Intro to Entomology; Week 8 Notes
Intro to Entomology; Week 8 Notes ENTO 2010
Popular in Insects & the Environment
Popular in Entomology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Intro to Entomology Week 8 Notes Order: Diptera di = two; ptera = wings Common Names: Flies and Mosquitoes Species: 90,000 Characteristics: Complete Metamorphosis Have either piercing/sucking or sponging mouthparts. Have one pair of membranous wings. Have no hind wings. Have a setoff legs called “halters,” which are stabilizers that take the place of hind wings. Their primitive larvae are maggots. Many larvae are aquatic. It is the most harmful order: Many members cause diseases. Diptera: Flies Flies are the best insect fliers. Hoverflies have wings that beat 175 beats per second. Halters give stability. Houseflies They regurgitate enzymes on their food. The enzymes soften the food. Then, the fly uses its sponging mouthparts to soak up the food. Houseflies transmit a disease mechanically by picking it up somewhere and carrying it to another location. Houseflies Houseflies can see movement very well. Houseflies use their leg hairs to taste. Houseflies have sponging mouthparts. Oily hairs on feet: walk on ceiling. Fly Farms Maggots are used to eliminate animal farm waste. Medical Treatment People with poor circulation. Leg or arm wounds heal slowly. Add fly maggots to wound. Maggots eat on dead flesh to heal wound faster. Prevents amputation. Vector: Tsetse Fly Disease: Trypanosoma (Protozoans) Drug treatment is effective, yet 65,000 deaths occur every year. Intro to Entomology Week 8 Notes African Sleeping Sickness Disease kills people and cows. Reservoir Host: wild animals African people cannot raise their cattle. The people need more protein. Tsetse Fly means “Guardian of Africa” because the native habitat has been saved. Tsetse Fly Female The adult female fly does not lay eggs. One egg hatches inside her uterus. Larva then develops inside of the mother. The mature larva is born. The larva burrows into soil and pupates. Adult fly then emerges from the soil. The adult female only mates one time in her life. The adult female produces only eight larvae in her lifetime, one at a time. Diptera: Mosquito Life Cycle Eggs are laid in or near water. Have aquatic larvae. Have aquatic pupae. Adults live one to three weeks. Female mates in male swarm. Males feed on flowers. Female needs “blood meal” for her offspring to survive and thrive. Mosquito larvae have a siphon tube for breathing. Mosquitoes have piercing/sucking mouthparts. Mosquitoes Female mosquitoes are attracted to host CO . 2 Sound of female mosquitoes’ wings attracts male mosquitoes. Mosquitoes’ piercing/sucking mouthparts have: A protective sheath. A tube to suck blood. Knifelike mouthparts. A saliva injector to stop blood clotting. One/sixth of humans have an insectvectored disease. Malaria has killed more people than any other disease. 1890: Ronald Ross showed that mosquitoes vector malaria. 1900: Water Reed showed that mosquitoes vector yellow fever. Yellow Fever Vector: Mosquitoes (Genus: Aedes) Intro to Entomology Week 8 Notes Disease: Virus Reservoir Host: Monkeys Common in South America and Africa Has no effective treatment. Dengue Fever Vector: Mosquitoes (Genus: Aedes) Disease: Virus Common in South America, Africa, and Caribbean Has no effective treatment. Zika Fever Vector: Mosquitoes (Genus: Aedes) Disease: Virus Common in South America, Africa, and Caribbean Has no effective treatment. Special Concern to Pregnant Women Zika fever may cause microcephaly. Malaria Vector: Mosquitoes (Genus: Anopheles) Disease: Protozoan (Genus: Plasmodium) Common in South America, Africa, and Asia. Has an effective drug treatment. Malaria Life Cycle: Mosquitoes feed on infected host. Plasmodium mates within the mosquitoes’ stomach. Plasmodium then moves to the mosquitoes’ salivary glands. Mosquitoes feed on a new host. Plasmodium moves to the host’s liver. Plasmodium attack host’s red blood cells. The host’s red blood cells begin to rupture. The cycle repeats itself inside the host by 24, 48, or 96 hours. Mated Female Mosquito Eggs do not develop without a blood meal. Head produces hormones needed for egg production. Natural Selection in Africa A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin. This change provided resistance to malaria. People with one copy of the gene will survive malaria. However, people with two copies of this gene will have Sickle Cell Anemia.
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