Notes on 3rd Reading Week 3
Notes on 3rd Reading Week 3 20986
Popular in The Nature of the Emotions
verified elite notetaker
Popular in OTHER
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ian Peck on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 20986 at University of Pittsburgh taught by James Lennox in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see The Nature of the Emotions in OTHER at University of Pittsburgh.
Reviews for Notes on 3rd Reading Week 3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/04/15
HPS 605 Nature of the Emotions Notes on Lecture Week 3 I Spinoza A Introduction 1 Spinoza s theory of emotion is in direct response to whose How are the two theories shown to be different in the introduction Pg 31 Spinoza wrote his theory in response to Descartes theory and it avoids one of the bigger problems that Descartes dealt with in his their being a separation of mind and body yet the two still interacted with one another Spinoza holds that the mind and body are two attributes of the one substance ie God 2 What are some of the similarities between Spinoza and the Stoic Pg 31 Spinoza and the Stoic both believed the events of life were entirely outside our ability to control To them we could not change the events there was no use rejoicing in good or mourning the bad and that selfcontrol reasoning was the best recourse than to emote 3 What is different about Spinoza theory from the Stoic theory Pg 31 Spinoza attributes all events as predetermined by God the one substance while the Stoics did not believe in this kind of pantheism B From Ethics 1 What does Spinoza mean when he says that emotions are modifications of the body which increase or decrease our active powers give an example Pg 32 Spinoza is saying emotions affect our abilities and the book specifically illustrates this with the example of anger pushing us to action or sorrow leaving us too grieved to act 2 What are active and passive emotions Pg 32 Passive emotions our external and affect us usually in a negative manner Active emotions are internal and are pleasurable In this way Spinoza relates all emotion back to pleasure and pain 3 Spinoza may have similarities to the Stoic but how does he disagree with Seneca Pg 32 Seneca believes anger is a aw in an otherwise perfect being man but Spinoza sees all aspects of man as natural for nature is never wrong unchanging and therefore cannot be awed 4 What is contradictory to Spinoza in Descartes theory Pg 33 Descartes tried to explain emotions as being caused by stimuli in the environment while still able to be completely controlled How can you control something that is caused by elements you cannot control 5 What are all emotions good for to Spinoza Pg 33 We can learn from our emotions by understanding what causes them Just contemplating our emotions he says affords us delight 6 What is the difference between an adequate and inadequate cause How are we an adequate cause How are we also an inadequate cause Pg 33 An adequate cause is something whose effects can be seen clearly while an inadequate cause s effects are not understood by observation of the cause alone In that regard we are adequate causes when our nature compels us to act but we are inadequate when something second to nature compels us to act In this case our nature is only partially able to explain our action 7 When are we in control of an emotion If we are in control what according to Spinoza does that suggest Pg 33 When we are the adequate cause because that makes the emotion voluntary This is similar to Seneca s view of involuntary emotions being outside our control When an emotion is under our control it is also voluntary and passive inadequate and therefore it cannot be a true emotion Voluntary emotions are activities 8 How are ideas related to inadequate causes Pg 34 This relates to Spinoza s idea of the passive and active minds To him an active mind is one which is full of adequate ideas or ideas that are derived of our human nature So passive minds are full of inadequate ideas or ideas that are not entirely derived of our human nature 9 Why do we naturally avoid what we don t like according to Spinoza Pg 34 Those things that we are adverse to actually have a negative effect on our bodies and minds just as things we find favorable have a positive effect on us It is only until the mind perceives something else that we are able to break free of this diminished or constrained state 10 Spinoza says the mind is affeced by two emotions What are they which diminishes our ability to act Pg 34 35 The mind is affected by pleasure and pain two of three primary emotions Pain diminishes our ability to act 11 With the onset of pleasure or pain what emotion is the true emotion What isn t the true emotion What does this mean Pg 35 When multiple emotions are felt it is the first emotion that is the true emotion The second is real but it is only a product of the first For example being insulted might first invoke anger followed by hatred for the one who insulted you It is the true emotion that ought to be contemplated for understanding 12 In Spinoza s PROP LIII there is a deductive argument the exercises we have practiced in our recitations Give the premises and conclusion Is it valid Is it sound Pg 35 1 If you know