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Chapter 8 Reading Notes

by: Alyssa Schutzenhofer

Chapter 8 Reading Notes PSY 101

Alyssa Schutzenhofer
GPA 3.5
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Gross

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About this Document

These are the notes I took while reading chapter 8 of the textbook this week. They do go along with her study guide questions fairly well! I hope you find them helpful!
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Gross
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Gross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 10/04/15
Chapter 8 Reading Notes Photoreceptors light detecting cells found in the retina a membrane lining the back interior of the eye The cornea and lens focus the light back together at a particular point on the retina forming an image there The Iris is opaque so the only light that enters the inside of the eye is what passes through the pupil Cones and Rods are arranged in mosaic like thin layer of the retina o Cones allow sharply focused vision in bright light 0 Rods help with vision in dim light Fovea specializes in being able to see tiny details pinhead size in the retina Electrical changes in rods amp cones cause electrical responses in other cells in the retina produces action potentialsneural impulses in neurons that run from the back of the eye to brain where axons of these neurons form the optic nerve there is a blind spot absence of receptor cells Cone Vision aka photoptic visionbright light vision for ability to see ne details and colors Rod Vision scotopic visiondimlight vision ability to see in dim light lris contributes to dark and light adaptation dilating pupil in dark light and constricting it in bright light Cones for seeing in bright light rod photochemical rhodopsin breaks down in bright light making the rods nonfunctional Rods for seeing in dark light when in dark light rod photochemical begins to regenerate and not enough light for cones to activate All colors we see from proportion of activity from three types of photoreceptors can match any visible color by varying intensities of three primary lights Trichromatic Theory can see in color because of combined activity of three different types of receptors each receptor is more sensitive to different range of wavelengths o 3 cones with different photochemical make them sensitive to different bands of wavelengths Blue Green Red Dichromats have only two not three cone photochemicals any color that they can see can be matched by changing the proportion of just two different wavelengths of light o This defective gene present on X chromosome trait appears much more often in men than women 0 Men have only 1 X chromosome passed down from their mothers any defects in this gene leads to colorblindness o Nonprimate mammals two types of cones blue and green cones but birds have four types of cones ultraviolet range cone Opponentprocess Theory complementary colors of light erase each other s color when added together 0 Explained by this color perception is controlled by neurons can be excited or inhibited depending on wavelength of light complementary wavelengths activate opposing processes on these opponentprocess units 0 Ability to see blues and yellows mediated by blueyellow opponent neurons these are excited by wavelengths in the blue spectrum and inhibited by those in the yellow spectrum 0 Wavelengths of complementary colors cancel each other out when it comes to color detection but work together to excite brightness detectors 0 Afterimages caused by neurons in the retina that respond to a certain color light get fatigued as you stare at that color for too long then when you look away the neurons that respond to other colors still respond strongly o Neurons in primary visual cortex sensitive to orientation of visual stimuli their color and movement because sensitive to features of scene Feature Detectors Parallel Processing visual system picks up at once primitive features of all objects whose light rays hit out retinas detection of features identify one unique feature 0 Serial Processing integration of features eventually see whole objects by perceiving one spatial location at a time look at each item separately until target is found identify conjoining man features Gestalt Psychology we automatically see whole organized patterns amp objects mind understood in organized wholes not parts Gestalt Principles of Grouping 0 Proximity see stimulus elements as parts of the same object amp separated parts of different objects 0 Similarity see elements that resemble each other as part of same object 0 Closure see forms enclosed by border amp ignore gaps 0 Good Continuation lines intersect group line segments to form continuous lines wminimal change 0 Common Movement elements move in same direction at same rate part of single object 0 Good Form organizes stimuli in simplest arrangement if something has symmetry seems more like one object Reversible Figure at any moment see either gure or ground in an image Illusory Contours perceptual system uses initial input to infer that there is an object must be present and then creates that object by in uencing contour detection processes in the brain to produce a border where there isn t one Topdown Control control that comes from higher up in the brain brings results of that sensory information from bottomup control and other info 0 Bottomup Control control that comes from sensory input brings in sensory information present in stimulus Light focused on retina is not the scenes but hints of the scene and our brain infers characteristics and positions 0 Binocular Disparity slightly different view that the two eyes have of same object 0 Degree of disparity tell how far away an object is from the eye 0 Illusions of depth caused by two pictures fused perceptually into single image containing depth 0 3D Motion Pictures overlapping similar images in different colors slightly displaced from other our eye sees only one with colored glasses Parallax change in an object or scene when seen at a different vantage point 0 Motion Parallax not used to depict depth in 2D Pictorial Cues for depth 0 Occlusion near objects cut off from view far away ones 0 Relative image size for familiar objects larger means closer 0 Linear Perspective lines appear to converge as become more distant 0 Texture Gradient decrease in size and texture as increase depth 0 Position relative to the horizon closer to horizon farther away 0 Differential lighting of surfaces amount of lighting off of surfaces varies with orientation to sources of light 0 Size of retinal image of something inversely proportional to the distance 0 Object thought to be farther away but produce same size retinal image as another object the one farther away larger Moon Illusion moon is same size and same difference wherever it is but in comparison to the objects around it the size seems different Ponzo amp MullerLyer illusions two objects make same size retinal image but one is judged farther away than the other the one farther away is known as larger


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