Intro to Entomology; WEEK 7Notes
Intro to Entomology; WEEK 7Notes ENTO 2010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Intro to Entomology Week 7 Notes Order: Coleoptera Dung is a valuable food source, especially to dung beetles. Elephant Dung Beetles Many insects are attracted to dung. Dung beetles have specialized mouthparts. Dung beetles will roll the dung into small balls for themselves and their larvae to eat. Additionally, civet cats feed on dung beetles. Civet cats produce civetone in their anal gland. Interesting Fact: Civetone is used in perfume. Australia Cows were imported. Insects couldn’t cope with the large about of dung being produced. Eventually, grassland was lost. Solution to this problem: Import dung beetles to eat the excess cow dung. Ancient Egypt: the Scarab Also known as the Stone Beetle Scarabs were the symbol of the soul. Scarabs also symbolized the Sun God, Ra. Beetle metamorphosis may have inspired pyramid construction. The Spanish fly, also known as the Blister Beetle Spanish flies produce a toxin: cantharidin. Hippocrates used cantharidin as medicine. Marquis de Sade used cantharidin as an aphrodisiac. Cantharidin causes burning sensation in the groin. Cantharidin destroys mucous linings in the body. Acorn Weevils Female acorn weevils have a large snout/mouthpart. Acorn weevils drill a hole in an acorn with its snout. Then, the female weevil oviposits into the hole. A female weevil lays one egg per acorn. Acorn weevil larvae eat the acorn upon hatching. Whirligig Beetles Whirligig beetles are scavengers. Whirligig beetles have divided eyes so that they can see both above and below the water level. Whirligig beetles spin in circles to create waves that bounce back to them when the waves hit the food item. Whirligig beetles carry air bubbles to breathe underwater. Order: Lepidoptera Intro to Entomology Week 7 Notes lepido = scale; ptera = wings Common Names = Butterflies and Moths Species: 200,000 Lepidoptera Characteristics Complete Metamorphosis Have siphoning mouthparts Their wings have scales. Their scales are actually modified hairs. Their larvae feed on plants. Larvae spin silk. Have the greatest color variation. They are a major agricultural pest because larvae may feed on a very narrow range of vegetation. Butterfly In Greek translates as psyche. In French translates as papillon. Etymology = study of words No one knows how the name “butterfly” came about. Morpho Butterflies morpho = beautiful or well made Their upper wings are iridescent blue. Their lower wings are plain brown. Lepidoptera Larvae Larvae are leafeating machines. Larvae must molt 45 times. Larvae have soft cuticles. Larvae uses of defense: Camouflage Warning Coloration Toxic Spines Lepidoptera Adults Lepidoptera adults feed to get flight fuel. Lepidoptera adults mate abdomen to abdomen Lepidoptera females lay eggs on host plant. Species: 200,000 Butterflies: 20,000 Moths: 180,000 Dan Janzen endeavored to identify all moths of Costa Rica by: Rearing larvae to adults to classify. Use light screen at night to collect adults. Intro to Entomology Week 7 Notes Interesting Fact: Moth scales can cause allergies. Florida Queen Butterflies Florida Queen butterflies and Viceroy butterflies look very similar. Florida Queen butterflies find mates with a sex hormone. Florida Queen males and females do a courtship dance. Florida Queen males use their “hair pencils” to dust the female with the sex pheromone. Monarch Butterflies Monarch larvae feed on milkweed. The butterflies sequester toxic alkaloids known as cardenolides. Predators leave larvae and adults alone due to this toxic. Monarch Butterflies In the fall, 4 generation monarch adults migrate 2,500 miles to Mexico in the winter. In the winter, the butterflies are dormant in Mexican forests. In the spring, they mate and return to the U.S. Interesting Fact: The Return of the Monarchs is a Mexican holiday that represents the return of the souls of people who died during the year. Insect Plant Interactions: Coevolutionary Arms Race Plant produces toxin. Insect adapts to toxin. Plant makes more powerful toxin. Plant Defense Against Herbivores Silicon oxide in leaves (like eating glass). Proteinase inhibitors (animals cannot digest the grass). Secondary plant products (toxic compounds). Plant surface hairs are called trichomes. Trichomes may produce toxins. Trichomes may be sticky. Trichomes may be spines or hooks. When a plant is wounded, it wants to: Limit water loss. Prevent fungal/bacterial infection. Deter herbivory. When a plant is wounded, it may: Heal its wound by creating a “scab.” Produce toxic chemicals. Exude sap or gum. Form a gall (with insect inside). Jurassic Park Intro to Entomology Week 7 Notes Fossilized plant resin is called amber, which are gems. DNA found in fossil insects. Sequence fossilized DNA. Determine relatedness of insect species. Recover dinosaur blood, DNA, from fossilized mosquitoes. Carnivorous Plants capture insects for nutrients: Habitat is low in nutrients. Digest protein of prey. Have modified structure to catch insects. Types of Carnivorous Plants Sundews Venus Fly Traps Bladderworts Pitcher Plants Sundews Bright colors attract insects. Leaf tentacles have sticky glue. Electrical signal causes leaf to curl. Leaf uses enzymes to digest prey. Venus Fly Traps Venus fly trap have trigger hairs inside leaf. Touching hairs cause electrical signal to be released. Two signals cause rapid growth of the outer leaf. Leaf closes on insect; trap then digests it. Interesting Fact: Venus fly traps are only found natively in the wetlands of North Carolina and South Carolina. Bladderworts Bladderworts are aquatic. Bladderworts have a bladder with a trap door. When prey item hits their trigger hairs, it is sucked into the bladder in 1/1000 of a second. Pitcher Plants Flowerlike; nectar and color attract insects. Inside the plant, there are downwardpointing hairs and loose wax. Insects then fall into the “pool” and are digested by the plant.