Chapter 7 & 8 (Oct 2 - Oct 9)
Chapter 7 & 8 (Oct 2 - Oct 9) PSYC-1000-01
Popular in Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha R on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
Reviews for Chapter 7 & 8 (Oct 2 - Oct 9)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/04/15
Learning Friday October 2 2 15 223 PM Classical Conditioning To inland quothis S39imulusl Mirnqu Human BaSIC Learnlng Concepts amp ClaSSICal Conditioning 3 I How We Learn m o x amp inulu ieuepeuuon o Stimulus Impsw gtAntlclpatl0nRespondent Behavior Classical Conditioning Any eventsituation that evokes a response Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning r 7 7 4 Iquoth139r O The acquisition of mental information through various cognitive functions I Can acquire this information through observing events or others amp language Observational Learning 0 Classical Conditioning 0 This reflects a behaviorist perspective gal 3 ruv EquotInu u in 2b JunArchean livlivvvu a New cl E5 huu39 t39VF39IMTilE IWJ l L L J39r 1lurnru 2 Clel f cynliinrmu III Most scientists today agree with 1 but not 2 0 O o 39 39 gt Pavlov 5 Experiments I I I I I I BI mam I A stimulus that eIICIts no response before conditioning 39quotquot quotW Ford war r n39 I mm 39m an gainav ur I An unlearned naturally occurring response to an unconditional V 7 739 39 Uncondltloned Unconditioned lcutml No conditioned StlmUlUS stimulus responw stimulus response I A stimulus that unconditionally naturally triggers an E r A I i 39Lllli39l ECFCLICN IF quot 4 13 IC39IFCI39JCI IFI unconditional response UR I A learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned I 39 stimulus I A stimulus that has come to trigger a conditioned response quot 39 39quotquotquot quot 39 quot 39ljl ilinj l39u L d Sjlu39alluil 39Iiilruj lIl39 LvJl39vjl L h r 39 Unconditioned Londmoned L ondmoned 0 response stimulus response I In Operant conditioning acguisition is the strengthening of a reinforced response A Sitanuih i knui m I cl llil I m V r Wg auug A quot5 Emilquot wet th lll o i i v I Disappearance of CR claSSIcal Response IS no longer reinforced operant i 33527 1 Pavlov showed us 0 I Many other responses to many other stimuli can be classically conditioned in many other organisms I How a process such as learning can be studied objectively 0 Application of Classical Conditioning I III Ex Drug users should avoid environments amp people that could trigger cravings I There has been research done in training our immune systems through classical conditioning Operant Conditioning 0 395 Experiment 0 Ex Only give the mouse a treat when it39s 5 feet away from the ball then only when it39s 2 feet away etc 0 Types of Reinforcers I III Any stimulus when presented after a response strengthens the response III Ex Pay the person who paints your house Any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response NOT PUNISHMENT III Ex Fastening seatbelt to end loud beeping III Chapter 7 Page 1 ii Ex Eating food to end hunger ii Ex Pressing the room service button when hungry so you can eat some food 0 Reinforcement Schedules Partial Reinforcement Schedules I Number of CSDUHECS Fixed ratio I iiiDi vu39i bl39 El 7 F ririluti ti ii Result Slower acquisition of the response but much greater resistance to extinction 7 Fined Interval V D A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a I RapidreSDOi di39tg specified number of responses m mun ii A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an I I quotquotquot quot 39quotquotquot variable interval unpredictable number of responses quot t D A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a Siradv reupnncmg speCIfied time has elapsed D A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at i 1 3 51 m N g I 7 unpredictable time intervals mm irninbivti O Punishment ii Administer something undesired 0 Ex Spraying water on barking dog ii End something that39s desired 0 Ex Take away phone from grounded teen ii Punished behavior is suppressed not forgotten This temporary state may negatively reinforce parents39 punishing behavior ii Teaches discrimination among situation ii Can teach fear 0 Generalization can occur D May increase aggression by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems 0 Skinner39s Legacy 0 We use operant conditioning in our own lives to reinforce our own desired behaviors amp extinguish undesired behaviors Contrasting Classical amp Operational Conditioning quot3 Table 74 L Comma man of Clasmcai anti Onerant cunrlitoninq Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Basic idea Organism associates events Organism associates behavior and resultmg events Response Involuntary automatic Vuluniarg operates on environment Acquisition Associating events NS is paired with US and becomes CS Associating response With a consequence iernlurcer or punishei Extinction CR decreases when CS is repeatedly presented alone Responding decreases when reinforcement stops Spontaneous lhe reappearance alter a rest period of an extinguished CR lhe reappearance alter a rest period oi an extinguished response recovery Generalization The tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS Drganism39s response to Similar stimuli is also reinforced Discriminetim lhe learned abilitg to distinguish betueen a CS and other stimuli Organism learns that certain responses but not others will be lhal do not signal a US icinloiced Biology Cognition amp Learning 0 Biological Constraints on Conditioning Biological in uences Psychological in uences 0 genetic 0 prewous experiences predrspusrtums 0 predrctnbiirtyof 0 unconditioned Associations responses 0 generalizatzon 0 adaptive reSpunsis 0 discrimination mirror neurons expectations Learning V Socialcultural in uences O culturaliylearned preferences 39 motivation affected by presence ofothcrs 0 modeling 0 Limits on Classical Conditioning I John Garcia