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Intro to Entomology; Week 8 Notes

by: Bethany

Intro to Entomology; Week 8 Notes ENTO 2010

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Entomology > ENTO 2010 > Intro to Entomology Week 8 Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover all notes covered in class this week involving the insect order: Diptera.
Insects & the Environment
Class Notes
Entomology; WEEK 8
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 03/19/16
Intro to Entomology  Week 8 Notes  Order: Diptera  di = two; ptera = wings  Common Names: Flies and Mosquitoes   Species: 90,000  Characteristics:  Complete Metamorphosis  Have either piercing/sucking or sponging mouthparts.  Have one pair of membranous wings.  Have no hind wings.  Have a setoff legs called “halters,” which are stabilizers that take the place of  hind wings.  Their primitive larvae are maggots.  Many larvae are aquatic.  It is the most harmful order: Many members cause diseases.  Diptera: Flies  Flies are the best insect fliers.  Hoverflies have wings that beat 175 beats per second.  Halters give stability.  Houseflies  They regurgitate enzymes on their food.  The enzymes soften the food.  Then, the fly uses its sponging mouthparts to soak up the food.  Houseflies transmit a disease mechanically by picking it up somewhere and carrying it to another location.  Houseflies  Houseflies can see movement very well.  Houseflies use their leg hairs to taste.  Houseflies have sponging mouthparts.  Oily hairs on feet: walk on ceiling.   Fly Farms  Maggots are used to eliminate animal farm waste.  Medical Treatment  People with poor circulation.  Leg or arm wounds heal slowly.  Add fly maggots to wound.  Maggots eat on dead flesh to heal wound faster.  Prevents amputation.  Vector: Tsetse Fly  Disease: Trypanosoma (Protozoans)  Drug treatment is effective, yet 65,000 deaths occur every year. Intro to Entomology  Week 8 Notes  African Sleeping Sickness  Disease kills people and cows.  Reservoir Host: wild animals  African people cannot raise their cattle.  The people need more protein.  Tsetse Fly means “Guardian of Africa” because the native habitat has been  saved.  Tsetse Fly Female  The adult female fly does not lay eggs.  One egg hatches inside her uterus.  Larva then develops inside of the mother.  The mature larva is born.  The larva burrows into soil and pupates.  Adult fly then emerges from the soil.  The adult female only mates one time in her life.  The adult female produces only eight larvae in her lifetime, one at a time.  Diptera: Mosquito Life Cycle  Eggs are laid in or near water.  Have aquatic larvae.  Have aquatic pupae.  Adults live one to three weeks.  Female mates in male swarm.  Males feed on flowers.  Female needs “blood meal” for her offspring to survive and thrive.  Mosquito larvae have a siphon tube for breathing.  Mosquitoes have piercing/sucking mouthparts.  Mosquitoes  Female mosquitoes are attracted to host CO . 2  Sound of female mosquitoes’ wings attracts male mosquitoes.   Mosquitoes’ piercing/sucking mouthparts have:  A protective sheath.  A tube to suck blood.  Knife­like mouthparts.  A saliva injector to stop blood clotting.  One/sixth of humans have an insect­vectored disease.  Malaria has killed more people than any other disease.  1890: Ronald Ross showed that mosquitoes vector malaria.  1900: Water Reed showed that mosquitoes vector yellow fever.  Yellow Fever  Vector: Mosquitoes (Genus: Aedes) Intro to Entomology  Week 8 Notes  Disease: Virus  Reservoir Host: Monkeys  Common in South America and Africa  Has no effective treatment.  Dengue Fever  Vector: Mosquitoes (Genus: Aedes)  Disease: Virus  Common in South America, Africa, and Caribbean  Has no effective treatment.  Zika Fever  Vector: Mosquitoes (Genus: Aedes)  Disease: Virus  Common in South America, Africa, and Caribbean  Has no effective treatment.  Special Concern to Pregnant Women  Zika fever may cause microcephaly.  Malaria  Vector: Mosquitoes (Genus: Anopheles)  Disease: Protozoan (Genus: Plasmodium)  Common in South America, Africa, and Asia.  Has an effective drug treatment.  Malaria Life Cycle:  Mosquitoes feed on infected host.  Plasmodium mates within the mosquitoes’ stomach.  Plasmodium then moves to the mosquitoes’ salivary glands.  Mosquitoes feed on a new host.  Plasmodium moves to the host’s liver.  Plasmodium attack host’s red blood cells.  The host’s red blood cells begin to rupture.  The cycle repeats itself inside the host by 24, 48, or 96 hours.  Mated Female Mosquito  Eggs do not develop without a blood meal.  Head produces hormones needed for egg production.  Natural Selection in Africa  A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin.  This change provided resistance to malaria.  People with one copy of the gene will survive malaria.  However, people with two copies of this gene will have Sickle Cell Anemia.


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