yourself then you have contemplated your emotions 2 If you have contemplated your emotions then you have found pleasure in discovering yourself Conclusion If you have found pleasure in discovering yourself then you must know yourself 0 My interpretation The first premise is true The second premise is arguable therefore the argument is not sound because its premises are not necessarily true so it is not valid either 13 What is humility What emotion or feeling is it related to Can you form a deductive argument that is both valid and sound from this information If yes then do so Pg 36 Humility is the thought of our own incapability which is accompanied by pain Pain the primary emotion that diminishes the mind and body and thus brings us to a lesser state of perfection is the emotion which accompanies it 0 1 Humility is accompanied by pain 0 2 Pain brings the mind and body to a lesser state of perfection 0 Conclusion Therefore humility brings the mind and body to a lesser state of perfection 14 What is the driving force behind all the things humans have ever endeavored to achieve What does it have in common with pleasure and pain Pg 36 Desire is what drives all human action Pain leads us to desire that we avoid what causes pain Pleasure then leads us to desire that which we find pleasurable 15 Explain the relationship of fear hope confidence and despair Pg 37 Confidence is the affirmation of our hopes while despair is the affirmation of our fears Otherwise the pleasure of hope alone is inconsistent as is the pain of fear Once one is affirmed the primary emotion becomes consistent 16 With regard to all secondary emotions that Spinoza attributes to pleasure and pain what other aspect do they have in common that is not explicitly stated in the text but can be deduced with reasoning Because all secondary emotions are derived or related to pleasure and pain there is actually quite a bit reliant on the individual in terms of what personally brings them pleasure and pain and as a result what they desire Therefore desire also explains these emotions Spinoza has addressed what causes emotions but he has not discussed the virtues of an individual with regard to what they ought to desire good over bad like Descartes and Aristotle do Bonus can you create a deductive argument from my answer above Is it sound valid both neither 1 Pleasure and pain explain emotions which result in pleasure or pain 2 Emotions that result in pleasure or pain are desirable and undesirable respectively Conclusion Therefore desire also explains emotions explained by pleasure and pain 17 When are individuals thinking too meanly of themselves What does it mean to do so Pg 39 Individuals think too meanly of themselves when they think they are incapable of doing much of anything good things things their equals do or if they assume negative outcomes This ties back into the primary emotion of pain which Spinoza believes is felt when one contemplates that which they are not able to do thus bringing the mond to a lesser state of perfection 18 What does Spinoza say to excuse himself of explaining the emotions not listed Pg 40 The other emotions are just combinations of those already described Many of them not having a name are clearly not worth explication but generally understanding that they are derived from the primary emotions should be enough 19 What does Spinoza mean when he says our minds affirm a force for existence greater than before with regard to the body Pg 41 When we perceive something it is through our own body that its existence is experienced not an external one and this experience is accompanied by an emotion which affects the body by either enhancing or diminishing its ability to act Because our minds are sure of our own body s existence we can verify the existence of other things through our body and these things too affect us 20 Blessedness or freedom to think clearly without the interference of emotions is achieved only through what Spinoza discredits Descartes and the Stoics for their beliefs in what Pg 42 The blessed are those who come to understanding their emotions which what Spinoza has emphasized this whole time Spinoza has defined emotions which he thinks are felt and known by all but explained their essence why they happen The wisest will understand why an emotion has the effects on the body that it does Upon understanding we gain more control not through reason alone as other philosophers think 21 Once we understand an emotions causes the essence what does that mean Pg 42 We gain more control through understanding so the emotion is effectively no longer an emotion a confused idea The mind will come to accept this reaction as necessary and we will express less emotion towards the same thing later like becoming desensitized to a horror movie watched several times 22 Spinoza s final words on emotions describe them how How does this tie back to his first statements Pg 43 The final description of emotions is that they are only negative in the way that they hinder our ability to act and to think This ties back to what Spinoza said of passive and active powers as a strong emotion demands so much attention of us that our minds are very active in contemplating it Less powerful emotions passively concern us and our minds can think more freely