History of the Roman Empire
History of the Roman Empire Hist 101
Popular in Western Civilization I
Jasmene Monique Ramirez
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmene Monique Ramirez on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 101 at University of New Mexico taught by Professor Davis-Secord in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization I in History at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Ancient and Republican Rome Italy where the Roman empire got its start was like Greece in terms of climate only it had more arable land The climate was warm and great for growing grain olives grapes nut and g trees In 800 BCE people moved into northern Italy These people became known as the etruscans It isn t certain where they originated from but some suggest that they may come from Asia minor due to the lack of an indo European language The Etruscans adopted the traditional gods and alphabet of the greeks and their cities were governed as their own individual states he Etruscans had trade and con ict with Magna Greca greeks of South Italy The Etruscans traded mostly in metal They were master bronze smiths Gold jewelry and physical adornment were typical of Etruscan people Emphasis on health adornment etc There as greater personal freedom for Etruscan women Their cosmetics and hygiene were based wit olive oil They would apply oil to their skin and then scrape it off This process would also remove dirt and dead skin here appeared to be greek in uence on Etruscan art and pottery Etruscans practiced funerary art Cinerary urns were constructed which were marble carved boxes that held the ashes of the deceased The deceased was often depicted on top of the box and battle scenes adorned the sides Starting at around fth or sixth century BCE to 280 BCE there was con ict amongst the Etruscans and the Greeks Etruscans were ultimately defeated Latins eventually entered Rome and there were two contradicting myths about the foundation of Rome The rst myth involved two twins Romulus and Remus who were abandoned as babies and then raised by a she wolf When they grew up Romulus killed Remus and then later founded the city of Rome The second myth can be found in Virgil s work the Aeneid The story follows a man named Aeneas who was a Trojan ghter who sails around and had a great deal of adventures that closely mimic the Odyssey by Homer Aeneas eventually lands in Carthage where he meets with the queen named Dido The two fall in love and get married But the Gods seeing Aeneas was neglecting his destiny to found Rome eventually come down and give him a gurative kick in the pants to galvanize him into action He sneaks off and leaves Dido When Dido nds out she is so depressed that she throws herself into a pyre and burns herself to death The slighting of Dido plays strongly in the central con ict in the future Roman state between Rome and Carthage Pre Republican Rome he latins living in Rome had the right to commerce marriage to another Latin and migration they would have citizenship in any Latin state they moved to Conquered peoples would automatically have citizenship and the right to serve in the Roman army This typically gave people of conquered states a stake in the future of the Roman state Slaves could also be freed by their masters or could purchase their freedom and become citizens in the Roman state When the nal Etruscan king died the romans used his death as an excuse to usurp the regime and install three annually elected magistrates to rule Magistrates later set up consuls in which one rules generally and the other consul takes care of plebe issues As of 367 BCE the position of Praetor was established who was the overseer ofjustice The senate was later added Initially the senate served as an advisory council but evolved into a representative assembly These senators were typically from the elite class The senate takes on the important role of advisory and controls the public treasury but does not legislate Citizen assemblies would come together to vote members of the senate into of ce and elect consuls and praetors But considering the rich would vote rst and the vote was a strict majority vote often the poor didn t get to vote Poor men could gain power through joining the military and rising through the ranks in this fashion Often con icts would arise between the elite and these men he 12 Tables was a law code that resulted from the struggle of the orders plebians vs patricians Women had no political rights in Rome and were highly restricted Women also couldn t take on religious roles and had no ability to speak for themselves From 460360 BCE there was a long term state of warfare against southern Greeks and the Gauls of the Alps During this time Rome was sacked by the Gauls 360280 BCE the Romans have taken care of Italy and the Magna Greca greeks and the Gauls In 280 the Romans attack Tarentum The city appeals to outside Greeks and Pyrrhus comes over with war elephants The Romans ultimately win but sustain heavylosses By 265 BCE there is con ict with Carthage Kicks off the Punic wars he rst punic war Movement into sicily by Romans and this causes con ict with the Phoeneicans of Carthage 264241 Battles with carthage force the Romans to develop a navy This becomes key to Mediterranean domination The rst attack on carthage fails but in 241 the romans are victorious and exact heavy tribute from Carthage Heavy in ux of slaves into Rome also results The Romans then take Corsica and Sardinia The Carthaginians move towards Spain but the Romans pursued he second punic war King of Carthage was Hannibal He responded to Roman expansion by moving from Spain through Gaul and the alps to attack Mainland Rome Gauls were on his side but Hannibal becomes trapped on the Italian mainland when city states refuse