crim102weeksix.pdf CJC 102 -2
Popular in Criminology
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Eiseman on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 102 -2 at Ball State University taught by Jonathan Intravia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
930 1 Biological Trait Theories a biological theories expanded our understanding of crime causation by examining the impact of biochemical neurological and genetic variables on human behavior i Biosocial criminology 1 the study of behavior acknowledges the interaction between social environment and individual variations in humans as contributing factors in how people act and react 2 becoming pretty darn popular 3 organizations devoted to this approach ii NATURE VS NURTURE 1 nature a individual variations in human beings i inherited physical features ii intelligence iii brain structure iv hormone levels 2 nurture a environmental influences i peers ii family iii social bonds iv education b biochemical factors that affect the ability to think and behave i Nutrition 1 evidence shows that a balanced diet can alleviate symptoms of the following a depression b hyperactivity c aggression d memory loss e learning problems 2 diet low sodium low potassium high saturated fat poor diet too little calories too much sugar 3 could be due to social class a poorer economic status eating fast food everyday could lead to crime ii Blood glucose sugar 1 hypoglycemia a a condition that occurs when glucose in the blood falls below levels necessary for normal and efficient brain func on i linked to outbursts of aggression violence assault anxiety depression confusion ii impulsive offenders iii inconclusive results on studies at this time 2 Hormones a male hormones i abnormal levels of androgens can produce aggressive behavior impulsivity and reduced verbal skills ii high testosterone has been linked to criminality however results are mixed b Female hormones i PMS 1 ongoing debate on whether there is any link between PMS and crime 3 Contaminants a long term exposure to environmental pollutants i lead in environmental contaminants such as paint water and soil can affect emotional and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents ii high lead exposure has been linked to an increase in antisocial behaviors and juvenile delinquency iii less lead in use now there is a correlate between that decrease and the decline in crime iv usually more likely to be found in poorer areas 1 older homes 2 cheaper toys 4 Neurophysiology a the study of brain activity i main areas of research 1 neurological impairment 2 brain chemistry 3 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD ii neurological impairments 1 may be inherited or acquired 2 structural and functional deficits within the prefrontal regions of brain has been linked to antisocial behavior and aggression or violence 3 these brain areas affect the ability to communicate effectively control impulses develop social skills and reason conceptually 5 Brain chemistry a neurotransmitters i brain chemicals that activate and controlinfluence human response mechanisms b abnormal levels of neurotransmitters may be associated with impulsive aggressive responses i dopamine and serotonin affect our abiltiy to tolerate manage stress and deal with anxiety ii abnormal levels of monoamine oxidase and dopamine 6 Neurophysiology a ADHD i characteristics of true ADHD 1 poor attention skills 2 deficient impulse control a consitantly impatient 3 hyperactivity a unable to sit still ii lifelong disorder begins in early childhood and continues throughout life iii research is attempting to link ADHD with the onset ofjuvenile delinquency iv often misdiagnosed b may be bullied c lack of discipline d easily e distracted iii Heredity genetics and crime 1 hereditary and genetic traits examined with crime a criminal families i criminal family studies 1 Juke family study a traced six generations of the Juke family to examine a genetic basis for their antisocial behavior b 709 family members i 128 prostitutes ii 76 criminals c however study provided no scientific value d compared with another family instead of crime and other social issues within the family 2 Kallikak family study a followed two family lineages a good one and a bad one vi 3 MAjor flaw found that the bad lineage consisted of criminals alcoholics and mentally descent descents when MArtin sr was a soldier he had an affair with a tavern girl who birthed a son this is where the bad lineage comes from the illegitimate son his other family was a good family a quaker woman in the bad lineage there were more alcoholics and criminal tendencies concluded that there is a genetic cause of antisocial behavior a because family members live in similar environments as well as having similar genes it is impossible to separate the effects of environment nurture from genetics nature in these studies b or upbringing