Cultural Anthropology Notes 9/28-10/2
Cultural Anthropology Notes 9/28-10/2 ANTH2800
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ciara Peace on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH2800 at University of Toledo taught by Seamus Metress in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Cultural Anthropology Notes 928 102 1 The relatively larger and more complex human brain a 80 of brain size is due to our large size 1345 cc b 20 is due to the process of human biocultural evolution c Selective expansion of those areas of the brain that influence i Vision occipital lobe ii Speech or hearing temporal lobe iii Symbolization frontal lobe The human brain may be an adaptation that made other adaptations unnecessary The brain must be stimulated and extended to realize its full potential Brain potential is hard to reclaim once it is lost or neglected The brain continually fuses information from the rest of the body with information from anhrbsz the perceived environment h This leads to an integrated image of the world in combination with vision and sound plus other appropriate emotions and actions 2 Speech a Mandible broadened and reinforced with a projecting chin i Allowed more freedom for the tongue ii But maintained the strength for chewing b Larynx moved down the throat away from the soft palate c Forming an oral chamber which makes resonation for human speech possible d Special area for speech in brain enlarged and well developed processing center e Fine motor control of tongue f Fine motor control of breathing i Size of vertebral canal crucial 1 Homo erectus too narrow ii Innervations necessary for breath control which is necessary for articulated speech Exact neurological basis for speech unknown h Brains are wired for language just as for facial recognition i Broca s arealeft temporal lobe speech production ii Wernicke s areamore posterior region of the temporal lobe interpretation of 01 spokenlanguage 3 Human speech and language are our most important evolutionary adaptations a Speech is the most unique characteristic of humans leading eventually to writing and printing b The significance of speech and language i Allows better standardization of behavior ii Aids origination and invention basis of creativity iii Aids in cultural borrowing iv Aids in the ability to learn from past experience v Aids in the ability to anticipate the future vi Aids in the development presentation and modification of ideas and knowledge vii Frees us from obligate automatic response viii Allows us to weave a story as we navigate words to express cultural meaning and value c Words as tools i To form concepts ii To recall the past iii To discuss the future iv To relate the present d The phonetic code i System in which short meaningless sounds are combines into meaningful units ii Because it is open we can and do create words to meet our needs iii Unique to our species 4 Human biopsychosocial individuality a Each individual is genetically unique b Variations occur at all levels of organismal organization i Biochemistry ii Morphological anatomy i Physiology v Psychology c Less variation occurs in the chemical and physical properties of the internal cellular environment d The statistical chances of 2 individuals having the same genotype is 1 in 10000000 to the 7th power e So called bio racial variation is very minor and of little biological significance 5 Human self consciousness a Human psychobiology allows us to reflect on the past present and future as well as on life and death b Self awareness is the basis of all forms of social behavior c It integrates and organizes human capacity It allows us to i Learn from experience ii Ponder the future iii Imagine the consequences of our activities e Allows us an awareness of a time dimension to existence and the knowledge that we must die The basis for a religion or moral sense g We are the only animal that is normally and inevitably subjected to psychological stress and conflict h All this should imply responsibility for our behavior 6 Human ethical behavior a Biology determines three necessary and jointly important abilities for ethical behavior i They are the ability to 1 Anticipate the consequences of our own abilities 2 Make value judgments 3 Choose between courses of action b A manifestation of biological evolution for advanced intellectual ability c But cultural experience not biology determines moral codes d However ethical behavior does not appear to be adaptive 7 Reproduction a Human sexual behavior is under cortical control b Human sexual readiness is biologically constant lack of estrus c Important for sexual urges to be controlled by the brain i Allows for regulation of sexual activity ii Reduction of sexual competitiveness due to social custom may have encouraged cooperation iii Lead to a calm period for child development iv Less potential trauma such as neglect and abandonment d Menopause is the complete cessation of reproductive potential before old age and is unique i No good evolutionary explanation ii Some suggest it is part of old age but why only female iii May be related to older woman s importance in provisioning and caring for children of relatives iv Or the accumulated knowledge status and economic resources of old females could play a valuable role in group survival e Human plasticity i Profit from experience ii Can adapt to situations iii Modify problems iv Learn even into old age f Longevhy g Anger i Glandular physical ii Also driven by cultural values 1 When you re allowed to get mad iii Good defense for the group
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