Introduction to Photosynthesis
Introduction to Photosynthesis Bio 114 (Science, Dr. Hyman, Organisms)
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Sawyer on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 114 (Science, Dr. Hyman, Organisms) at James Madison University taught by Dr. Oliver Hyman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms (Bio 114) in Biology at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Bioll4 Organisms Notes for weeks 5 and 6 Every Cell in Every Organism does Glycoysis Organisms that can t do photosynthesis have to compete for glucose including both plants and animals Photosynthesis is the process of taking chemical energy and transferring it to glucose so it then be taken into glycolysis Organisms that can do photosynthesis can MAKE their own glucose Since all organisms does glycolysis it tells us that there is a common ancestor even in the rst cell What s the point of photosynthesis What kind of reaction is it How do you know To make glucose and ATP get initial energy from the sun Photosynthesis is taking H20 CO2 l C6H1206 02 0 Where H2O is being oxidized into 02 0 And C02 is being reduced to C6H1206 o 02 is considered a byproduct When did photosynthesis being Earth was formed 45 billion years ago bya Around 27bya the rst photosynthetic bacteria was found Around 22 15 bya oxygen given off as a byproduct of photosynthesis began to accumulate into Earth s atmosphere The presence of oxygen allowed for the beginning of evolution and diverse organisms since they now have 02 for cellular respiration Over years and years 02 gradually rose to the current levels today which allowed for humans to begin their lives Oxygen levels will continue to expand Photosynthesis rst evolved in prokaryotes l cyanobacteria Consequences of Photosynthetic Organisms Ozone level forms The ozone level protects us form most of suns harmful rays It acts a key role in quotCarbon Cyclingquot since photosynthesis requires C02 as a reactant meaning they stop C02 from getting trapped in the atmosphere lf photosynthesis stopped the carbon would get stuck in the atmosphere and the carbon levels would increases directly as a result Temperature would also be effected since there is now ozone and carbon cycling temperature is now lower that what it was but since C02 sometimes get trapped it causes temperature to rise because some rays are re ected backwards SIDE green house gases trap more heat in the atmosphere because there is an increase in C02 levels Photosynthesis removes anthropogenic C02 levels There are times in the year where C02 levels are lower than others and that is typically in the winter months C yanobacteria the rst photosynthetic prokaryote First organism to introduce oxygen about 27bya They live in fresh water soul moist surfaces and various other organisms They have no specialized compartment photosynthesis takes place without chloroplasts in this organism it takes place on the membranes throughout the cytosol Fist Eukaryotes to Use Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems Diatoms and green algae 0 Green Algae Multicellular Euk o Diatoms Singlecelled euk Organisms Produce 12 of carbon and oxygen in oceans Together with cyanobacteria they are the three primary producers for aquatic food chains because they are the main source of glucose They make up 12 of photosynthesis in the ocean First Eukaryotes to Use Photosynthesis in Terrestrial Environments Photosynthesis happens I the chloroplastthis is for all eukaryotes Land plants are the primary producers for the terrestrial food chains Each plant cell typically have 4050 chloroplasts 5UN LIGHT ISN T TRANSFORMED INTO SUGAR It s rather a matter conservation bc everything is balanced out lt s taking energy from sunlight and taking it into the bonds chemical bond energy Photosynthesis is the transfer of energy from light energy to chemical energy with a reduced carbon molecule 0 Equation Light H20 l 02 chemical energy in the many C H bonds of sugar How is Light Energy Captured Chlorophyll captures light energy and turns it into chemical energy Noone has been able to replicate this molecule SIDE In order for photosynthesis to take place C02 and H20 must be present BUT How do they get H20 Aquatic organisms get it through osmosis by diffusing through the cell membrane Land plants get it through rain water that are taken up my the stomata in the plants little openings on the surface of leafs in plants How do they get C02 Natural way respiration 95 Anthropogenic production fossil fuel burning 5
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