Week 1+2 LIN 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Rufino on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LIN 001 at University of California - Davis taught by Santiago Barreda-Castanon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of California - Davis.
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If Brianna isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Notes Week 12 What is linguistics aThe Scientific study of human language How its used How it39s acquired How it changes over time olts a system What is language oCommunication system with meaningful units oThere are rules for combining these units Rules and combinations are productive oAble to convey abstract or hypothetical information What functions does language serve oAllows information to be communicated between people oAllows information to be easily stored and dispersed to large groups of people across long distances very efficiently oForms the basis of social constructs and conventions like rituals and ceremonies oAllows for largescale social organization Grammar o39Rules39 define the language Prescriptive vs Descriptive Grammars oPrescriptive grammars tell people how they should speak oDescriptive grammars is what linguists are interested in how people do speak Levels of Analysis oLinguistics is systematic on every level eg sounds words phrases sentences etc obecause of the complexity involved linguists typically consider one 39level39 at a time Phonetics Studies how speech sounds are produced articulated Phonology Studies the behavior or patterning of speech sounds Morphology Studies the patterning of morphemes smallest units of words into words Syntax Studies the patterning of words into phrases sentence form Semantics Studies correspondences between form and meaning interpretation of words and sentences Phonetics l Transcription Language and Writing Humans have been speaking for 100000 years oWritten language goes back only a few thousand years oWriting is simply a way to represent spoken language Kind of like a painting or sculpture of an ancient person can tell us what they looked like writing tells us what they thought or said Writing is at best a representation of language It39s NOT language Sound 0A disturbance in air that radiates outward from a source oWhen this disturbance hits our eardrums we have heard a sound oTechnically every sound is different However we are also able to classify sounds by grouping them into categories Categories of Sounds We do the same thing with visual objects and concepts Speech Sounds oSpeech sounds are grouped on the basis of two criteria bThey quotsoundquot the same cThey are produced in the same way Speech sounds that can be grouped according to these criteria are called phones There are some problems dWhen two people make the same phone it shows us that quotsoundingquot the same is not so straightforward variations of sound accents eThe quotsamequot sound can be produced Phonetics vs Phonology oBoth deal with the study of speech sounds Usually they are defined something like Phonetics The study of perception and production of speech sounds and of the sounds themselves Phonology The study of the representation of speech sounds and the way they interact with each other in language Letters DO NOT Equal Sounds Keep in mind that at all times we are discussing sounds and not letters Letters simply stand in for sounds and sometimes do a horrible job Even if letters had onetoone relationship with phones comparing sounds from different languages would be a problem olnternation Phonetic Alphabet IPA instead of learning every writing system or some other bad solution we study the IPA chart as a universal solution to understand crosscultural language understandings Consonants vs Vowels oThe space between the glottis and the lips is called the vocal tract oUsually speech sounds with an obstruction at some point along the vocal tract are called consonants OSpeech sounds with no obstruction along the vocal tract are called vowels odiphthongs vowels that are actually compounded of two separate vowel sounds Transcription If they don39t sound the same they can39t be described the same oWhen a passage of speech is represented using IPA characters Count the phones addition 5 ringer 4 axle 4 knight 34 couch 34 Phonetics II Articulation oArticulation is basically a process by which a basic buzzing or hissing if voiceless sounds get shaped by the vocal tract Vocal folds oContained within the larynx The space between them is the glottis oWhen these are open we are breathing oWhen these are closed we hold our breath oVoicing occurs when the vocal chords are held tightly enough to not allow air to pass easily but not so tightly that air can39t pass at all 0 This results in periodic bursts of air passing through the glottis which results in a buzzing noise oVoiceless sounds occur when the vocal chords are held apart so that air can pass through easily Articulatiors The vocal tract has many oParts that move to create different configurations ie tongue lips larynx Consonant Described by 3 pieces of information fPlace along the vocal tract which the obstruction occurs gManner hVoicing voiced or voiceless iPlace of Articulation OSeveral 39target39 places that most sounds gravitate towards IPA chart includes these places of articulation jBilabial 2 lips kLabiodental upper teeth lower lip lDental tongue and teeth mAlveolar tongue tip and alveolar ridge nPost Alveolar tongue tip and palate just beyond Alveolar Ridge oPalatal tongue body and palate pVelartongue body and velum qGlottal the glottis 2 Manner oDifferent obstructions cause different sounds IPA chart contains listing of these manners rStops or Plosives consonants with complete closure at some point along vocal tract sNasals Nasal Stops stops performed with lowered velum so air passes through nasal cavity tFricatives involve a partial constriction at some point of the vocal tract This results in an increase in pressure and velocity which results in turbulant air This causes a hissing sounds to be continued
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