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Biology: March 14-18

by: Anzlee

Biology: March 14-18 Biology 1120-001


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About this Document

These notes cover the material needed for the week.
Andrew Brower
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1120-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Andrew Brower in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 03/19/16
Biology: March 14-16 The Vertebrate Body: Form and Function Organization of the Body •   There is a relationship between surface area and volume •   There is a constraint on small and large animals •   Vertebrates are supported by an internal structure •   4 Levels of Organization: cells, tissues, organs, organ systems •   Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve Tissues •   Connective: each secretes a different kind of matrix o   Within extracellular matrix o   Loose connective tissue- provides protection between skin and internal organs o   Bone- structure, support, muscle attachment §   constructed in layers called lamellae around Haversian canals that run parallel to the length of the bone §   contains nerve fibers and blood vessels §   formed by osteoblasts within deep connective tissue o   Cartilage- flexible support and fibers o   Blood- contains plasma and platelets (erythrocytes: red blood cells- contain hemoglobin; leukocytes: white blood cells- fight infection; thrombocytes: platelets) •   Epithelial: covers every major surface of vertebrates o   3 germ layers o   Acts as a barrier with regenerative abilities o   Has polarity o   Apical surface- faces external or internal environment o   Basolateral surface- connects to other tissues o   Simple- one layer (good for diffusion) o   Stratified- multiple layers (good for protection) o   Glands- special tissues that produce and release secretions §   Exocrine glands- (ex. sweat glands) §   Endocrine glands- lack ducts •   Muscle o   Cardiac- small cells, connected by gap junctions o   Skeletal- larger, attached to bones or tendons, responsible for muscle contractions o   Smooth- found inside of organs such as guts •   Nerve: transmits electronegative signals to nervous system and throughout nerves o   Myelin sheath acts as an insulator of axons Organs - functional units composed of various types of tissues Organ Systems - work together for body to perform various functions Surface Area and Volume Ratio •   Important for exchange and absorption of materials •   Small animals o   Higher surface area:volume ratio o   Lose heat rapidly o   Need a high metabolism o   Need high food intake •   Large animals o   Lower surface area:volume ratio o   Need thicker bones


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