control 0 Dopamine dependent Limbic System 0 Amygdala Emotion o Hippocampus Memory Gray Matter Cell bodies of neurons Thin layer that covers the cortex Each layer 6 layers of cellsneurons Each layer consists of different cell types Some receive info and process it Others send info after processing In most cortex cells responding to a certain type of information are arranged in columns columnar organization 10914 White Matter The axons that run through the cell bodies along the cortex Have a white myelinated layer around it This wiring system can be very complicated Functioning depends on the connections between regions The brain depends on oxygen that is being supplied by the blood system The anterior middle and posterior cerebral artery Blood supply to the brain Stroke a disorder of blood vessels either a block or a rupture that destroys or cripples particular brain regions Cognitive neuroscientists often study stroke patients to learn about cognitive dysfunctions Blood brain barrier protects the brain from some substances that may be found in the blood Neurons ust like any other cell in the body it has evolved to carry out a particular function receive and transmit information Seizure the synchronized excitation of large groups of nerve cells evident in EEG as an abnormal pattern of brain activity Neuronal communication is an electrochemical process Electrical due to the movement of ions through a neuron Chemical due to the exchange of neurotransmitters between neurons In epileptic patients brain waves into an electrical storm Neurologists examine humans while having seizures starts stimulating electrodes in their minds and asks what they see o When they triggered the hippocampus one man starts singing this song he hasn39t heard or sang in years due to past memories The structure of neurons o 4 main components o Cell body I Soma contains a cell nucleus 0 Dendrite I One of extensions of the cell body that receives inputs from other neurons 0 Axon I A single extension from the nerve cell that carries nerve impulses from the cell body to other neurons 0 Axon terminal I The end of an axon or axon collateral which forms a synapse on another neuron Overview of Neuronal Communication o 1 A presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron at rest 2 The presynaptic neuron communicates to the postsynaptic neuron by releasing neurotransmitters across the synapse 3 Receptors in the dendrite of the postsynaptic neuron receive the neurotransmitters depolarizing the membrane cell wall 4 If the depolarization is strong enough then it spreads down the dendrite and across the cell body integrating with signals from other dendrites at the axon hillock 5 If the depolarization reaches a critical threshold at the axon hillock then an action potential is conducted down the axon 6 Once the action potential reaches the axon terminal it releases neurotransmitters into the synapse transmitting a signal to other neurons Three basic categories of neurons 0 O O Multipolar neurons I The most I Many dendrites hundreds of branches I Many extensions with dendrites and one extension for the axon Bipolar Neurons I One extension for the dendrite I One extension for the axon I Common in the retina of the eye Unipolar Neurons I Only a single extension coming away from the cell body I One branch will form the dendrites I The other branch will form the axon Visualizing Neurons O O O Golgi stain Flourescent dye I Fills the entire neuron so one can see all the parts I It39s easier to see abnormalities in shape and connectivity Nissl stain I Highlights the cell body only but it makes it easier to visualize the organization of a collection of neurons in a given brain region Cell BodySoma OOOOOO Nucleus contains DNA Mitochondria aerobic energy release Endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes proteins and fats Ribosomes a substructure of the ER that synthesizes Golgi complex packages molecules in vesicles Microtubules rapidly transports material through the neuron Cell Membrane Allows certain things to pass through the membrane O O Lipid Bilayer two layers of linked fatty molecules within which specialized proteins oat On important type of membrane spanning protein is called an ion channel Carry electrical information from the cell body to the axon terminal Electrical information is integrated at the axon hillock May be short within the brain or very long from the brain down the spinal cord May be wrapped in myelin fatty tissue which speeds up the signal Some axons may have branches called axon collaterals Axon Terminal 0 O 0 Contains vesicles small packages filled with neurotransmitters When an electrical impulse from the axon reaches the terminal the neurotransmitters are released into the synapse Terminals may communicate directly to dendrites cell bodies or dendritic spines Neurons can have multiple axon terminals Dendrites O O The many extensions from the cell body and the multiple branches of each extension allow the neuron to receive inputs from many other neurons Dendrites contain many dendritic spines where incoming neurons make contact Dendrites contain receptors specialized to receive certain neurotransmitters Where chemical inputs are transformed into electrical information and sent to the cell body Synapse O O The gap An axon terminal making contact with a dendritic spine Glial Cells 0 O Glia is the Greek word for glue Provide structure and support for neurons and they may modulate function 90 of the cells in the brain are Glial cells there are 4 classes of Glial cells Astrocytes star shaped cells with numerous processes that run in all directions The extensions of astrocytes provide structural support for the brain and they provide a role in the passage of chemicals from the blood to the neurons Microglial Cells extremely small cells that remove cellular debris from injured or dead cells Oligodendrocytes specialized cells that form myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons in the central nervous system Schwann cells specialized cells that form myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons in peripheral nervous system Myelin fatty tissue that speeds up the conduction of an electrical signal down the axon I Disorder affecting myelination Multiple Sclerosis MS An auto immune disease characterized by the degeneration of myelin resulting in neuronal death and the formation of plaques hardenings in brain and spinal cord Disruption in fast saltatory conductance sometimes loss of conductance altogether Results in weakness paralysis or spasms impaired coordination visual problems etc
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