Chapter 7 Review and Notes
Chapter 7 Review and Notes CHM 2045
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jorden Irby on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 2045 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Zhang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Chapter 7 Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom Work done at that time by any famous physicists discovered that for subatomic particles the present condition does not determine the future condition Quantum mechanics forms the foundation of chemistry Explaining the periodic table Behavior of elements in chemical bonding Electrons are incredibly small Electron behavior determines much of the behavior of atoms Directly observing electrons in the atom is impossible the electron is so small that observing it changes its behavior Quantum mechanical model explains the manner in which electrons exist and behave in atoms Light a form of electromagnetic radiation All electromagnetic waves move through space at the same constant speed 300 x 10quot8 ms speed of light Amplitude height of the wave distance from one node to crest Wavelength measure of the distance covered by the wave distance from one crest to another Frequency number of waves that pass in a given period of time units are in Hertz V velocity c frequency Z wavelength Electromagnetic spectrum Lowest energy to highest energy Radio I Microwave I Infrared I Visible Light I Ultraviolet I Xray I Gamma Ray Interference interaction bw waves Constructive when the crest of one wave clashed with the crest of another wave to add to the height of the final wave Destructive when the crest of one wave clashes with the trough of another wave to cancel out the wave Diffraction when traveling waves bend around obstacles or openings Photoelectric effect many metals emit electrons when a light shines on their surface Classic wave theory attributed this effect to the light energy being transferred to the wavelength If the wavelength of light is made shorter or the light wave s intensity made brighter more electrons should be ejected The energy of a wave is directly proportional to its amplitude and its frequency The energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency Inversely proportional to its wavelength Proportionality constant is called Planck s Constant h E hv E hc 1 Kinetic Energy Energy of photon Energy of binding KE hv p Emission spectrum a combination of the atomic spectra of the various kinds of atoms making up the substance and can be analyzed to determine the substance39s chemical or atomic composition 7 Nuclear Atoms Rutherford s Nuclear Model Atom contains tiny dense center called the nucleus Nucleus is essentially the entire mass of the atom Nucleus is positively charged Problems Electrons are moving charged particles Moving charged particles give off energy Electrons should constantly be giving off energy Electrons should lose energy and crash into the nucleus Bohr Model of the Atom Nuclear model does not explain what structural changes occur when the atom gains or loses energy Electrons travel in orbits that are at a fixed distance from the nucleus Wave Behavior of Electrons de Brogile Particles could have wavelike behavior Wavelength of a particle was inversely proportional to its momentum Wave character of electrons is so significant Z h mv Uncertainty Principle Heisenberg product of the uncertainties in both the position and speed of a particle was inversely proportional to its mass X position AX uncertainty in position v velocity Av uncertainty in velocity m mass the more accurately you know about the speed of a particle the less you know about its speed and vice versa Determinacy vs Indeterminacy particles move in a path determined by the particle s velocity position and forces acting on it because we cannot know both the position and velocity of an electron we cannot predict the path it will follow Schrodinger s Equation allows us to calculate the probability of finding an electron with a particular amount of energy at a particular location in the atom Principle Quantum Number n energy of orbital n 123 Angular Momentum l shape of orbital l 0 l l 0 s orbitals spherical common element l l p orbitals 2 balloons common element l 2 d orbitals 4 balloons transition metal l 3 f orbitals 8 balloons transition metal Magnetic Quantum Number ml orientation of orbital X y z axis 21012 Spin Quantum Number ms Clockwise 12 Counterclockwise l2
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