found that sick rats couldn39t develop aversions to sights or sounds only taste You39re supposed to be able to use any 2 stimuli ii Taste Aversion When a certain food makes you sick you might have a hard to eating it again due to association 0 Limits on Operant Conditioning I D Ex You can teach a hamster to dig using food as a reinforcer because digging is a natural foodsearching behavior creating a natural association between digging and food But teaching a hamster to wash its face using food as a reinforcer wouldn39t be successful Chapter 7 Page 2 0 Cognition39s Influence on Conditioning 0 Cognitive Processing amp Classical Conditioning El III Ex If someone drinks milk with laxatives in it they are aware that the laxative caused the nausea not the milk So milk won39t become associated with nausea because you39re cognizant of the fact that the milk isn39t the cause I Pavlov amp Watson underestimated the biological constraints amp the effects of cognitive processes 0 Cognitive Processes amp Operant Conditioning III Ex After walking around campus the first weekend we started developing a sense of where everything was 0 Learning by Observation 0 Mirrors amp Imitation in the Brain I The brains mirroring of another39s actions may enable imitation amp empathy 0 Applications of Observational Learning III Prosocial Effect III Ex Abusive parents Chapter 7 Page 3 M e m o ry Sunday ctober 4 2 15 216 PM Studying amp Encoding Memories Studying Memory 0 Measuring Retention I El Ex Fillinthe blank I Ex Multiple Choice El Ex Studying for a Cumulative Exam I Tests of recognition amp time spent learning demonstrate that we remember more than we can recall 0 Memory Models I InformationProcessing Model I I I MEMORY PROCESSING MODEL Jauiomai amznnua N39nrmmn 39jum illaquot VIII 10a 1 a quot13 I 5 quotrIIIIII H3939llui ETIELTIPW 2 Ila Lu L i 4 l w l i RE m 1 39rIzl i Seamu i illumin shwt quot Langlerm memrI y ller39rr mrmury 1 39emulys mlagv Flumjim ial 39ii viiig I MemoryForming Process Model E39Wl39i a WORKING MEMORY i quot AJd cry g w Wsual I may Lertralnenolwe I sum I cmwunllm an I A l 1 l Vni 39 I Inormalnon m r Jumm Mv auy Encoding Memory I I n n H quot innl I O DualTrack Memory Effortful Versus Automatic Processrng x I x I Longmm memory 0 Automatic Processing amp Implicit Memories I Think of all the things you simply knew how to do by recalling a random time you observed it 0 Effortful Processing amp Explicit Memories I Ex Learning to read I Sensory I think back to memory processing El 9 Lasts no more than about 03 seconds a I Capacity of ShortTerm amp Working Memory n El Young adults have a higher working memory capacity 0 Better at multitasking El Unlike shortterm memory capacity level 0 Those with a high capacity tend to also retain more information after sleep amp tend to be creative problem solvers El Effortful Processing Strategies 9 o O Vivid imagery or organizational devices 0 Ex Rhyming Acronyms into sentences etc 9 El Distributed Practice 9 0 Ex Studying a little bit every day 6 El Levels of Processing 9 o ltgt Yields best longterm retention I The Storing amp Retrieving Memories mnta39 quot39 j I Memory Storage Obes O Retaining Information in the Brain 39 The brain distributes the components of a memory across a network of locations Basal 39 Explicit Memory System Frontal Lobes amp Hippocampus ganglia El The in the I brain fquot D The Amygdala Cerebellum O The Chapter 8 Page 1 U The in the if I brain d l I D The Amyg a a Cerebellum O The El Memory I Implicit Memory System Cerebellum amp Basal Ganglia p39 5539quot3 El Blinking Automatic E onful El Bike rldlng 39 Our conscious memory of 03 years is fuckin blank man I l 9 Much of our Implicit memories Explicit memories The Nondeclaralive Declarative Without conscious With conscious I Emotlons amp Memory Amygdala recall recall El therefor more stress the more focused the memory I l III I I recalllng hlgh prlorlty Informatlon whlle reducmg Processed in Processed in what ls Irrelevant cerebellum and hippocampus and O Emotional arousal can nail in certain memories while disrupting neutral ones basal ganglia frontal lobes a I 0 Ex First kiss I l I O Synaptic Changes Space lime Motor and Classical Facts and Personally frequency conditioning general knowledge experienced 39 cognitive skllls where you ate Min bik reaction to this chapter s events El This Is believed to be a neural ba5ls for learning dinner yesterday 3 a e dentist s office concepts family holidays 0 Memory Retrieval o 0 F I Ex Take a test in the same room you learned the info I If you39re currently mad at a friend you39re more likely to recall negative memories ofthem than Wsr fL 3fnww positive even if you have both at your disposal mmv 3939m39 Storage Decay quot lril H l min Manna nlkllquot lnllIFH I39llMr A cw L39nm u39r luv lelr39inr mu rrvnnm Forgetting Memory Construction amp Improving Memom Forgetting O Forgetting amp the 2Track Mind mums FJi5 innitWWI a u quotM i slurtern mamnrr39 51yrrrrriT L w mEm l f storage O W Hr5mg hillIE Lieu in l i miill I Age can effect encoding efficiency HA 39 intr i ticr 3 me liemug iii nlrrru imn lungmm rrnulv 0 Storage Decay grimmimic Theo I The initial decrease likely occurs because that information was never fully encodedquot ELLE Wequot 7 O well at least one that is accessible at the moment 39quoti39n quot I Retrieval failure occasionally stems from interference amp motivated forgetting cigar311533 I Interference El 0 Ex Learning Spanish might help you lean French since they39re so similar I Motivated Forgetting El Memory Construction Errors I O Misinformation amp Imaging Effects I O Source Amnesia I El Ex When you think of an idea that you actually had already heard O 0 Improving Memory 0 Rehearse Repeatedly 0 Make the Material Meaningful O Activate Retrieval Cues 0 Sleep More 0 Minimize Interferences 0 Test your Knowledge Chapter 8 Page 2