Psychopathology Weekly Notes
Psychopathology Weekly Notes 20732
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenedy Ramos on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20732 at Gonzaga University taught by Dr. Fernandez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Psychopathology in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Psychopathology Weekly Notes Gender Dysphoria History: Began with an interest in the transgender movement – psychiathists became interested in transsexual individuals beginning in the 19 century First appeared in the DSM 3, 1908 as “Gender Identity Disorders” Transsexuality, gender identity disorder of childhood, transvestic fetishism Criteria for GD has changed with each DSM revision 1994 combining “Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood” and “Transexualism” into “Gender Identity Disorder” Since GD’s debut in the DSM, there has been much controversy surrounding the topic of LGBT equality, and in some cases the stigmatization of a group that are expressing variation, not pathology Clinical Description: An individual who feels strongly that they are not physically the gender they believe themselves to be Marked difference between expressed/experienced gender, or the gender that other assign them to Must continue for at least 6 months In children, it must be present and verbalized Clinically significant impairment in social, occupational or other important functioning Biological Considerations: research has yet to uncover any specific biological contributions Twin studies, genetics contribute about 62% to creating a vulnerability to experience GD Slightly higher levels of testosterone or estrogen at certain critical periods may masculinize a female fetus or feminize a male fetus Disorders of Sex Development – very rare, congential adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and intersex condition Structural differences in area of the brain that controls male sex hormones (for mal to female GD) Psychosocial Considerations: Social Learning Theory, proposes that a combination of observational learning and different levels and forms of reinforcement contribute to a child’s sense of gender 1968 publication rooted in psychoanalytic theory, excessive physical and emotional closeness to the mother leads to feminine identification and behaviors that secretly please the mother, who reinforces them Gender Nonconforming Children, family discouragement/encouragement Characteristics of gender nonconforming boys, excessive attention and physical contact from the mother, lack of male playmates during early years of socialization Loose relationship between gender nonconforming behavior and later gender incongruence – most likely outcome is the development of homosexual preferences (40%) Cultural Considerations: different cultures have varying beliefs about gender as well as varying definitions of masculine and feminine Gender Dysphoria has been reported across many countries and cultures – present even in societies where gender nonconforming behavior is strongly discouraged (e.g. strict Muslim societies) Reducing Negative Psychological Consequences: provide resources and counseling families, family acceptance along with peer support and identity pride are strong predictors of resilience, interventions focused on increasing family and peer support can help buffer the effects of stigma Psychologists can play a supporting as an educator or advocate in the client’s school or workplace Treatment: psychological therapies aimed at a decreased in cross gender behaviors through role modeling to avoid social implications – cognitive testing, role engagement in gender specific tasks, family education, treatment of comorbidity Adopt a “watch” and “wait” approach; behaviors may be a part of regular child development, family education Promote cross gender behaviors, example enroll in school as opposite gender, controversial as behaviors may not persist past puberty