to help him Hannibal took the city of Cannai In response the Romans sacri ce luxuries and double taxes to fund the war effort against Hannibal They created a new denomination of coinage called the silver denarius They refused to ransom soldiers and nobles of Hannibal Hannibal is eventually defeated when reinforcements cannot come from Carthage Scipio a Roman General gains the upper hand in Spain and another in Sicily Scipio invades Carthage and the Romans demand heavier tributes and reduce Carthaginian power andland hird punic war 149146 Rome Provincial system Struggles in Rome struggle of the orders Wealthy land grab leaving nothing for the poor Roman army members must own land and be a citizen The Gracchus brothers Tiberius and Gaius try to change this Tiberius becomes the tribune of the plebes and began land reforms to try and redistribute land to the plebes He became unpopular with the elites and was killed His brother Gaius tried to follow through with is reforms but was killed too His killers claimed the brothers were trying to establish themselves as dictators he next threat to the Roman empire came from the military Gaius Marius was elected consul 104101 due to his success as a military general He had lots of followers personally loyal to him These followers were plebians Gaius did away with the land requirement to enter the army Poor landless people joined his army and this increased the dependence of the people on the general He was a popular hero and took on a number of titles Cornelius Sulla Patrician who rose in the army ranks and replaced Gaius He traveled to selucid asia to subdue it and was given an important command A plebian government of cial tried to block his appointment When Cornelius returned from Selucid Asia he marched on Rome to restore his lost honor from attempted appointment block Outright civil war results Cornelius wins in 82 BCE and became dictator Institutes reforms in the Roman system that were advantageous to himself He kept the senate and in ated the number of senators and appoints only those loyal to him The senate obeys whatever he wishes He restricts career possibilities for plebes and made it impossible to rise in ranks He curtailed the power of tribune to the plebes and ruled until 80 BCE when he retired and died soon after Pompey General of Rome Rose to prominence in Africa He traveled to Iberia to deal with an uprising there He was a popular commander and was elected consul in 70 BCE but was not reelected He was given lots of commands including one to deal with an uprising in selucid asia which takes four years to deal with When he returns he is elected sole consul in 52 BCE During the same time Pompey was rising to prominence there was another player in the game Gaius Julius Caesar a patrician and prominent general known for rapid victories He incurs the dislike of Pompey Pompey Crassius and Caesar agree in the rst triumvirate that power would be shared between them 6053 BCE Caesar wages the Gaul war During this time Pompey was elected sole consul Pompey turned on Caesar and declared him a traitor and enemy of the state Needless to say this pisses Caesar off and in 49 BCE he marched on Rome Fighting ensued and Pompey ees to the East Caesar seized control of Rome and in 48 Caesar had sole command He became a dictator and consul and moved east to take care of Pompey He was successful in doing so Caesar then turned his attention to Egypt He invaded Egypt and restored Cleopatra Vll to the throne The two eventually had a son together While Caesar was in Egypt Marc Antony mutinied in Rome and at the same time North Africa was rebelling By 46 BCE however Caesar had dealt with everyone declared himself dictator for life and kept the senate but took control of the treasury All titles honors and resources were at his disposal He built up Rome and constructed monuments In 44 BCE he was assassinated by his former supporters Caesar s nephew Octavian takes over after Caesar dies He was a battle tested man who joined forces with Marc Antony and Cleopatra This was a second attempt at a triumvirate Octavian hunted down the assassins of Caesar and then positioned himself in the west Marc Antony traveled to Egypt and con ict ensues between Marc Antony and Octavian Cleopatra decided to ally herself with Marc Antony and this leads to the battle of Actium in 31 BCE Cleopatra and Marc Antony lose the battle and commit suicide Octavian takes on all titles and was in sole command of Rome Egypt Asia and the Western territories He gave himself the title of imperator victorious general Eventually evolves into the title of emperor and Augustus worthy of honor Calls himself Caesar augustus rst emperor He keeps the senate and has a support system from his military and loyalists He has the treasury at his disposal Paxaugustana pax romana ensues ending internal strife The Romans then began expanding from the initial core empire The empire expanded from Britain to Selucid asia Dynastic succession began as Octavian died and his stepson iberius took over A common culture was cultivated in the empire and there was a greater roman citizenry The elites lived in cities and the economy was based on large estate agriculture farmed by slaves The produce was sold at the market and the money was sent to the elites During this time infrastructure including aqueducts and roads were created This infrastructure in the form of paved roads aided in communication over the vast empire and aided conquest and administration Armies built roads as they went along on conquest They also constructed places along the roads for messengers to rest and change horses riumphal arches became popular and walls were built to defend from border peoples Colosseums were also constructed and Elites used their money to build up culture and entertainment