Popular in Human Nutrition
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Monday October 20, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/20/14
Human Nutrition 2210 102014 1131 AM Week Eight Fat Soluble Vitamins chapter 8 Vitamins Essentialorganic Produce no energy but help in energy production Deficiency if absent from diet Fat soluble vs water soluble Unidentified substances in food that can prevent disease Discovery Mice o Die L39A o Die L39B Fat soluble vitamins Vitamins A D E K All have similar mechanism of absorption and excretion Don39t have to consume daily excess can be toxic Relatively stable during processing A little is good a lot is better Not true for vitamins Vitamin A Active form o Retinol animal products dairy products liver Precursor o Carotene plant foods yellow and orange fruits and vegetables Func ons o Vision night blindness and ultimate blindness o Maintains body linings and skin via mucus 0 Bone growth 0 Reproduction increase protein synthesis Deficiency 0 Cells stop secreting mucus become dry and hard and die Role in Skin 0 Vitamin A acne drug Accutane oral Retin a topical 0 Can cause toxicity teratogen O O Require prescription Not for pregnant women Food sources 0 O Retinol liver fish oils milk yogurt eggs Carotenoids sweet potatoes carrots spinach Precursor vitamin A becomes active Vitamin A Absorption and metabolism 0 O O O Require bile salts Stored in liver Requires transport protein Due to requirement of a transport protein deficiency will have negative impact on vitamin A status similar with Zinc Deficiency O 0 Night blindnessstunting of growthxeropthalmia scaring of the eye Problems with skin and epithelial cells that line respiratory digestive and genitourinary tracts Abnormalities of enamel forming cells of the teeth Less frequent in developed countries major problem worldwide Vitamin A supplements can reduce death rates by half Deficiency Treatment 0 O 0 White rice vs golden rice White sweet potato vs orange sweet potato More popular vs more vitamin A 0 Vitamin A intake 0 OOOOO Little concern if intake 23 RDA US intake no problem Problems worldwide Males need more vitamins than women Daily value 1000mg Upper level 3000mg Easy to go from just enough to too much quickly be careful Vitamin A toxicity 0 Excess carotene turn orange extreme should be lt 3000mg Bones joint pain Blood blood loss Nervous loss of appetite Skin drynessbleeding Liver jaundice 0 Pregnancy excess can be harmful to babies Vitamin A single most important vitamin in the world Vitamin D sunshine vitamin Functions 0 Maintain blood calciumphosphorus 1 Bone mobilize calcium 2 Intestine increase calcium and phosphorus absorption 3 Kidney reabsorb calcium and phosphorus 0 Maintain bone integrity Forms 0 Depends on Length of sun exposure Clothingsunscreens Skin pigment 0 Full day39s supply Light skin 30 minutes Dark skin 3 hours takes longer Vitamin D exposure zones 0 Closer to equator sun exposure alone may provide sufficient vitamin d o Farther from the equator food sources may be needed in addition to sun exposure Deficiencies 0 Rare 0 Children weak bones leads to rickets bow egged OJ Simpson rickets as child 0 Adults osteomdlacia bone softening lack of calcium present but not utilized OOOOO Industrial Revolution pollution blocked sun exposurevitamin D Dietary intake is inadequate Minimal exposure to sunlight Kidney can39t convert to active form Can39t absorb from intestinal tract Occurs in Children of vegans Poor diet and rare sun exposure Muslim women older adults most of us winter months Requirements 0 Impossible to state requirement exactly you never know how much sun exposure a person has Vitamin D sources 0 Eggs milk vitamin A and D fortified fish oils Vitamin D toxicity 0 Toxicity negative on bone health 0 Double the recommended for a few months can be toxic Vitamin E widely available in normal diet rarely see deficiency Alphatocopherol Functions OOOOO o Detoxify oxidizing radicals that arise in metabolism 0 Stabilize cell membranes 0 Regulate oxidation reactions 0 Protect vitamin A and PUFA from oxidation 0 Act as antioxidant Antioxidant body guard vitamin E takes the damaging oxidation to protect cell membrane and lungs Deficiencies 0 Rare 0 Animals livestock muscle weakness oxygen related white muscle disease 0 Symptoms in all animals can be prevented by other antioxidants or lower levels of selenium vitamin E function Requirements o Increases as intake of PUFA increases Vitamin E DOES NOT 0 Lower blood lipidscholesterol Decrease hot flashes Decrease bladder cancer Prevent heart attacks Improve sexual potency Improve athletic ability truefalse question OOOOO Vitamin K Blood cotting 2 forms 0 1 Plants K1 phylloquinone o 2 Bacteria K2 menaquinone 50 of diet and intestinal bacteria storage is minimal and turnover is rapid Green leafy veggies cabbage cauliflower Not destroyed easily Injection is routinely given to newborns after birth due to lack of vitamin K when born controversial Needs can be met by synthesis from intestinal bacteria Func ons 0 Function in formation of protein called prothrombin in liver Essential 0 Prothrombin required for normal blood clotting 0 Bone health Deficiency 0 Rare 0 Results from prolonged treatment with antibiotics 0 Found in chickens with diets low in alfalfa Requirements 0 No allowance set by FNB 0 Normally produced by intestinal micro fora 0 Possibly in premature infants 0 Toxicity not a problem Anticoagulants o Dicumarol blood thinning interferes with vitamin K function 0 Rat poison Warfarin bleed to death internally 102014 1131 AM 102014 1131 AM