Week 4 Lecture Notes
Week 4 Lecture Notes HIS 101 Cr.3
UW - L
Popular in Global Origins of the Modern World
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Hansen on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 Cr.3 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Dr. Gerald Iguchi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Global Origins of the Modern World in History at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
o 1534 Formation of the Society of Jesus Jesuits o 1535 First complete printed translation of English Bible published in Antwerp Belgium 0 1536 John Calvin who had law degree from University of Bourges publishes lnstitutio Christianae religionislnstitutes of the Christian Religion in Swiss city of Basel which preaches total power of God in determining salvation ie predestination 1537 Calvin who had become pastor in Geneva and fellow reformer William Farel publish Articles concernant l organisation de l glise et du culte a Geneve Articles on the Organisation of the Church and its Worship at Geneva which the city council accepted However Calvin falls out with the council and leaves to become preacher in Strasbourg o 1541 Calvin returns to Geneva as official religious leader Digression on Calvinism and Capitalism 0 John Calvin 150964 Predestination o Electdamned o Duty to maintain inner certainty of status as elect lntensification of Protestant work ethic Because way to prove elect status work 0 Work for glory of God not to enjoy fruit of labor 0 Profit goodconsumption bad 0 Waste of time deadly sin c Mendicants bad 0 St Francis bad San Francisco bad 0 Poverty bad 0 Calvinism appealed to urban artisan and merchant classes Why 0 What may be the relationship between Calvinism or Protestantism in general on the one hand with modernity and capitalism on the other 0 0 15681648 Eighty Years War between becomingProtestant Low Countries Netherlands and Belgium against Roman Catholic Spain and for a while Portugal which had familial and historical ties to Roman Catholic Austrian Habsburgs and Holy Roman Empire 0 1581 Republic of the Seven United Netherlands Bepubliek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden AKA the Dutch Republic declared o 1584 Bible translated and printed in Slovene making Slovenes 12th nation people with version in their language 0 1600 Premier of Shakespeare39s Hamlet 0 1611 King James Version Bible printed translation begun in 1604 1618 1648 ThirtyYears War extensive use of musketeers first soldiers at time to give up armor entirely 1641 1 651 English Civil War Discovery and Commerce 1407 Ufficio di San Giorgio in Genoa Bank of St George established as first deposit bank the bank came to directly govern some Genoese overseas territories later Christopher Columbus and his employers Ferdinand and Isabella maintained accounts there 1453 Fall of ConstantinopleByzantine Empire to Ottoman Turks 1488 Bartolomeu Dias knight of royal court of Portugal sailed around tip of Africa showing accessibility of Indian Ocean that way 1492 Columbus sailed from Spain to today39s Bahamas and explores part of today39s Cuba and Hispaniola Haiti and Dominican Republic 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas gave with papal authority everything east of line 270 leagues distance one can walk in an hour west of Cape Verde Islands to Portugal and west of the line to Spain 1497 Vasco da Gama sailed around Africa to Malabar Coast of India arriving at spice trading center of Calicut 1500 Portuguese fleet of Pedro Alvares Cabral sights today39s Brazil on way to Calicut where he establishes trading post and kills at least 500 Arabs 1505 Portuguese mission arrives in Ceylon 1510 Portuguese establish trade post at Goa 1511 Portuguese Alfonso de Albuquerque takes over Muslim city of Malacca in straights separating Pacific from Indian Ocean areas 1512 Portuguese expedition under Antonio de Abreu sailed to Spice Islands and tries to establish Portuguese claim there 1513 Portuguese reach China 1517 Portuguese fort at Colombo Ceylon 15191522 Ferdinand Magellan and crew circumnavigate the globe for Spain by travelling around southern tip of South America into the Pacific 0 Claim the Philippines 0 Try to claim Spice Islands 1521 Hernan de Cortez defeated the Aztecs claiming their land and gold and silver and labor for Spain 1532 Francisco Pizarro conquers Peru claiming the Inca land and gold and silver and labor for Spain 1543 Portuguese accidentally reach and trade with Japan 1557 Portuguese takeover Macau 1580 1640 Union of Portuguese and Spanish Monarchies and during this period Dutch begin separation from Iberian rule 1595 Dutch expedition led by Jan Huyghen van Linschoten who formerly worked for the Portuguese sails to Banten today39s Indonesia and signs trade agreement with Sultan Muslim ruler 1600 English East India Company chartered 1602 Dutch East India Company Vereenigde Oost lndische Compagnie VOC chartered 1609 Bank of Amsterdam Amsterdamsche Wisselbank established issues bank money and all payments in Amsterdam are in this currency 1690 English East India Company trading post in Calcutta India Scientific 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus 1473 1543 today39s Poland On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres Heliocentrism 1543 Andreas Vesalius 1514 1564 born Brussels university in Paris and Pavia Italy De Humani Corporias Fabrica on the fabric of the human body on the circulation of blood due to heart39s pumping Vasalius also reconstructed first complete human skeleton from cadavers 1620 Sir Francis Bacon 15261626 England Novum Organum new instrument 0 Bacon stressed inductive reasoning as opposed to deductive reasoning o Deduction goes from particular to general deduces and induction goes from general to particular makes generalizations Examples of deductive logic All men are mortal Joe is a man Therefore Joe is mortal If the first two statements are true then the conclusion must be true Bachelor39s are unmarried men Bill is unmarried Therefore Bill is a bachelor To get a Bachelor39s degree at the Univesity of Nowheresville a student must have 120 credits Sally has more than 130 credits at Nowheresviell Therefore Sally has a bachelor39s degree Examples of inductive logic This cat is black That cat is black A third cat is black Therefore all cats are are black This marble from the bag is black That marble from the bag is black A third marble from the bag is black Therefore all the marbles in the bag black Twothirds of my Asian friends are from China Therefore twothirds Asian people are from China 0 NOTE Obviously all logic is invalid if any premises are untrue and that39s a problem of epistemologyhow one knows what one knows is valid or true 0 NOTE I think that in practice inductive reasoning has become normal and predominates in modern timescall this bureacratic reasoningand it means ignoring exceptions 1609 Galileo Galileo 1564 1642 Pisa Duchy of Florence and worked at University of Pisa demonstrated his advanced telescope based upon a Dutch one developed the previous year 1637 Rene Descartes 1596 1650 Fance Holland all over continental Europe Discourse on Method which provides solid basis for human reasoning with o I exist Because there is something wondering about existence or thinking that something I must exist or I think therefore I am 0 God exists Because God is infinite and I am not something that caused this Idea of infinity inside me God must exist 0 Reason is dependable Because there is a God he ensures the dependability of reason which is his reflection within me 0 Separation of mind and body with mind as linked to God and body as animal Cartesian dualism Circa 1660 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 16321723 DELFT Netherlands publishes observations regarding construction of single lens microscopes which revolutionize study of microbiology 1687 Sir Isaac Newton 1643 1727 England publishes Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica mathematical principles of natural philosophy AKA Principia o Principia proposes Newton39s laws of motion An object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an external force Force equals mass times acceleration To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction 0 Principia also proposes Newton39s law of gravitation Any two objects exert a gravitational force of attraction on each other The direction of the force is along the line joining The magnitude of the force is proportional to the product of the gravitational masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them 0 Newton was also strong proponent of rigorous experimentation which became hallmark of scientific method