Literary advances were made and Latin became the language of writing and theater The theater s itself were constructed in the style of the greek theater Circus became a popular form of entertainment chariot racing he poor lived of Annona which was a dole welfare system This helped to quotkeep the poor in their placequot Gladiatorial combat was also common and included people ghting one another or people ghting animals Losers often died but not always Sometimes mock sea battles would be performed in a ooded colosseum Late antiquity 37th century CE Rome faces Christianity and the Barbarians Pax Romana ends with the death of Marcus Aurelius Septimius Severus took over and ushered in the severan dynasty which was lled with brutal emperors who were not paci sts Heavy taxes violent repression of enemies and senate rights were abolished by this dynasty This plunged the dynasty into Chaos 235284 26 different emperors reigned all put on the throne by loyal soldiers as a result of military conquest They were violently installed and violently deposed ln ation was rampant and as tax rates increased and the tax base expanded Barbarians raided and the slave based economy stagnated Problems internally King Herod ofJudea was a tributary king of Rome They had limited independence but required to pay tribute to their Roman overlords Rulers ofJewish society included the Sadducees who were the elite and believed they should be religious leaders The others were the Pharisees who were educators on Jewish laws who also wanted to be Jewish religious and society leaders Both parties wanted an uprising from Roman oppressors and wanted a savior or messiah Then Jesus shows up on the scene He was a messianic hopeful like others and also like others he was unpopular with the Sadducees Pharisees and Romans He was put to death by cruci xion His followers reinterpreted his teachings from a political lens to a spiritual lens They called him Christos anointed onemessiah His apostles spread his teachings Paul of Tarsus was initially againstJesus but turned into an avid follower Paul and Peter began their travels in Judea but then moved out to Philipi Macedonia Ballions Rome etc They incur unfavor of Roman of cials and persecution begins but is inconsistent Christians tried to opt out of military duty but of cially they were not exempt Only Jews were exempted They were persecuted for refusal to serve Diocletian 284305 Effective ruler who was installed by military power He reimagined the rule of emperor and declared himself dominus lord He gives himself honori c titles and made himself inaccessible to most people After all if you are inaccessible you are hard to stab He also set up a system in which there is more than one emperor etrarchy 4 emperors 2 Agusti main emperors In this case Diocletian and Maximian 2 Caesars junior emperors who will take agusti place upon agusti death then choose new caesars that rule underneath them 2 capitals Rome and Nicomedia 2 Halves West and East empire System didn t really work Diocletian tells maximian that both should retie Maximian doesn t and ghting ensues Diocletianpersecutor of Christians Takes property and executes if refuse to recant Gladiatorial execution humans or animals Constantine 312337 Above con ict doesn t end until Milvian bridge battle 312 The winner is Constantine Constantine supposedly won by wearing Christian insignia into battle after a vision told him to quotIn this sign Conquerquot Became emperor Constantine issues Edict of Milan in 312 and ended in persecution It made it okay to be a Christian and restored taken properties to persecuted Christians Never said Christianity is the of cial religion Theodocious the great made Christianity the only legal religion Constantine builds a new capital the line of demarcation between east and west Rome remains even thought tetrarchy fails Constantine builds Nova Rome New Rome built on old Byzantium Later renamed as Constantinople West Rome becomes backwards economically and barbaric East is wealthy luxurious and all around better West Rome became a backwater Barbarians don t speak common tongue nomadicseminomadic no cities no money trade without money rustic We are not sure what pushes the barbarians to Rome but it is suggested that it may have been the Huns Germanic tribes move Southwest Goths raid the Balkans Others enter the Roman empire from the RhineDanube river regions Know some Roman culture but violently ood across Roman border Given agreement that they can enter the Roman empire as foederati people who make a pact Get land in exchange forjoining Roman army and helping ght the Huns The Romans don t make good on their end of the bargain so the Germanic tribes begin raiding with the Goths in nearby Constantinople Eventually capture the Emperor heodosius the Great implemented system of allowing tribal units to form legion of the Roman Army One tribal leader is Roman General and King of a tribe Different ribal units take over parts of the empire and make kingdoms Romulus Augustus is the last emperor of Rome and deposed by Germanic king Fall of Rome Constantinople Roman empire survives temporarily Fall of Rome was not a dramatic event Was a gradual process Germanic tribes convert to Christianity but according to the church in Constantinople they are heretical Greek and latin were the languages of administration law and culture 45th c Christianity goes from small to 90 majority of people Orthodoxy needs to be established Ecumenical councils meet to become council of Nicea 325 Arianism barbarian form is declared heresy Jesus is GodHuman Structure of the church is established The bishop is the ruler of the churches in one city and the Archbishop rules over multiple cities There are also priests which each look after a single church and a deacon for each priest